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syedhasan

QUDS CITY

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THE FIRST OF THE TWO QIBLAHS AND THE THIRD OF THE BOTH HOLY SANCTUARIES

PALESTINE

1 - DEFINITION OF PALESTINE: Quds is the first of the two Qiblahs and the third holy sanctuary after Mecca and Medina. It is also the Scene of the Prophecies, flower of the cities and place of people sights since ancient times.

2 - THE LOCATION OF THE CITY: This sacred city is situated on the middle of the Palestine approximately towards east part of Mediterranean Sea, and on a chain mountain with gradients inclined to west and east. The city is raised upon Mediterranean Sea level with 750 meters, and from Dead Sea level with 1150 meters. It is situated on the longitude of 35 degree and 13 minutes eastwards as well as on the latitude of 31 degree and 52 minutes northwards. This city is about 52 kilometers far from Mediterranean Sea, as well as 22 kilometers from Dead Sea and 250 kilometers from Red Sea. It is also about 88 kilometers far from Oman, 338 kilometers from Beirut and 220 kilometers from Damascus.

3 - FOUNDING OF THE CITY: Verily, one of the deepest historical roots about construction of Quds city returns to the name of its builder or founder known as Ilyaa'a bun Iram bun Saam bun Noah (peace be upon him) Ü Ilyaa is one of the names of Quds - It was said that (Maleek Sadiq) one of the kings of Al-Yabusiyeen Ü the most famous tribe of Al-Kan'aniyin Ü the first person to design and build the city is called (Yabus) and this was in year 3000 B.C. Maleek Sadiq was known for his piety and loving of peace till he was named as (Maleeku Salam) Peace King. From here the name of city Salim or Shalim was derived or (Ur shalim) means let Shalim establish or Salim city. Therefore Ur shalim was a well-known name and existing before the Jews usurped it from the hands of its owners Al-Yabusiyeen and named it Zion (Sahyun) ascribing to a mountain in Palestine. Finally the name (Quds) prevailed over the other names due to the fact that it is one of the Divine Attributes, it has been also called (Baitul Muqaddas)Jerusalem meaning Divine's House.

4 - THE EXPANSION AND CONSTRUCTION:

- Quds city was extended during the time of the Prophet Solomon (peace be upon him), so as many houses and palaces were constructed there and it became the capital city of the state. This sacred city was extended from Al-Furat river to the depth of Egypt. Solomon framework is considered to be the most important and famous huge antiques building which was built by (Al-Kan'aniyan) Kan'aanids in order to be appendant temple to the palace.

Ü The second Caliph Umar bun Al-Khattab made many innovations in the city.

Ü In year 72 A.H., Abdul Maleek bun Mar'wan built Qubbatu Sakhrah (the Holy Rock dome) and The Farthest Mosque. This was done by him with the intention to turn direction of pilgrims over The Farthest Mosque instead of Mecca in which his opponent Abdullah bun Az-Zubair had settled.

Ü The seventh Caliph of Al-Fatimi Ali Abul Hasan began to build the city fence in year 425 A.H. after he constructed Ar-Ramlah fence. Also at the same period of Al-Fatimi, the first great hospital was built in Quds city by a big religous endowments.

Ü In year 651 A.H. / 1253 A.D. in the Al-Mamalik time, Quds became one of the most important scientific centers in Islamic world.

Ü In year 1452 A.D. the King Solomon Al-Qaanuni renewed the city present fence which surrounded the old city whose length is almost 4200 meters and its height is 40 feet.

5 Ü THE FEATURES: Quds land was a desert in the old time which has been surrounded from east, south and west by valleys, As to the north and northwest was exposed and encloses by mountains which the city has been constructed on. These mountains are: Muriya mountain (means the chosen) which The Farthest Mosque and Qubbatu Sakhrah (The Holy Rock dome) are located on, its height is about 770 meters. Then Ukra mountain, this mountain locates where Al-Qiyamah church exists. Nebrita mountain is near to As-Sahirah door, Sahyun mountain, known as David mountain and situated in southwest part of the old Quds. The distance of the city is almost 19331 kilometers square surrounded by impregnable fence made in form of square which height reaches to 40 feet, 34 arranged towers as well as 7 doors such as:

1 Ü Al-Khalil door, 2Ü Al-Jadid door, 3 Ü Al-Aamud door, 4- As-Sahirah door, 5 Ü Al-Mugharibah door, 6 Ü Al-Asbat door, 7 Ü The Prophet David's door (peace be upon him).

THE VALLEYS AROUND THE CITY:

1 - Al-Jahannam valley whose former name was (Qadrun) and now Arabs call it Salwan valley (Wadi Salwan).

2Ü Ar-Rababah valley whose former name was (Hanum).

3Ü Al-Wadi or (Al-Wad) valley which is called also (Tirobiyun) meaning (cheese makers).

THE MOUNTAINS AROUND THE CITY:

1 Ü Al-Mukabbir mountain: It is located in the south part of Quds city whose peak is high upon the sea level with 795 meters, while beside it there is tomb of Shaikh Hamd Abil Abbas - surnamed by Abi Thawr - who is one of the warriors participated in conquering of the Quds with Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi.

2 - At-Tur mountain or Az-Zaitun mountain: This mountain is high upon the sea level with 826 meters and situated in east part of the holy city. The mountain exposes Quds city and it is believed that Jesus has been ascended to sky from this mountain.

3 - Al-Masharif mountain: It is situated in the north part of the city and it is called (Al-Mashhad mountain), while the Westerners named it as (Scubis mountain) ascribing to a Romanian leader.

4 - The Prophet Samuel's mountain: This mountain is situated on northwest part of Quds and it is high 855 meters upon sea level.

5 - Al-Aasur hill: The word is distorted from the word (Ba'al Hasur) means master or spouse village and is high about 1016 meters upon sea level. It locates between two villages of Dir Jarir and Salud, and it is the fourth highest mountain in Palestine.

At the end of ninth century in year 900 A.H., Mujiruuddin Al-Hanbali has described Quds city saying: (Quds is great city with a firm buildings between mountains and valleys. Some of the buildings are on high lands and some on a low valleys, most of buildings which are on elevated places are overlooking the low ones. Some of the streets of the city are plane and others are rough. There are old buildings below most of places, and new and modern buildings has been erected on the ancient ones. The city also has several wells for water preservation, because its water is gathered from rain water).

THE PLACES WHERE BUILDINGS ARE FIRMED IN QUDS:

THE MARKETS OF THE CITY:

The markets of the city are as follows: Ü Al-Qatanin market which is close to the door of the mosque at the western part. It is an extremely high and perfect market which cannot be founded in most of countries. The three neighboring markets which are near to Al-Mihrab door (The Altar), known as Al-Khalil which is one of the Roman buildings. The first of these three markets is Al-Attarin market in western side which has been constructed by Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi in his As-Salahiyah school.

THE AREAS OF THE CITY: The famous areas of Quds are: Al-Mughaaribah area, Ash-Sharaf area, Al-Ilm (The Knowledge) area, Al-Hayadirah area, As-Saltin area, Ar-Rishah area, Bani Al-Haarith's area, and Az-Dhuyah area.

THE CASTLE OF THE CITY : The castle of the city is a big castle built in the outside of Jerusalem at the west part of it, known as Mihrab of David (Altar)(peace be upon him). There is also a great tower inside it named as David's tower which is an old building returns to the time of king Solomon (peace be upon him). In fact, they do play kettledrum in that building every night between Maghrib (Sunset) and Isha'a (Nightfall) as a habit of the castle of the city.

SALWAN FOUNTAIN: Salwan Fountain is situated outside of the holy Quds, near to the Qiblah direction of the valley, overtopping on the fences of Al-Junubi mosque. Thus, the importance of this fountain, its description and rank has been narrated in some prophetic traditions as well as it is one of running fountains mentioned in the Holy Quran: ( (In both of them are two fountains flowing.) )The Beneficence chapter / 50.

WELLS OF QUDS: The wells of Quds are: (Job) Ayyub's well, and it is close to the Salwan fountain, this fountain was named as Ayyub fountain ascribing to our Master Ayyub (Job) (peace be upon him). It is said that Almighty Allah said to his prophet Ayyub (Job) (peace be upon him): (Urge with your foot, here is a cool washing-place and drink). Suad Chapter, verse 42.

THE MOSQUES OF THE HOLY QUDS:

The mosques are:

1 - The Holy Farthest Mosque: The mosque contains the Holy Rock in the middle of it.

2 - Jamiul Magharibah Mosque: This locates outside of the Farthest Mosque at the west part of it.

3 - Jamiu An-Nabiy Dawud (The Prophet David's Central Mosque) (peace be upon him).

THE GRAVEYARDS OF THE CITY:

This sacred city contains many graveyards but the most important of them are:

Ü The Prophet Moses tomb (peace be upon him) and it locates at eastern part of Jerusalem.

- Burial ground of Prophet David (peace be upon him) is in a church known as (Al-Jeesmaniyah), it locates at the eastern part of Quds inside the valley. Likewise Prophet Zachary and the Prophet John's tombs (peace be upon both of them).

Ü The tomb of Mary (peace be upon her), her grave situates in Al-Jeesmaniyah church, inside Tur mountain and outside of Al-Asbat door.

Ü As-Saahirah graveyard: It is Al-Baqi'a known as As-Sahirah at outside of Quds at north. It is a place where they are burying dead bodies of the Muslims. The word (As-Saahirah) means a land which they do not sleep on it but rather stay awake.

Ü Babur Rahmah graveyard: Located in the near of The Farthest Mosque fence.

THE MARTYRS GRAVEYARD: Martyrs graveyards are:

Ü Maamala graveyard: In fact, this graveyard is the biggest graveyard of the country situated at outside Quds at the west.

THE SCHOOLS OF QUDS: There are several scientific, religious, and charity schools and institutions in the city. Of them are governmental schools such as: Darul Mu'allimin, Darul Muallimat, Ar-Rashidiya school, Al-Ma'amuniyah, Al-Bakriyah, Al-Umriyah, Ar-Rasaasiyah, Al-Buq'ah etc.

There are also other 70 schools which are old schools, but the most important ones are: An-Nahwiyah, An-Naasiriyah, At-Tazkiriyah, Al-Baldiyah, Al-Khaatuniyah, Al-Arghuniyah etc.

THE LIBRARIES OF THE CITY:

Ü There are 34 names for different libraries of the Quds, but we will mention the oldest ones which are:

Ü Al-Qiddis Al-Mukhlis library, founded in year 1558 A.D.

Ü Al-Khalili library, established in year 1725 A.D.

Ü The Orthodox Al-Batrikiyah library, founded in year 1865 A.D.

Ü The Arabian university library.

Ü Al-Khaalidiyah library, founded in year 1900 A.D. .

There are private libraries which returns to some ancient families, of them are: Al-Fakhriyah library, Aal Al-Badiri library, Aal Qatinah library and Aal Al-Mawqit library.

MUSEUMS OF QUDS:

Ü The Governmental Museums for Antiques, built in year 1927 A.D.

- The Islamic Museum, founded by the Supreme Islamic Council in year 1341 A.H. / 1923 A.D.

THE OTHER HISTORICAL PLACES OF THE CITY: Qamamah church, Al-Qiyamah, Al-Maristan or Ad-Dabaghah, Habsul Masih, Al-Jastsimani, Tariqul Aalaam, As-Salahiyah, Al-Mat'haf, and (Jabalul Zaitun) Az-Zaitun mountain.

DOMES OF QUDS: (Qubbatu Sakhrah) The Holy Rock dome, As-Silsilah dome, Jabrael dome, Ar-Rasul (The Prophet) dome, Ar-Rasas dome, and Al-Mi'araaj (The Ascension) dome.

QUDS IN THE HOLY QURAN:

Ü Verily, Almighty Allah has specified Quds with blessing when he said: (And We delivered him as well as Lout (removing them) to the land which We had blessed for all people.)The Prophets chapter 71.

Ü The Holy Quran has mentioned the virtue of the sacred land frankly, when He said: (And when Musa said to his people O my people!... remember the favor of Allah ...O my people enter the holy land). The Table chapter, 21.

6 - FROM THE MEMORY OF THE HISTORY:

Ü Al-Amuriyun Arabs migrated to the Palestine in year 3000 B.C.

- The Friend Abraham (peace be upon him) migrated from Ur to Palestine in year 1900 B.C.

Ü Hucsus emigration occurred in year 1785 B.C. and likewise (Aal Yakub) Jacob progeny emigrated to Egypt within the same period which occurred in year 1740 B.C.

Ü Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and his followers left Egypt to Palestine in year 1290 B.C.

Ü Prophet David (peace be upon him) made Ur Shalim (Jerusalem) his capital in year 1003 B.C. then his son Solomon (peace be upon him) was selected as his successor.

- Israel was defeated by the second Sarjun the Ashurian in year 722 B.C.

Ü Judah (Yahuda) was also defeated by Nabukhaz Nasr Al-Babili in year 586 B.C.

Ü In year 536 B.C. Kuresh Al-Akhmini occupied Babylon and allowed Jews to emigrate to Palestine.

Ü Al-Akhminiyun occupied Palestine in year 538 B.C., but Kuresh renovated Solomon statue and constructed the city as well.

Ü In year 332 B.C., Macedonian Alexander occupied Palestine and anarchy occurred in the country after his death in year 322 B.C.

Ü The Romans occupied Palestine in year 62 B.C.

Ü Hirodus Al-Adomi was appointed by Romans as king of Al-Jalil and Quds and ruled them till fourth year A.D.. The Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) was born in Bait lahm in Hirodus time.

Ü A great riot occurred in the city in year 70 A.D. then Romanian Titos surrounded it and caused destruction, burning and killing. He also burnt the temple which is built by Hirodus.

Ü The Jews caused riot once again in year 135 A.D. but the Romanian Emperor Hadiriyan made an exemplary punishment on them, then destroyed the city, cultivated its area and changed it to an idolatrous city. He also allowed Christians to live there on the condition that they should be Jews by origin. The city was called (Al-Yakabita lina), this word is derived from Hadiriyan family which is known as Alya.

Ü Palestine became under occupation of Al-Bizenti in year 324 A.D.

Ü Khosrow Parviz occupied Palestine in year 614 A.D.

Ü Almighty Allah made His Messenger to go on a night journey from the Sacred Mosque to Farthest Mosque on the night the 17th of Rabi'ul Awwal one year before the Prophetic emigration.

Ü The Holy Prophet prayed his first prayer facing Quds in sha'ban month of the second year A.D.then the (Qiblah) direction faced in prayers changed to the Holy Kaaba on the same date.

Ü Hercules the Bizenti Emperor able to derive the persians away from Quds city in year 7 A.H. / 628 A.D..

Ü The battle of Mutah occurred in the 8th year A.H. / 629 A.D.

Ü The battle of Tabuk happened in 9th year A.H. / 630 A.D.

- The battle of Ajnadin took place in year 13 A.H. / 634 A.D. in which Muslims defeated Romans.

Ü The battle of Al-Yormuk happened in year 15 A.H. / 636 A.D. which Muslims gained victory in it.

Ü In year 17 A.H. / 638 A.D., Umar bun Al-Khattab entered Quds and compromised with its inhabitants.

Ü In year 40 A.H. / 661 A.D. Muawiyah bun Abi Suphyan secured allegiance in Quds and appointed Damascus as a capital city of his Caliphate.

Ü Palestine revolution took place in year 65 A.H. / 684 A.D. with the leadership of Nael Al-Juzami, this was done with the aim of supporting Abdullah bun Az-Zubair.

Ü In year 72 A.H. / 691 A.D. Sulaiman bun Abdul Maleek secured allegiance in Quds, and constructed his palace in Ar-Ramlah as well.

Ü Al-Mahdi Al-Abbasi visited Palestine followed by Ma'amun Al-Abbasi after him, this happened between years 163 - 218 A.H. .

Ü In year 264 A.H. Ahmed bun Tulun combined Palestine to his state in Egypt.

Ü The Fatimids prevailed on Palestine in year 385 A.H. / 968 A.D.

Ü The battle of Asqalaan occurred in year 417 A.H. in which the Arab Emirs gained victory over the Fatimids.

Ü The Fatimids Vizier Al-Af'dhal bun Badr Al-Jamaali occupied Quds in year 492 A.H.

Ü The Crusaders occupied Quds and committed a bloodshed in the yard of The Farthest Mosque and raised a Cross on the Holy Rock.

Ü The Sacred Quds was regained from the Crusaders by the leadership of Salahu Deen Al-Ayyubi. This event happened after the battle of Hitten.

Ü The British king Richard Qalb Al-Asad and the second Falib king of France attacked Palestine and occupied it in battle of Arsuf which happened in year 586 A.H. This incident is known as (The Third Crusaders Attack).

Ü The Ayyubids occupied Quds in year 637 A.H. / 1239 A.D.

Ü The Mamaliks occupied Palestine in year 651 A.H. / 1253 A.D.

Ü The battle of (Aynu Jalut) occurred in year 659 A.H. / 1260 A.D. and resulted defeat ness of Mughul.

Ü The sultan (Ashraf bun Qalawun) put an end to the kingship of the Crusaders in the Quds in year 690 A.H. / 1291 A.D. .

Ü Sultan (Salim Al-Uthmani) occupied Quds in year 922 A. H.

Ü Quds fell in the hands of The Ottoman Ibrahim Basha in year 1831 A.D.

Ü The first district of Jews was set up in Quds which was named as (Montifiorin district), this name is ascribed to a man who able to buy Palestinian lands with the help of the Ottoman sultan.

Ü In year 1920 A.D. Palestine was putted under British mandate, this is done in order to set up a Jews state in the city.

Ü In year 1948 A.D. Palestine was extorted by Jews and then sent the Palestinian Arabs away from the city.

Ü The Jews became well settled and prevailed on all parts of Palestine and Quds after setback of june and named Quds as (Jerusalem).

Ü In year 1980 A.D. Combining of the Quds politically to the occupied state of British has been declared completely under slogan of unity of Quds.

THE IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES:

Quds is considered to be one of the blessed lands which was aimed by the Prophets with the intention of worship, starting from the Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) to our Holy Prophet Mohammed (may the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his pure progeny). This sacred city has been visited by 20 companions and 80 Followers of the companions along with a big number of kings and great figures of scholars, among of those are as follows: Ubaid Amil Al-Khalifah Ath-Thani, Abu Az-Zubair Al-Mu'azin, Maleek bun Dinar, Rabi'atu Al-Awzaa'i, Al-Adawiya, Abdu Rahman bun Umar, the Jurist Abu Al-Ma'ali Muqaddasi, the Jurist Abul Fadhl Ataa'u and Shamsu Deen bun Khalkan.

~~~~~~~~~~

fiamanallah

iltams edua

Syed Hasan Abbas Al Hussaini

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