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In the Name of God بسم الله

Qur'an Verse Of The Day

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Invest for the future!

82:5 – “Every soul shall know what it has sent forward and what it has left behind.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 82:5:

Every soul will be fully aware of what “its hands had sent forth.” This verse refers to the deeds of commission and omission in this life – “the good or the evil he did” is that which he has sent forth, and “the consequences of his good and bad deeds which ensue to influence the human society after he departs” is that which he leaves behind. It may also refer to that which he earned for his spiritual life of the hereafter and the physical things, he prided in this life, which he left behind. If man does good he not only earns the eternal life of bliss in the hereafter as a reward but also leaves behind an example for his family and people among whom he lived and the posterity in general; and during his lifetime educates, disciplines and guides those who are associated with him to the path of God.

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It is interesting to note that, there is a 'DUA OF THE DAY,' HADITH OF THE DAY', but, there is no 'VERSE OF THE DAY' IS THIS SUPPOSED TO BE AN Islamic FORUM? So in what HADITH AFTER THIS wil

(bismillah) 67:19 Do they not observe the birds above them, spreading their wings and folding them in? None can uphold them except (Allah) Most Gracious: Truly (Allah) Most Gracious: Truly it is

94:5 For indeed, with hardship [will be] ease. 94:6 Indeed, with hardship [will be] ease.  

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The King (God) is All-Powerful!

67:1 – “Blessed is He in Whose hand is the kingdom, and He has power over all things...”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 67:1:

For tabarak al-ladhi (blessed is He) refer to the commentary of Fatehah: 2. What has been said about hamd in Fatehah: 2 applies to tabarakallah also.

Bi-yadihi means in the hands of Him who holds power and authority. Mulk means kingdom, dominion or sovereignty. Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 255 and Aale ‘Imran: 26. His authority carries out His will, or does all that He wills not only in the visible and invisible realms of space, conceivable in terms of matter and energy by the human intellect, but also beyond them.

In order not to fall a pray to imaginary or conjectural theories of man-made gods created by a few exploiters to wield authority over the whole mass of mankind, man must understand and accept the omnipotent sovereignty of God. Then alone he can get rid of false leaders and establish a just, fair and orderly society for the overall welfare of all human beings. Sovereignty belongs to God. There is no god but God. The whole universe is His kingdom. Refer to page 11 for the belief of some of the Christians that God is in heaven which implies that He has no authority (kingdom) on the earth.

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“Nay, it is a promise binding on Him in truth...”

Ayyashi narrated through his Isnad from Serin, who said:

I was with Imam as-Sadeq (as), when he asked, “What do people say about this verse, ‘They swear by God the most earnest oaths that God will not raise the dead’ (16:38)?”

I replied, “They say (this verse) means that there will be no judgement, resurrection, nor any publishing of the deeds.”

Imam (as) said:

I swear to God that they are lying. This verse is about the time of the rising of the Qaem (as) when a group of people will return to life by his side.

Then your enemies will say to you, “Oh crowd of Shi’ah! This is the time of your government and you are liars, for you say that (some people) have been raised from their graves. No! We swear by God that He will not resurrect the dead in this life.”

Imam (as) continued:

Do you not see that the verse says, “They swear by God?” However, the polytheists respected Lat and ‘Uzza so much that they would not swear by anyone other than them. (Therefore, this verse cannot be about the polytheists).

God answers:

“Nay, it is a promise binding on Him in truth, but most people do not know. (He will raise them from the dead) so that He may manifest to them that about which they differed, and (so that) those who disbelieved may know that they were liars. Verily, when We will a thing, the only word We say to it is: ‘Be,’ and it comes to exist” (16:38-40).

Tafsir al-Ayyashi 2:258

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Gardeners who cut off the produce...

68:17 – “Surely We will try them as We tried the owners of the garden, when they swore that they would certainly cut off the produce in the morning.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 68:17:

In a township near Yemen, there was a garden owned by a God-fearing man who used to distribute its fruits among the poor and the needy. When he died two of his sons decided not to give to the poor and the needy any portion from the produce they would collect next day. They even did not say: “If God wills,” at the time of making plans to gather the harvest. The third son, who disagreed with them and wanted to do as their father used to do, was silenced by his two brothers. They kept the whole operation a closely guarded secret lest the needy came for taking what they used to get. As they did not subordinate their will to the will of God and decided to have all the produce exclusively for themselves, ignoring the needs of their fellow beings, the garden was destroyed altogether. Then the third son who had warned them before hand reminded them that had they remembered God and acted as commanded by Him they would not have lost everything. Then they turned to God in repentance. If the repentance is sincere, there is hope. God turns evil into good. If repentance is not sincere, it becomes hypocrisy. ibn ‘Abbas says that their repentance was true and God gave them a better garden which yielded abundant produce. The points allegorised in the parable of the people of the garden not only illustrate the conduct of the hypocrites but also demonstrate how God gives respite to the wrongdoers so that they may have the opportunity to repent and make amend at any stage before the mercy shown to them is withdrawn after which there is no remedy save eternal punishment in the hereafter.

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The victory

110:1-3 – “When there comes the help of God and the victory, and you see the people enter God’s Religion in crowds, Then celebrate the praise of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness; surely He is oft-returning (in Grace and Mercy).”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 110:1:

The pagans of Makkah opposed and persecuted the Holy Prophet from the day he openly preached the religion of God to them. Then he migrated to Madinah. All the conspiracies, intrigues and plots of the people of Makkah and their allies to destroy the Holy Prophet and his mission recoiled on their own heads. Gradually all the people of Arabia rallied round him and the bloodless conquest of Makkah was the conclusion of his patient and constant striving in the cause of God – a promise made by God ultimately fulfilled. Those who had hitherto held aloof then hastened to offer their allegiance to the religion of God. Delegations flocked from near and far to offer obedience to the Holy Prophet. Gibbon refers to it as “one of the most memorable revolutions which have impressed a new and lasting character on the nations of the globe.” The expansion of Islam is the most miraculous of all miracles. Polytheism yielded to monotheism.

Agha Mahdi Pouya says:

In the spiritual state of realization the Holy Prophet saw every being in submission to the will of God in the light of verse 84 of Aale ‘Imran.

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 110:3:

Refer to the commentary of Momen: 55; Fath: 2 and Muhammad: 15 and 19 for the meaning of the phrase “wastaghfirhu” whenever it is used for the infallible Holy Prophet and his Ahlul-Bayt.

After the bloodless conquest of Makkah, the Holy Prophet stood at the entrance of Ka’bah and said:

“There is no god save God. He has fulfilled His promised and helped His servant.”

Inside the Ka’bah he pointed to each of the 360 idols with his staff reciting: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” (Bani Israil: 82) and the idol fell down on its face. The great idol named Hubal was fixed on a high position beyond reach. To destroy it, the Holy Prophet asked ‘Ali to mount on his shoulders. ‘Ali mounted as was desired and standing over the shoulders of the Holy Prophet wrenched the idol and threw it, to the ground. It crashed to pieces. Refer to Madarej an-Nabuwwah, Habib as-Siyar; Sharh Mawaheb, Rawdhat al-Ahbab.

As stated by the Holy Prophet to ibn ‘Abbas this verse gave a hint to his departure from this world.

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Woe to He who lies about Judgement Day...

107:1-3 – “Have you considered him who calls the judgement a lie? That is the one who treats the orphan with harshness, and does not urge (others) to feed the poor.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 107:1:

Din means religion. Here it means the Day of Judgement as in Fatehah: 3.

Those who deny the principles of right and wrong and man’s accountability, in the moral and spiritual sense, of actions done by him treat the helpless with contempt and lead arrogant selfish lives which, as a consequence, disturbs and upsets peace and harmony in the society. As the noble virtue of loving and taking care of the helpless among the society is beyond the reach of the callous disbelievers, they discourage or forbid or look down upon the virtue of charity or kindness in others.

True worship does not consist in the mere form of prayer, without the heart and mind being earnestly applied to seek the pleasure of God. In Islam prayer is not a ritual. Verse 142 of an-Nisa says: “When they stand up for prayer they stand without sincerity, to be seen by men (only for show), but little do they (pay attention) to God in remembrance.” Hypocrites make a great show of insincere acts of goodness, devotion and charity.

See commentary of al-Baqarah: 3, 43, 45 and TaHa: 132 for salat.

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said:

“He who gives salt to a needy person earns the reward of setting free 60 slaves; and he who gives water to a needy person earns the reward of saving a man from death and destruction.”

Little acts of neighbouring kindnesses, courtesies and supply of needs to the needy cost little but mean much.

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Some of the jinn listen to the Quran

72:1 – “Say: It has been revealed to me that a party of the jinn listened, and they said: Surely we have heard a wonderful Quran.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 72:1:

Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 30 on page 63; Sa’d: 76 and particularly al-Ahqaf: 29 to 32 for giving guidance to the jinn by the Holy Prophet.

The jinn were aware of previous revelations to Moses and Jesus, but when they heard the Holy Prophet they came to know the corruptions crept into the religious beliefs of the followers of Moses and Jesus, and embraced Islam.

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Evil plans don’t lead to security

16:45-46 – “Do they then who plan evil (deeds) feel secure (of this) that God will not cause the earth to swallow them or that punishment may not overtake them from whence they do not perceive? Or that He may not seize them in the course of their journeys, then shall they not escape.”

Ayyashi narrated through his Isnad from Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar, from a man who heard Imam al-Baqer (as) saying:

The covenant of the Prophet (pbuh) was given to ‘Ali ibn Husayn (as) [after Husayn ibn ‘Ali (as)], and after him to Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, and after me, God will do with it (as) He wills. Therefore, stay committed to them [the Imams (as)].

A man from the Imams (as) will rise with a little over three hundred and ten men, carrying he flag of the Messenger of God (pbuh) with him.

While he is on his way to Madinah, he will pass by Baydha and say, “This is the land that will swallow a group of people.”

This is the meaning of the verse 16:45-46

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Khayra ummatin (Best of the Nations)

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3:110 – “You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) men; you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in God; and if the followers of the Book had believed it would have been better for them; of them (some) are believers and most of them are transgressors.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 3:110:

“Khayra ummatin” means the best group of people. As has been said in verse 104 of this surah that there is a select group of people who call others to virtue and enjoin that which is good (amr bil-ma’rouf) and forbid evil (nahi ‘anil-munkar), in this verse also the entire Muslim people are addressed through the best group of people who enjoin good and forbid evil because enjoining good and forbidding evil entails conditions in which the whole community cannot share. The torturers of the Holy Prophet’s daughter, Lady Fatemah az-Zahra, and the persecutors and the murderers of the holy Imams (from Imam ‘Ali al-Murtadha to Imam Hasan al-‘Askari) were Muslims. Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan persecuted Imam Hasan and poisoned him through a woman. Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan killed Imam Husayn, his sons and relatives and friends, including his 6 months old son, ‘Ali al-Asghar, in Karbala; and thereafter imprisoned and tortured the ladies and the children of the house of the Holy Prophet for several months. Almost all the Umayyad and ‘Abbasid caliphs were drunkards and libertines. They killed all the holy Imams of the Ahlul-Bayt, from Imam ‘Ali ibn Husayn to Imam Hasan ibn ‘Ali, and some of them desecrated the holy Ka’bah and the holy Masjed an-Nabawi.

The torturers, persecutors and murderers, mentioned above, are not only considered Muslims but respected as the Khalifat al-Muslimin or Khalifat ar-Rasoul by the majority of the Muslims except the followers of Muhammad and Aale Muhammad (Shi’ah) who acknowledge the Ahlul-Bayt only as the best group of people because of their learning, knowledge and wisdom and because of their high-mindedness, generosity, bravery, justice and refinement of character – a true reflection of the way of life of the Holy Prophet.

The abominable features of the “heroes of the Muslims,” described in “Stanley’s lectures on Eastern Church” and “al-Birouni’s India,” have been driving away the seekers of truth, among non-Muslims, from the religion of Islam. But when some of them happen to come across the life accounts of the khayra ummatin (the best group of people), the Ahlul-Bayt, they willingly come into the fold of Islam. Even the worst enemies of Islam have greatly praised the irresistible glory of the godly members of the family of the Holy Prophet. In the light of the Quranic verses and traditions of the Holy Prophet, mentioned in the commentary of various relevant verses in this book, the Ahlul-Bayt are the “best group of people” thoroughly purified by God Himself (Ahzab: 33), inseparably attached with the Quran, flesh and blood of the Holy Prophet, who are from him and he is from them (reflecting one and the same light of God). Therefore, to harass them is to harass God and the Prophet of God, for which God curses such people in this world and the hereafter (Ahzab: 57); and to make less their status or to bring others to their position earns the wrath of God (Fatehah: 7).

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No compromise!

109:1-4 – “Say: Oh disbelievers! I do not worship that which you worship, Nor do you worship that which I worship. Nor shall I (ever) worship that which you worship.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 109:1:

Some of the leading disbelievers of Makkah had proposed to the Holy Prophet a compromise between Islam and their ancient faith such as they conceived it, so that their idols might also have an honourable mention in the adoration of the worshippers. The Holy Prophet resisted all appeals to worldly motives, and stood firm to his message of eternal unity of God. This surah breathes a spirit of uncompromising abhorrence to idolatry. There can be no common ground between the worship of “the one” and the many- monotheism and polytheism. Refer to al-Baqarah: 256; Younus: 41.

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Grow! Learn the Scripture and Wisdom...

62:2 – “He it is Who hath sent among the unlettered ones a messenger of their own, to recite unto them His revelations and to make them grow, and to teach them the Scripture and wisdom, though heretofore they were indeed in error manifest.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 62:2:

Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 78; Aale ‘Imran: 48 and 49 for the word “ummi” in connection with the Holy Prophet.

Yuzakkihim (purifies them) asserts the absolute purity of the Holy Prophet, because he who is thoroughly purified by God (see commentary of Ahzab: 33) can alone purify others. Among the thoroughly purified are he and his Ahlul-Bayt.

In verse 129 of Baqarah prophets Ibrahim and Isma’il pray to the Lord:

“Raise up in them a messenger from among them who will recite to them your revelations, and teach them the book and the wisdom, and purify them.”

In fulfilment God sent the Holy Prophet as a mercy unto the worlds to guide mankind. As stated in verse 164 of Aale ‘Imran it was a divine grace and favour. Man does not favour the Holy Prophet by becoming a Muslim. In fact God has favoured man by showing him the way to belief (Hujurat: 17).

Agha Mahdi Pouya says:

As stated in the commentary of Baqarah: 78 the Holy Prophet did not receive tutoring from any mortal being. God taught him the “book and wisdom” (Rahman: 2 and Najm: 5).

The Quran lays stress on the word ummi to point out that the appearance of a prophet among the ummis in order to educate and purify the whole mankind is a miracle.

The Holy Prophet, by reciting the revelations, attracted the attention of men and women around him; then, by turning their thoughts and feelings from sensual pursuits to intellectual and spiritual activity, he purified their hearts and minds, after which he taught them the book and the wisdom in order that they might apply the guidance in their day-to-day life.

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Space travelers!

79:3 – “And by those who float in space...”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 79:3:

There are angels who traverse all frontiers of the universe to carry out divine commands. They never lag behind or leave anything undone while executing the will of God.

Agha Mahdi Pouya says:

The first three verses [“I swear by the angels who violently pull out the souls of the wicked, and by those who gently draw out the souls of the blessed, and by those who float in space, then those who are foremost going ahead.”] refer to the preparatory work before any divine will takes effect which sets in motion that which is willed. Verses 4 and 5 [“Then those who regulate the affair. The day on which the quaking one shall quake”] refer to the administration or operation of the consequences of the divine will. The forces working in the universe operate in harmony under the laws made by the creator. There is no reason to restrict its application or reference to any particular agency. Refer to the commentary of Saffat: 1 to 3; Dhariyat: 1 to 4.

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An authority

Abul-Qasem Ja’far ibn Muhammad ibn Qulawayh narrated from Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad, from Muhammad ibn Hasan as-Saffar, from ‘Abbas ibn Ma’rouf, from Muhammad ibn Senan, from a man, who said:

“I asked Imam Sadeq (as) about the verse, ‘and whosoever is killed unjustly, then we have indeed given his heir an authority, but let him not exceed the limits in killing, verily he is helped’ (17:33).”

Imam (as) replied:

“This is about the Qaem of the family of the Prophet (S). When he rises, he will kill (many people), avenging the blood of Husayn (as). Even if he kills everyone on earth, he will not ‘exceed the limits of killing.’ ‘But let him not exceed the limits in killing’ (17:33) means that he will not act unconscionably. I swear to God that he will kill the descendents of the killers of Husayn (as) for the deeds of their fathers.”

ibn Babawayh narrated from Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far al-Hamdani, from ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem, from his father, from ‘Abdus-Salam ibn Saleh al-Herawi, who said:

I said to Imam ar-Redha (as), “Oh son of the Messenger of God! What do you say about a Hadith that is narrated from (Imam) Sadeq (as), who said, ‘when our Qaem (as) rises, he will kill the descendants of the killers of Husayn (as) for the deeds of their fathers?”

Imam ar-Redha (as) replied, “it is true.”

I asked, “then what about the words of God in this verse, ‘no bearer of burden shall bear another’s burden’?” (39:7)

Imam ar-Redha (as) replied:

“God says the truth in all of His words. The descendents of the killers of Husayn (as) are pleased with the deeds of their fathers and they boast about (these deeds). And those who are pleased with an act are just like those who commit it.”

“Even if a man kills someone in the east and another man in the west is pleased with that killing, he will be considered a partner in that killing in the eyes of God. The Qaem (as) will kill them for being pleased with the acts of their fathers.”

I asked, “what is the first thing the Qaem (as) will do after he rises?”

Imam (as) relied, “he will start with the Bani Shaybah.* He will cut their hands off because they are the looters of the House of God.”

*The name of the tribe that holds the keys of the Ka’bah.

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66:8 – “Oh you who believe! Turn to God a sincere turning; maybe your Lord will remove from you your evil and cause you to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, on the day on which God will not abase the Prophet and those who believe with him; their light shall run on before them and on their right hands; they shall say: Our Lord! Make perfect for us our light, and grant us protection, surely Thou hast power over all things.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 66:8:

The oft-forgiving Lord invites man to turn to Him with sincere repentance so that He may bestow His grace on him and forgive his sins. Sincere repentance implies giving up and discontinuing of evil in thought and action with a firm determination not to repeat it ever again. If it is done then God will wipe off his past sins and admit him to the eternal land of bliss and happiness.

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said:

“A sincere repentant never sins again as the milk drawn from the breast never can go back to its source.”

Imam ‘Ali (as) said:

“A sincere repentant (i) is ashamed of his past sins, (ii) takes up the duties overlooked and fulfils them, (iii) makes good the wilfully ignored conditions of a trust managed by him, (iv) forgives those who provoke him, (v) does not demand repayment of loans from those who are in financial distress, (vi) makes firm determination not to sin ever again, (vii) surrenders his self to the adoration, devotion and service of God when it had swelled to the point of exploding due to inordinate consumption of worldly pleasures, transgression and disobedience.”

For “those who believe with him” refer to the commentary of Fath: 29.

In the light of Ahzab: 33, the Ahlul-Bayt alone are like the Holy Prophet in purity, wisdom and character because of which he took them with him in Mubahelah (Aale ‘Imran: 61), and because of which their love has been made obligatory on all Muslims in verse 23 of Shura, and they have been included in salawat or duroud in verse 56 of Ahzab. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2 to 5 (page 51) for what the Holy Prophet said about Fatemah az-Zahra.

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said:

“‘Ali and I are from one and the same light.”

“The children of Fatemah and ‘Ali are my children.”

“Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn.”

Not only Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn but all the Imams of the Ahlul-Bayt are referred to as “ibn Rasoulullah” (son of the messenger of God) by all the Muslim historians and scholars, no matter which school of thought they belong to.

Refer to Sahih Bukhari, Ketab al-Maghazi, volume 3, page 41 for the saying of the Holy Prophet: “Oh ‘Ali, you are from me and I am from you.”

Also refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 124.

As stated in Sad: 75 the Holy Prophet and his Ahlul-Bayt belong to the class of al-‘aalin (the most exalted). The righteous companions of the Holy Prophet or those believers who lived after him and shall come in this world until the day of resurrection are classified into different categories according to the degree of their submission to the will of God. There were people whose behaviour has been described in the commentary of several verses pertaining to battles of Uhud, Khandaq and Hunayn, and at the time of the treaty of Hudaybiyah and at the time of the departure of the Holy Prophet (Hadith al-Qertas), can at most reach the level of pardoned sinners.

For “their light will run before them” refer to the commentary of Hadid: 12; Nour: 33 to 37.

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61:2-3 – “Oh you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do? It is most hateful to God that you should say that which you do not do.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 61:2:

These words here are specially directed to the faint-hearted companions who had talked much but failed miserably to back up their resolution in words with firmness in action as at the battle of Uhud. Refer to the commentary of Aale ‘Imran: 121, 128, 140 to 142, 144, 151 to 156, 159, 166 to 168 and al-Anfal: 16.

Those who do not put into practice what they preach are hated and disliked by God.

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Ramadhan!

2:183 – “Oh you who believe! Fasting has been prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard yourselves (against evil).”

Quran: “Oh you who believe”:

This mode of address reminds them of a virtue (faith, belief) which encourages them to accept whatever order is given to them by their Lord, even if it is against their desires and habits.

The verse of retaliation also begins with this very phrase because the Christians, unlike other people, did not believe in retaliation. Therefore, it was necessary to point out that retalia­tion is allowed to the faithful, even if others do not believe in it.

Quran: “Fasting has been written (i.e. prescribed) for you, as it was written (i.e. prescribed) for those before you”:

“Ketabah” means to write. Metaphorically it is used for prescription, enjoinment and irrevocable decision, as God says, God has written down: ‘I will most certainly prevail, I and My apostles’ (58:2 1); and ‘We write down what they have sent before and their footprints’ (36:12); and ‘We wrote on them in it, a soul for a soul’ (5:45).

“Siyam” and “sawm” are infinite verbs meaning to abstain from an action, like abstaining from eating, drinking, sexual intercourse, talking, walking, etc. Also it is said that it means abstaining from desirable and coveted things. Later in religion, it was mostly used for abstaining from some specified things from dawn-break up to sunset with intention (niyyah).

Those before you means the nations, that came before the advent of Islam: the followers of the previous prophets, like the followers of Moses and Jesus etc. It is the meaning understood from this phrase wherever it occurs in the Quran.

The comparison as it was prescribed for those before you is not general; it does not cover all the peoples, nor all the details of the Islamic fast. In other words, it does not mean that the fast was prescribed for the followers of all previous prophets, nor that the fast ordained for them was like the Islamic fast in all the details, like period, rules and other particulars. The comparison is only in the principles of fasting and abstaining from some things - without any regard to the particulars.

Those before you indicates followers of the previous religions without specifying who they were. The words as it was written (prescribed), show that they were followers of revealed religions; and that the fast was ordained for them. The present Old and New Testaments do not say that fasting was compulsory and obligatory; rather they extol and praise it. Still, the Jews and the Christians do fast on various days in the year, in various ways, like abstaining from meat, or milk, or food and drink. There are stories in the Quran of the fasts of Zachariah and Mary in which they abstained from talking.

Fasting was also observed in traditional (unrevealed) religions, as is reported from ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. The Hindus observe fasts even now. Apparently, it is human nature itself that leads one to believe that the fast is an act of worship which brings one nearer to the Creator.

Sometimes it is said that those before you means the Jews and the Christians; or that it refers to only the previous prophets (and not their followers). The basis of these assertions are some traditions which are not free from weakness.

Quran: “So that you may guard yourselves (against evil) (or, so that you may become pious)”:

Idol-worshippers fasted to please their deities, or, on committing a sin, to extinguish their deities’ anger, or to get their prayers granted. This turns the fast into a trade or barter; the man performs what is needed by the deity and the deity in its turn grants the prayers of the man; the worshipper pleases. The deity so that the deity may do what will please the worshipper.

But God is All-holiness. No want, need, emotion or grievance can be attributed to Him even in imagination. In short, He is free from every shortcoming. So, all the good effects of the worship (whatever the act of worship and whatever the good results) return to the worshipper himself, not to the Lord. The same is the case of sins. God has said: ‘If you do good, you do good for your own souls, and if you do evil it is for them (only)’ (17:7). It is this principle which the Quran teaches by always connect­ing the effects of good and evil actions with man: man, who is all needs and wants, as God says ‘Oh man! You are the ones who stand in need of God, and God is He who is the Self-sufficient’ (35:15); and refers to the fact specifically in connection with fast­ing in the words, so that you may become pious (may guard yourselves against evil).

There is no doubt that one may achieve piety through fasting. Everyone naturally feels that for union with the sublime world of holiness and for rising to the height of perfection and spiritu­ality man should first of all restrain himself from gratifying material desires. He should keep away from satisfying the body’s lust and inclinations, and purge his soul from the love of worldly affairs. In short, he should guard himself against all such things, which may carry him away from his Lord. This is piety (taqwa) which is achieved through abstinence from lust and desires.

Even more beneficial and more effective for the common man is the abstinence from common lawful desires like food, drink and sex. This trains him to keep away from unlawful things; and creates in him the will to guard himself against sin and evil, and to come nearer to God.

Obviously, when he accepts the words of God by abstaining from lawful desires, and heeds to and obeys His commandment; he will be more needful and obedient to His words in connection with sins and unlawful things.

Tafsir al-Mizan by the late ‘Allamah Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei

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2:184 – “For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.”

Tafsir al-Mizan:

Quran: For a certain number of days (ayyaman ma’doudatin):

“ayyaman” has the vowel of fathah, because an adverb of time, in (f) is understood before it. It is connected with the word fast (siyam). It has already been explained that bringing the word “days” as a common noun and attaching to it the adjective, “counted”, implies that the order given is not very difficult or bothersome. This in turn encourages the man to obedience. Also it has been maintained that the words the month of Ramadhan... are the explanation of “days.” So, the meaning of counted number of days is the month of Ramadhan.

Quran: But whoso among you be sick or on a journey then (he shall fast) that number of other days:

The fast is written-down and obligatory and the number is a part of that obligation. The basic obligation (fast) cannot be neglected and the same is the case of the prescribed number. Even if for any reason like sickness or journey the obligation of fasting during the counted number of days (i.e. month of Ramadhan) is waived, the obligation of fasting an equal number of days after that month will still be enforced, in order to make up for the lost days of Ramadhan. It is this principle which has been mentioned in the third verse and so that you may complete the (prescribed) number. Here we find another significance of the phrase, counted number of days; it implies that the order given is not very difficult, and also it shows that the number is an integral part of the said obligation.

“Sickness” is the opposite of “health.” Safar (journey, is derived from a root-word which means to uncover. It is as though the traveler is uncovered by going out of his house which is his refuge and shelter.

God used the words, on a journey, and did not say a traveler; it shows that for the purpose of this rule one must be on a journey presently. Past travel or a travel which is yet to start (i.e. to commence later) would not make one entitled to this concession.

Most of the Sunni scholars say that this sentence shows only that a sick person or a traveler is allowed, but not compelled - leave the fast. According to them, a sick person or a traveler has the choice of fasting or not fasting. But, as has been explained earlier, the meaning of then that number of other days is that he is (not only allowed but is) ‘compelled’ not to fast during the originally prescribed days; he must fast that number of “other days.” This is narrated from the Imams of the Ahlul-Bayt. Also, it is the ruling of a group of the companions of the Prophet (S) like ‘Abdur-Rahman ibn ‘Awf, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, Abu Hurayrah and ‘Urwah ibn az-Zubayr. The Sunni scholars say that this sentence means: but whoso among you be sick or on a journey (and did not fast) then (he shall fast) that number of other days; thus they suppose that there is a deleted but implied verb in this sentence. But this sup­position is incorrect because:

First: such a supposition is against the apparent meaning. A deletion can be accepted only when the context demands it; and the context of this sentence does not need any such thing.

Second: even if we accept this implied verb, it will not mean that a sick person or a traveler has only an option to break his fast. In these verses God is promulgating a law and in this context the hypothetical, implied words, and did not fast will mean that during sickness or journey, breaking one’s fast is not a sin, rather it is lawful. The word ‘lawful’ is a general one, meaning all or any of its three kinds: obligatory, recommended and allowed. There is no reason to suppose that in this context it would mean only “allowed” (to the exclusion of the other two meanings). Rather there is a reason against such a supposition, because the Wise Law-Giver when promulgating a law cannot leave one of its important and obligatory aspects.

Quran: and those who are with difficulty able to do so on them is a redemption, by feeding a poor man:

‘Spending one’s active strength in a work’ (itaqah) is the meaning ex­plained by some scholars. It necessarily means that the work would be done with difficulty and by overstraining oneself. Fidyah means a substitute. Here it is a material substitute, i.e., food for a poor man. The word implies a food which satiates a hungry poor man; and it should be the normal food of the man.

The rule of the substitute also is obligatory, like the rule of repaying a fast afterward for the sick or the traveler. It is shown by the word - ‘on those’ (‘alal-ladhina), which is obviously for obligation and not merely for option or choice.

Some people have said that this sentence gave the people an option and then it was abrogated. According to them, God had given all those who were able to fast an option to keep the fast or to redeem it by feeding every day a poor man, because in the beginning people were not accustomed to fast. Then it was abrogated by the sentence, So whosoever of you witnesses the month, he shall fast therein. Some of those writers said that this verse abrogated the option so far as able persons were concerned. But the rule regarding those who were unable to fast (like extremely old, persons, pregnant women and women who are suckling a baby) remained non-abrogated and they could give the substitute.

By God, such an explanation is nothing but playing with the Quran and cutting and chopping up the verses into shreds and fragments. If you study these three verses, you will see that it is all a well connected speech, delivered with one aim, all in one context only. Its sentences are connected with each other, having a sweetness and flow of their own. But if you cut it into pieces and accept these people’s interpretation then everything will fall out of context and some phrases will contradict others; the latter sentences will clash with the former ones. According to their explana­tion, first it says ‘Fasting is prescribed for you’, then it says that ‘those who are able to fast have an option to fast or to redeem it by a substitute’; then it goes on to say that ‘fasting is obligatory for all of you when you witness the month’; then it abrogates the rule of redemption for able persons and keeps it unchanged for unable ones (while the fact remains that even before the supposed abrogation that verse was not concerned at all with those who were unable. They want us to believe that the single word meaning ‘those who are with difficulty able to do so’ (yutiqqounahu) referred, before the abrogation, to those who were able to fast; and now after abrogation the same word means ‘those who are unable to fast’! In short, according to these commentators, those who are with difficulty able to do so in the middle of the verse would abrogate fasting is prescribed for you which is in the beginning of the verse, because both would be contradictory to each other; but the question would arise why that abrogation was made conditional on ability without any apparent reason. Then again the sentence, So whosoever of you witnesses the month he shall fast therein, at the end of the verse, would abrogate those who are with difficulty able which is in the middle. Still the question would arise as to how it abrogated that rule for only those who were able to fast and not for those who were unable to do so, when the verse is unconditional and comprehensive and covers able and unable persons alike. Interestingly enough, the supposedly abrogated verse in itself did not cover those who were unable. This is its most obviously absurdity.

Add to it their assertion that the words, the month of Ramadhan… abrogated the words, counted number of days, which in their turn abrogated the words, Fast has been prescribed for you; and then ponder with this background upon the meaning of the verses and you will be astonished! Nothing of the verses would remain intact; all would have been abrogated!

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49:6-7 – “Oh you who believe! If an evil-doer comes to you with a report, look carefully into it, lest you harm a people in ignorance, then be sorry for what you have done. And know that among you is God’s Messenger: were he, in many matters, to follow your (wishes), ye would certainly fall into misfortune: But God has endeared the Faith to you, and has made it beautiful in your hearts, and He has made hateful to you Unbelief, wickedness, and rebellion: such indeed are those who walk in righteousness.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 49:6:

The Holy Prophet sent Walid ibn Aqbah to Bani Mustalaq to collect zakat. Before becoming Muslims the tribe of Mustalaq did not like Walid, so to show their change of heart, as they were all now brothers in faith, they came out in a large gathering to receive him outside the town, but Walid, a man of easy morals, jumped at the conclusion that they wanted to kill him; so turned at once on his heels and came back to the Holy Prophet with a false conjecture that the tribe of Mustalaq had turned apostate. The truth was found out and this verse was revealed to condemn Walid, a companion of the Holy Prophet, and men like him who are ready to shed innocent blood on mere guesswork. In the reign of ‘Uthman, Walid was appointed as the governor of Kufah. Living up to his reputation, one morning, fully drunk, he came into the masjed and prayed four raka’ats in Salat al-Fajr, and wanted to pray more if the people praying behind allowed him to do so. Yes, he was a companion, appropriately described as faseq (wicked) by the Quran.

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 49:7:

The Holy Prophet, if he consults his friends and companions, should not be expected to follow their advice, because God speaks, commands and acts through him (Najm: 2 to 5); and in case their advice coincides with the divine will, well and good, else it has to be bypassed.

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84:6 – “Oh man! Surely you must strive (to attain) to your Lord, a hard striving until you meet Him.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 84:6:

Although the life of this world is sometimes full of toil and misery for the believers and the righteous yet they strive hard to follow the right path because they are convinced that there is a day of resurrection when they shall go to their Lord with their account to meet Him before His throne of judgement. The disbelievers and the transgressors, the deniers and beliers of the day of reckoning shall also come before the Lord but without the hope of salvation.

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Universal book of guidance

17:9-10 – “Surely this Quran guides to that which is most upright and gives good news to the believers who do good that they shall have a great reward. And that (as for) those who do not believe in the hereafter, We have prepared for them a painful chastisement.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 17:9:

First the ascension of the Holy Prophet to the highest stage of the finite state, beyond which is nothing save absolute infinity, was stated, and then the partial book given to Moses was mentioned, and in this verse the Quran is introduced to man as the universal book of guidance, because it was revealed to a prophet who reached the highest perfection of “qaba qawsayni aw adna” [“So he was the measure of two bows or closer still” ](Najm: 9).* Compared to all other books, sent down on other prophets whose ascension was upto lower stages, the Quran is the most comprehensive book of guidance and as perfect as the height to which the Lord of the worlds allowed His most beloved friend, the Holy Prophet, to ascend.

* Then the Holy Prophet drew near to God “So he was the measure of two bows or closer still.” The nearness described by “still nearer” cannot be imagined by human mind. It is the nearest nearness possible between the finite and the infinite. The Arabic idiom “qaba qawsayn” indicates extreme nearness. “The drawn bows, with their chords touching,” make a circle of union, yet the Holy Prophet is not to be considered as totally absorbed into divinity. The nearness stands for the highest position of the Holy Prophet in the order of creation – the nearest to God. It was a custom among the Arabs that when two individuals joined their bows it implied that both of them were united or bound by an agreement to shoot their arrows simultaneously in one direction.

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Salam brothers and sisters, i hope Ramdan is going well with u all. I have some issues and

then i ponder why not share with you guys. I am Hafiz-e-Quran too, i find some contradictions, which i am sharing with u.

people, please give me feedback and help me out.

There are numerical contradictions in the Quran.How many days did it take to create Heavens and Earth ?

Quran 7: 54 Your gurdian-Lord is Allah who created the heavens and earth in Six Days

Quran 10: 3 Verily your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and earth in Six Days

Quran 11:7 He it is Who created the heavens and earth in Six Days

Quran-25:29: He Who created the heavens and earth and all that is between, in Six Days

The above verses clearly state that God created the heaven and Allah created the heaven

and the Earth in 6 days. But the verses below stated-

Quran 41: 9 Is it that ye deny Him who created the earth in Two Days ?

Quran 41: 10 He set on the (earth) Mountains standing firm high above it, and bestowed

blessing on the earth, and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due

proportion, in FOUR DAYS?

Quran 41: 12 So He completed them (heavens) as seven firmaments in Two days and ?

Now do the math: 2(for earth) + 4(for nourishment) + 2 (for heavens) = 8 days; and not 6

days

Allah?s Days Equal to 1000 Years or 50,000 Years?

Quran 22: 47 A day in the sight of the Lord is like a thousand years of your reckoning.

Quran-32:5: To Him, on a Day, the space whereof will be a thousands years of your rekoning

Quran 70: 4 The angels and the spirit ascend unto him in a day the measure whereof is

Fifty thousands years.

So, which one is it? Is the day of Allah equal to 1,000 earth years or 50,000 earth years?

A resting place for sun WAS CONFIRMED BY HADITHS?

Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 54, Number 421

Sahih Bukhari Hadiths: Abzur Ghifari (ra) narrated: one day Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) asked

me, ?Abzar do you know after setting where does Sun go?? I replied, I do not know, only

Allah?s apostle can say better. Then Prophet (SA) replied, ?After setting, the sun remains

prostrated under Allah's Arosh(THRONE) and waits for Allah?s command for rising again in

the East. Day will come when sun will not get permission to rise again and Qeyamot will

fall upon Earth?.

Sahih Al Bukhari - Volume 7, Book 71, Number 590:

Narrated Anas: “The climate of Medina did not suit some people, so the Prophet ordered

them to follow his shepherd, i.e. his camels, and drink their milk and urine. So they

followed the shepherd that is the camels and drank their milk and urine till their bodies

became healthy. Then they killed the shepherd and drove away the camels. When the news

reached the Prophet he sent some people in their pursuit. When they were brought, he cut

their hands and feet and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron.

Can anybody tell me what is it? Waiting for ur responses.

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24:35 – “God is the light of the heavens and the earth; a likeness of His light is as a niche in which is a lamp, the lamp is in a glass, (and) the glass is as it were a brightly shining star, lit from a blessed olive-tree, neither eastern nor western, the oil whereof almost gives light though fire touch it not – light upon light God guides to His light whom He pleases, and God sets forth parables for men, and God is Cognizant of all things.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 24:35:

The great mystery of existence, its eternal origin and infinite permanence is described in the most comprehensive and eloquent parable of light, which contains layer upon layer of allegorical comparisons to make apparent to man the purpose of the great author of the universe. The physical light is but a reflection of the true light in the realm of reality, and that true light is God. The performance of light is to manifest. It is God who manifests the universe. The human beings can only think of the factors of the spiritual world in terms of the phenomenal experience obtainable through physical senses; and in the phenomenal world light is the purest thing known to man. Due to the limitations of human experience man cannot see the real light but perceive only the lighted objects. So the physical experience is an illusion, because physical light has drawbacks incidental to its physical nature. It is dependent upon some source external to itself; it is a passing phenomenon; if it is taken to be a form of motion or energy it is unstable, like all physical phenomena; and it is dependent on space and time. The perfect light of God is free from any such defects. It prevails everywhere. It envelops everything. It is independent of time and space. The niche (meshkat) is the recess in the wall, high from the ground in the house. The divine light, according to the parable, is placed high above everything, all that which has been created, the whole universe. The lamp is the core of the real illumination. It is placed inside a glass which protects it from any outside interference or disturbance (refer to Saff: 8). The illumination shines bright like a star. In this world, governed by the laws of cause and effect, it becomes natural to know what makes the lamp burn, as no lamp burns without oil. So to give man the idea of causative factor of the generation of light, it is said that the oil of the blessed tree of olive keeps the lamp alive. It is said that after the great flood, the olive tree was the first to grow on the earth. This mystic olive is not localised. It is neither of the east nor of the west. It is universal like the light of God.

The light of wisdom (the Quran) in the heart of the Holy Prophet is as protected as the lamp in the glass. Verses 77 to 79 of al-Waqi’ah clearly state that the Quran is a protected book; and no one can touch it save the thoroughly purified, the Ahlul-Bayt, according to the verse 33 of Ahzab. Therefore the true interpretation of “light upon light” is the Holy Prophet and his Ahlul-Bayt. It is further made clear in the next verse.

For “God guides whom He wills to His light” see the commentary of al-Baqarah: 256 and 257-he who believes in God, indeed, has taken hold of the firmest handhold (or rope) which will not break off. God brings them out of the darkness into light-It is obvious that those who are guided unto His light are the thoroughly purified ones. They alone are the manifestations of the real light. Those who follow these reflection of the divine light receive guidance from the grace of God to the extend or degree of their sincere attachment to them. Salman was the only companion of the Holy Prophet who achieved the distinction of becoming one of the Ahlul-Bayt.

The Holy Prophet said:

“My Ahlul-Bayt are like the ark of Noah. Whosoever sails on it is safe, and whosoever holds back shall perish.”

Nabuwwah and imamah, jointly or separately, are the most perfect guidance unto the light of God. God Himself chooses and appoints the guide, but His choice is not arbitrary. There are conditions which have to be fulfilled. Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 124. When God appointed Ibrahim as an Imam after testing his faith and awareness, for the whole mankind, he requested God to continue this august office in his progeny. God agreed to do so, but “it is a covenant which shall not reach the unjust (dhalem)” was added. According to verse 13 of Luqman polytheism is the greatest injustice (dhulm), therefore as explained in detail in the commentary of al-Baqarah: 124 the Ahlul-Bayt of the Holy Prophet was the only group which never worshipped any ghayrallah. Those who had worshipped idols at any time in their lives could not be chosen as Imams at all, but after becoming Muslims if they had accepted the Imams of the Ahlul-Bayt as their guides, and followed them, then, according to the degree of their sincerity and awareness, they are entitled to occupy suitable position in the journey towards the enlightenment available from the light of God. Mere verbal profession of faith in God without attachment to the Ahlul-Bayt is as bad as hypocrisy.

The existence of the supreme being has been compared to light in order to make human intellect understand a great attribute of God, otherwise He is the inconceivable absolute who has created the light. Light is His manifestation. It is not His being.

Agha Mahdi Pouya says:

To know the proper application of Ayah an-Nour the following points should be kept in view:

(i) It is a parable.

(ii) A parable implies several applications corresponding to various aspects.

(iii) The light should be understood in its widest sense, as a self-evident being which is evident by itself, and through which other beings become evident.

(iv) The light emanating from a source may pass through transparent or opaque mediums. Generally it is not serviceable when it passes through an opaque medium but is profitable when it goes through a transparent medium.

Transparent mediums have different degrees of transparency. Better conductivity depends on the degree of refinement and purification of the medium.

There may be a source or cause which produces the light. It may also be self-illuminating.

(vii) Usually light proceeding from a source illuminates a particular area, leaving other areas unlighted.

(viii) The source of the light, in this verse, is not localised. It is neither of the east nor the west-not any particular area or direction. See my note in Maryam: 16 to 40.

(ix) The parable is applicable to the process of creation as well as to guidance and also to legislation in order to regulate human behaviour both as an individual and as a member of society.

(x) Light as a symbol of guidance is one of the attributes of God. It is manifested in both the realms of creation and legislation.

God is the light through which every created being comes into evidence, and every being is guided toward the destination where it should reach. To reach to the destination of salvation, bliss and satisfaction it has to do that which guidance points out.

In every realm and sphere there is a point in which the light of creation or guidance manifests itself originally, and then illuminates the surroundings. Niche (meshkat) refers to this “point” as the exalted holy place chosen for the manifestation of God’s name and attributes. There should be an entity whose cognitive self becomes the focus of light. Such entities have been pointed out clearly in Ahzab: 33 and Aale ‘Imran: 61 as the first and the foremost in receiving the light of existence in the arc of descent and the-last in the arc of ascent. In the realm of creation they are the best entities or “points” in which the light of creation manifested itself originally. In the realm of legislation and guidance too they are the best models.

If applied to any individual the niche is the power of expression and the “house” (in which the niche is situated) is the body.

If applied to the group of the Ahlul-Bayt and the prophets, the niche in the house is the Holy Prophet.

The divine light passed through the purest transparent chain of prophets, without any detour, and manifested itself in its full glory in the Holy Prophet, to illuminate the human society for ever.

All the mediums-lamp, glass etcetera-which are the various stages between the original source and the final spreading of the light should be of the highest transparency so as not to affect the purity of light passing through them. It implies that the minds, hearts, loins and wombs of the ancestors of the Holy Prophet were free from the dirt of polytheism.

The house in which the niche always remained is described in verse 36. There always exists a group of persons whose hearts and minds are fully occupied with the remembrance of God.

The niche is the source of light, and the oil of the blessed tree is a pure “light above light.” There is not a slightest trace of darkness. Darkness or evil exists outside the sphere of the houses in which the niche is located and cannot enter into it.

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The night of power

97:1-5 – “Surely We revealed it on the grand night. And what will make you comprehend what the grand night is? The grand night is better than a thousand months. The angels and Gabriel descend in it by the permission of their Lord for every affair. Peace! It is until the break of the morning.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 97:1-5:

Qadr is power, honour, glory, grandeur.

Refer to the commentary of Dukhan: 3 to 6 and references mentioned therein to have a clear understanding about the doctrine of determinism propagated by a large number of Muslim schools of thought; and also the true, rational and Islamic article of faith based on divine ‘adl (justice) presented by the Ahlul-Bayt that man has been given a free will to do good or do evil on the basis of which or as a consequence of which he will be examined on the day of judgement. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2 on page 20; and 5 on page 24; and 21 on page 55.

Laylat al-Qadr means the night of power or grandeur. As verses 2 and 3 suggest it is, in the spiritual sense, a secret kept hidden, and it transcends time because in it God’s power dispels the darkness of ignorance through His revelation.

Jalaluddin as-Suyouti, in Durr al-Manthour, says that Laylat al-Qadr stands for the Holy Prophet and his Ahlul-Bayt.

Agha Mahdi Pouya says:

The Night of Qadr is in the month of Ramadhan. See Baqarah: 185 and Dukhan: 1 to 3 wherein it is stated that the whole Quran was revealed in this night. The descension of the angels and the spirit is a regular occurrence since the creation of God until the day of resurrection, and the place of descent is a thoroughly purified heart (Ahzab: 33). Therefore there should be such a purified heart in existence at all times.

Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Baqer said:

“Present this surah as a decisive argument for the continuity of the divine vicegerency on the earth.”

The 19th, 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th night of Ramadhan is the Night of Qadr.

The whole Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet in this night but he used to recite or convey to the people only such passages or verses as he was commanded by God through Gabriel. It is known as gradual revelation. Refer to the commentary of Baqarah: 2 and Agha Pouya’s essay “The Genuineness of the Holy Quran.”

Verse 2 suggests that the spiritual nature of this night and its value is known to God only.

Quoting Sajdah: 4, 5 and Ma’arej: 4, ‘Abdullah Yousuf ‘Ali says that “a thousand months” refers to “timeless time.” One moment of enlightenment under God’s light is better than thousands of months or years of animal life, and such a moment converts the night of darkness into a period of spiritual glory.

The Imams of Ahlul-Bayt have asked their followers to pray to God and invoke His forgiveness and blessings during the Night of Qadr.

It is said that angels and holy spirits descend on the earth with peace and special blessings from God for those who seek God’s mercy and bounties through prayers and supplications during this night. In the month of Ramadhan the believers fast, pray and do good, therefore God sends down His forgiveness, mercy and blessings on those believers who obey His commands, and the boon of blessings and bounties promised to the sincere devotees of God continues until the rising of the dawn.

When the spiritual darkness is dispelled by the light from God, a sense of security and peace dawns on the soul.

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66:8 – “Oh you who believe! turn to God a sincere turning; maybe your Lord will remove from you your evil and cause you to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, on the day on which God will not abase the Prophet and those who believe with him; their light shall run on before them and on their right hands; they shall say: Our Lord! Make perfect for us our light, and grant us protection, surely Thou hast power over all things.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 66:8:

The oft-forgiving Lord invites man to turn to Him with sincere repentance so that He may bestow His grace on him and forgive his sins. Sincere repentance implies giving up and discontinuing of evil in thought and action with a firm determination not to repeat it ever again. If it is done then God will wipe off his past sins and admit him to the eternal land of bliss and happiness.

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said:

“A sincere repentant never sins again as the milk drawn from the breast never can go back to its source.”

Imam ‘Ali (as) said:

“A sincere repentant (i) is ashamed of his past sins, (ii) takes up the duties overlooked and fulfils them, (iii) makes good the wilfully ignored conditions of a trust managed by him, (iv) forgives those who provoke him, (v) does not demand repayment of loans from those who are in financial distress, (vi) makes firm determination not to sin ever again, (vii) surrenders his self to the adoration, devotion and service of God when it had swelled to the point of exploding due to inordinate consumption of worldly pleasures, transgression and disobedience.”

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36:47 – “And when it is said to them: Spend out of what God has given you, those who disbelieve say to those who believe: Shall we feed him whom, if God please, He could feed? You are in naught but clear error.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 36:47:

When those granted affluence are told to spend what God has given them for the benefit of their fellow beings, they laugh and indirectly blame God for not being merciful to provide the poor as He has done to the rich. Such people think that what God had provided them by His grace and mercy, was earned by them through their own personal merits.

Everything, given to any one, is a trust. Those who have possessions and those who are less favoured are on probation and trial. Those apparently less favoured may be really more fortunate because the true value of the worldly possessions, exaggerated by “the man of the world,” in fact, is a great burden, and very insignificant in the eyes of God compared to the patience and self-reliance man cultivates in himself to earn God’s pleasure. Very few of those who have large possessions in this world will come out successful from the examination of the day of reckoning.

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Those who know the truth and yet deny it...

2:75-77 - “Do you then hope that they would believe in you, and a party from among them indeed used to hear the Word of God, then altered it after they had understood it, and they know (this). And when they meet those who believe they say: We believe, and when they are alone one with another they say: Do you talk to them of what God has disclosed to you that they may contend with you by this before your Lord? Do you not then understand? Do they not know that God knows what they keep secret and what they make known?”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 2:75:

People who are not aware of the truth readily become believers when they see the light of truth, but those who know the truth and yet deny it remain disbelievers.

The Jews and the Christians of Arabia were expecting the advent of the Holy Prophet, in view of the prophecies made by Moses, Jesus and other Prophets, (see al-Baqarah: 40), therefore, they used to warn the pagans:

“Wait! The promised one comes and punishes you all for your wickedness.”

Their attitude towards Islam, before hejrah, was not hostile, if not friendly, but as the influence and the power of the Muslims increased, they stopped talking about the prophecies mentioned in their scriptures and prevented others from referring to them. Though yuharrifunahu here means misinterpretation and not any material change in the wording, yet it is proved that the pre-Islamic scriptures had been misinterpreted (tahrif ma’nawi) as well as tampered with by omission, addition, and substitution of letters, words and sentences (tahrif lafzi), as mentioned in the Encyclopaedia Britannica and the periodicals published by the Watch Tower Society. What has been discovered today after extensive research by independent scholars has been disclosed by the Quran in this verse.

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 2:76:

Those Jews, who only pretended to have accepted Islam, had close relations with the rabbis. In their meetings, the clever rabbis, as stated in the commentary of al-Baqarah: 42, reprimanded the less-careful converts for their unscrupulous uttering’s about the prophecies written in their scriptures regarding the advent of the Holy Prophet. They were afraid of giving the believers, through such disclosures, an upper hand at the time of argumentation, which could make the true seekers of the truth among them go into the fold of Islam in sincerity.

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 2:77:

In continuation of verses 75 and 76 of this surah this verse says that the truth will prevail in spite of the false notion of the Jews that if they do not make known the prophecies about the advent of Muhammad, the last prophet of God, the people will never accept Islam.

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26:221-227 – “Shall I inform you (of him) upon whom the Satans descend? They descend upon every lying, sinful one, they incline their ears, and most of them are liars. And as to the poets, those who go astray follow them. Do you not see that they wander about bewildered in every valley? And that they say that which they do not do, except those who believe and do good and remember God much, and defend themselves after they are oppressed; and they who act unjustly shall know to what final place of turning they shall turn back.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary:

Agha Mahdi Pouya says:

These verses refer to the promptings of the devil, its nature and consequences.

Poetry and other arts are not in themselves evil when used in the cause and service of God, His servants and righteousness as mentioned in verse 227. If the poets are insincere and are divorced from actual life, its goodness and serious purpose, they become instruments of evil, then they seek the dark depths of wickedness rather than the heights of enlightenment and goodness. In pagan Arabia they were held in esteem and awe. They were believed to be under the power of jinn. Before Islam they were the leaders of their tribes. ‘Abdullah ibn Zubayr, Abu Sufyan ibn Hareth, Zuhayrah ibn Abi Wahhab and Sami ibn ‘Abd-Manaf used to compose poems in praise of idols and in denunciation of their enemies, always indulging in fancies and phantasms divorced from truth. They very often painted viciousness so vividly and alluringly as to excite passions and darken the intellect and erode the power of reasoning. They used to condemn the Holy Prophet and his faithful followers.

Husayn ibn Thabet and ibn Rawahel, the two famous Muslim poets, came to the Holy Prophet and sought his advice concerning their future involvement in writing poetry.

The Holy Prophet (S) said:

“You compose poetry in praise of God and righteousness and in condemnation of falsehood.”

The unjust tyrants and persecutors of the Ahlul-Bayt, Yazid ibn Mu’awiyah being the most accursed among them, will be wiped out as if they never existed, as has been foretold in verse 227.

Agha Mahdi Pouya says:

Those poets who remember God in their verses, highlight the sufferings of the oppressed, condemn the persecutors and beliers of the truth and the truthful, have been excluded from the category of the poets mentioned above.

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2:245 – “Who is it that would loan God a goodly loan so He may multiply it for him many times over? And it is God who withholds and grants abundance, and to Him you will be returned.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 2:245:

“Qardhan hasanan,” a goodly loan, is given without any consideration for its repayment, or time of repayment. In fact, it is completely forgotten as soon as it is given. The rewards of a goodly loan, offered to God to seek His pleasure only, are manifold. It brings about echoes of the goodness of the creator. The return from the merciful Lord corresponds to the purity and sincerity of the intention of the lender. This goodly loan, in this verse, refers to the spending in the way of God and striving in the cause of God.

To restrict or increase the means of subsistence is exclusively in the hands of God.

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6:60 – “And He it is Who takes your souls at night (in sleep), and He knows what you acquire in the day, then He raises you up therein that an appointed term may be fulfilled; then to Him is your return, then He will inform you of what you were doing.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 6:60:

This verse confirms the meaning of tawaffa referred to in verse 55 of Aale ‘Imran - to take away. tawaffa does not always mean death.

As the rest of His creation is subject to His law and plan, so is man’s life at every moment, awake or asleep. We go to sleep by night (He takes our souls) with the record of all we have done in our waking moments, and by day we awaken again to our activities, and so it goes on until we fulfil the term of our life appointed for this world. Then comes death with the full record of our whole life; and then in the end, comes the final awakening on the day of reckoning.

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42:13 – “He has made plain to you of the religion what He enjoined upon Noah and that which We have revealed to you and that which We enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus that keep to obedience and be not divided therein; hard to the unbelievers is that which you call them to; God chooses for Himself whom He pleases, and guides to Himself him who turns (to Him), frequently.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 42:13:

The religion preached by the Holy Prophet was the same in essence, given to Noah, Abraham, Moses or Jesus. They all preached the unity (tawhid) of God and admonished their followers to do good and shun evil. Every religion was named by its followers after their prophet’s departure from this world, but Islam was named by God – see Baqarah: 112; Aale ‘Imran: 19; Nisa: 125 and Maedah: 3 – when the religion of God was perfected and completed. It implies that all other religions, prior to Islam, were in the state of transition.

John 16:5 to 14 clearly show that Jesus, before leaving this world, gave the news of the advent of the spirit of truth, the comforter, who would certainly come and guide all mankind into all the truth, for he would not speak on his own authority, but tell only what he heard from the Lord.

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3:7 – “He it is Who has revealed the Book to you; some of its verses are decisive, they are the basis of the Book, and others are allegorical; then as for those in whose hearts there is perversity they follow the part of it which is allegorical, seeking to mislead and seeking to give it (their own) interpretation. But none knows its interpretation except God, and those who are firmly rooted in knowledge say: We believe in it, it is all from our Lord; and none do mind except those having understanding.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 3:7:

As explained in the commentary of verse 2 of al-Baqarah the Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet. He knew the true meaning of every verse, or after him, it was ‘Ali who claimed that he knew when, why and for whom every verse of the Quran was revealed.

Most of the verses of the Quran are clear and decisive. There is no ambiguity in them. They are known as the muhkamat. They relate to the fundamentals of the faith, such as the oneness of God, the directions pertaining to the practice of the faith and the laws governing the day to day life of the faithful. They can neither be changed nor modified. Any man of average intelligence can understand and follow them.

The mutashabehat are the verses which have been composed in subtle and profound diction and style. They carry implications other than the literal meanings, and therefore, are capable of giving different significations, like “The hand of God is on their hands” in verse 10 of al-Fath. Verse 1 of al-Houd says that the Quran is a book of clear and decisive verses. Verse 23 of az-Zumar says that God has sent down the very best discourse as a book conformable in its repetition and consimilarity. Only the men of understanding who possess a higher level of intelligence contemplate and find out the meaningful implications of such verses. Average and ordinary minds cannot figure out or have knowledge of the real purport of such verses, and if they try this on their own, they are bewildered and go astray. As mentioned in the commentary of verse 1 of al-Baqarah, the hurouf muqatta’at are also meaningful but their subtle and profound meanings are known to God and His chosen representatives only. Therefore, those who know the true purport of these symbolic letters occupy the highest position in the domain of knowledge and wisdom. In the well-known tradition of thaqalayn the Holy Prophet has clearly made known the fact that whoso remains attached with the Quran and his Ahlul-Bayt, after his departure from this world, will never go astray, because these two weighty authorities will never be separated from each other, and joined together, they shall meet the Holy Prophet at the spring of Kawthar; and “I am the city of knowledge and ‘Ali is its gate,” said the Holy Prophet in order to guide the faithful so that, to have knowledge of the Quran, they must refer to ‘Ali and his Ahlul-Bayt, who alone know the true meanings of the mutashabehat.

Zaygh means disease, perversity, evil, and wicked intention, the inclination to go against the truth and to blunder, revolt and go astray. Fitnah means to create mischief, or to create difference of opinion and to mislead.

“None knows its interpretation except God and those (who are) firmly rooted in knowledge,” renders null and void all attempts made by scholars to discover the true meanings of the mutashabehat. The firmly rooted in knowledge are those whom God Himself gives the knowledge, as verse 49 of al-‘Ankabout says: But it is clear revelations in the hearts of those who have been given knowledge. Therefore, the observation of the Ahmadi commentator that reading various passages in the light of each discover the true significance of ambiguous passages, is based upon his inclination to go out of the right course. The Christians also try in vain to assign divinity to Jesus by calculating the numerical value of the hurouf muqatta’at, and misinterpret the complex verses to suit their dubious theories.

Agha Mahdi Pouya says:

Nothing in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from God, the self-subsisting, because He is the author of the book of creation (the development of the embryo has been mentioned in the previous verse as an example). In this verse He says that the author of the book of creation is also the author of the book of legislation (the Quran).

The book of creation (the universe) contains miscellaneous signs. Some are clear. Some are intricate and perplexing. For example (in the book of creation) the function and the significance of every part of the human structure has been studied and defined except the “appendix.” Now a rational student of the book of creation will say:

“As no part is without some significance, this also must have some meaning, though I have not yet understood it.”

On the contrary a mischief-maker will mix up that which is known with that which is not known and deny both by saying:

“As no reason or significance is found in this part, therefore, there is no reason or significance in the whole.”

Likewise in the book of legislation, some signs (verses) are clear and decisive (muhkam), and some have several possible meanings (mutashabeh), therefore, the rational mind will try to understand the mutashabeh (unclear) verses in the light of the muhkam (clear and decisive) verses, by proceeding from the known to the unknown or from the concrete to the abstract; but the perverse mind will judge that which is certainly precise and definite in the light of the complex so as to mislead people by dubious misinterpretations.

Verse 1 of al-Houd says that all the verses of the book are well arranged and firmly established. The arrangement of the words in the verses and the verses in the surahs is so accurate and proper that they all form a consistent unity, though they were separately revealed. It implies that the Quran was already arranged and established before its revelation, which is confirmed by verse 105 of Bani Israil. In verse 23 of az-Zumar, the book is presented as consistent, consimilar and conformable in its parts (mutashabehan). But in this verse mutashabehat refers to the meanings, the implications, the connotations and the denotations of the complex passages. Muhtam (clear) and mutashabeh (complex) are relative terms. What is unclear to some may be apparent and definite to others. There may be quite a few features and viewpoints inherent in certain ideas, or commands, or narrations. Studying them from a particular angle will make their meaning and purpose crystal clear but their clarity may turn into obscurity when they are viewed from another standpoint. At all events, the complex should be examined and interpreted in the light of that which is clear and decisive, or as explained by the Holy Prophet, or by those whose authority has been established by the Holy Prophet and the Quran (see pages 1 to 7, commentary of verses 6 and 7 of al-Fatehah, and verses 2, 30 to 37 and 124 of al-Baqarah). In the light of verses 16 to 19 of al-Qiyamah, the divine agency collects, recites and interprets the Quran. As the book is a guidance for mankind, there should be no unintelligible or incomprehensible passage in it. There is none. As asserted by the Ahlul-Bayt, rasekhouna fil-‘ilm is conjuncted with God and yaqulouna is an adverbial clause qualifying the state of knowledge, referring to rasekhoun. In the Nahj al-Balaghah, ‘Ali ibn Abi Taleb says that the rasekhouna fil-‘ilm believe in the unknown in the light of the known. As explained in the commentary of verse 3 of al-Baqarah the knowledge of the ghayb (unknown) is with the infinite, therefore, the awareness of the finite created beings, even if they are endowed with the divine insight, cannot be at par with the absolute wisdom of the ghaybul-mutlaq, the hayyul-qayyoum creator. All that which becomes (in obedience) effective, as soon as He wills, is knowable to man. A finite being can know as much as the infinite all-wise likes him to know and grow in knowledge, which implies that basically his knowledge was insufficient but he rises towards the level of perfection, with the help of divine endowment, on his own merits, to become aware of the meanings of all that which has been revealed in the book, because, if it is not so, such revelations (mutashabehat) would be unprofitable and frustrating. So what Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Taleb and Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Baqer have said in this connection is true.

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67:12 – “(As for) those who fear their Lord in secret, they shall surely have forgiveness and a great reward.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 67:12:

To fear the Lord is to love Him so dearly as not to do anything which is against His will, because though He cannot be seen with bodily senses, His presence is felt intensely by the true believer in his heart.

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57:16 – “Has not the time yet come for those who believe that their hearts should be humble for the remembrance of God and what has come down of the truth? And that they should not be like those who were given the Book before, but the time became prolonged to them, so their hearts hardened, and most of them are transgressors.”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 57:16:

According to ibn ‘Abbas this verse was revealed after thirteen years, and according to ibn Mas’oud after fourteen years, from the day the Holy Prophet (pbuh) began his mission. It shows how shallow was the faith of the companions, like the faith of the Jews who became arrogant and corrupt; and their hearts grew hard.

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2:30 – “And when your Lord said to the angels, I am going to place in the earth a caliph, they said: ‘What! Wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, and we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy holiness?’ He said: ‘Surely I know what you do not know.’”

Agha Mahdi Pouya and Mir Ahmad ‘Ali’s Commentary: 2:30:

To understand this verse the following explanations should be carefully studied:

Angels

Angels, according to the Quran, are finite creatures, devoid of substance, in the sense of matter, therefore, imperceptible by our senses.

An Ahmadi commentator describes the angels as energy without any freedom of will and consciousness, which proves untrue in view of the reply the angels gave to God’s declaration about His will to send a khalifah on the earth. It means that the angels have been endowed with freedom of will to give expression to their views whenever they choose to do so, and that they are liable to err, because God told them that they did not know what God knew when they made known their opinion.

In whatever manner created and wherever found, the angels, finite creatures of light, endowed with consciousness and intelligence, act to fulfil the divine plan. They take any physical form (except pigs, dogs and other base animals) to become visible to human vision, but belong to the celestial realm.

Jinn

Jinn are also conscious beings. Angels are made of light, therefore, on account of their illuminating gracious nature only good comes out from them. Jinn are made of fire, therefore, more often than not, evil is associated with them. They can also take any physical form, including debased animals. The word malaek is derived from the Arabic malk, not from the Hebrew root alaka. The meaning of malk, mulk, milk and malakout is possession, which is also ownership or holding. The holding authority is malik or maalik or malak, who is also the owner or the sovereign, exclusively used by the Quran to refer to God. The whole universe is milk or mulk and the holder is the absolute owner, God. Between the absolute owner and the held mulk there are dominions over which the intermediary authorities exercise control, with God’s consent, in relation to the dominion above them. Each of these dominions is termed as malakout and each holding authority is called malak. The pagans worship these malaek, under misconceived conclusion, as the independent authorities, either the sons or the daughters of the absolute authority, who can speak or advocate on their behalf to the king of kings. It is because they do not have the insight, or true guidance, to view the spiritual world, as pointed out by verses 26 to 31 of an-Najm.

God alone holds the authority. No interceding authority shall be accepted by Him, save those to whom He Himself has delegated the authority, according to verse 87 of Maryam and such other verses in the Quran.

Therefore worship of no one is acceptable, in Islam, save the worship of God.

God’s Announcement

The angels as conscious beings are the intermediary agents in the process of development and administration of the physical world, operating under the laws of cause and effect; therefore, God informed them about the creation of Adam, a new phase, and says:

“I am appointing a vicegerent in the earth.”

It was in the knowledge of the angels that struggle and conflict among the living beings in the pre-Adam period brought about bloodshed and destruction. Many a religious school confirms that there were semi-men, jinn and demons (‘afrit) before the advent of Adam, on the earth.

According to some traditions they were living beings of furious nature and fiery temperament, devoid of intellect, reasoning and contemplation, fighting each other for survival. The angels who always worship God and carry out His orders presumed that Adam would also be like the above noted creatures. God rightly points out their ignorance about the excellence of the vicegerency He has bestowed upon Adam.

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