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In the Name of God بسم الله

Availability of burial space

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I suppose this is the correct forum.  In modern times, with rules and regulations, one can't simply bury someone anywhere they want.  Nor can grave sites be reused for multiple people.  Looking to the future, where burial space will likely come at a premium cost, and be too much for some families, what are Islamicly viable options?

I know in some places they have these above ground burial containers.  It's almost like a morgue, with a wall full of burial chambers that people go into.  So you can put it several people high and side to side, and maximize space that way.  I would think that would be halal if there is dirt in the coffin?

Then there are "green" burials.  I actually like this because there is very little waste, it allows for you to go back to the earth from which you are made, and I think the grounds can be reused, in a sense.  You don't get a grave stone, but they do mark the location with an underground beacon that anyone can find later.  Can also have a tree planted on top.  

I'm pretty sure cremation is haram.  To be done in a modern way it does require a lot of very high heat.  When I've seen hindus do it, there's a lot of wood, but I doubt they get fully cremated.

Does one need to be buried in a "Muslim" cemetary?  Or is it just preferred?

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Sistani

Question: A Muslim dies in a non-Muslim city that has no Muslim graveyard and the family of the deceased cannot transfer the body to a Muslim country because it cannot afford the cost of transportation. In such cases, is it obligatory upon the Islamic centers that are responsible for Muslims’ affairs to provide the cost of transportation? And is this obligatory upon the Muslims who reside in that city?

Answer: If burying the deceased in an appropriate grave in that same city or other city (excluding non-Muslim graveyards) depends on spending some money, and neither has he left any estate that can pay for it nor are the heirs capable of providing for it—then it is wãjib kifã’i upon the Muslims to provide for it. And it is permissible to count it from the religious or charitable dues applicable to him.

Question: A Muslim died in a non-Muslim city that has no Muslim graveyard; and although it is possible to transfer the body to a Muslim country for burial but the cost of transportation is exorbitant—is this a sufficient [reason] for burying the body in the graveyard of non-Muslims?

Answer: This is not a sufficient [reason]. He cannot be buried in a non-Muslim graveyard.

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On 6/20/2024 at 9:07 AM, coldcow said:

You don't get a grave stone, but they do mark the location with an underground beacon that anyone can find later.  Can also have a tree planted on top.  

Salam you can plant a tree over grave of a muslim which even now in Iran people are planting tree over grave of deceased person .

On 6/20/2024 at 9:07 AM, coldcow said:

Nor can grave sites be reused for multiple people.  Looking to the future, where burial space will likely come at a premium cost, and be too much for some families, what are Islamicly viable options?

Generally every grave can be reused every 30 years ; if after exhuming it after 30 years there will be no trace of corpse in grave . 

According to Ayatollah Nakarem Shirazi

1- Re-burial in the old cemetery Question: In a cemetery where the corpses have been buried for a hundred years, can we re-bury the dead in it?

Answer: There is no problem. If the remains of the corpses have been destroyed.

2- Burial in another dead person's grave after 30 years Question: In some countries, it is customary that the dead person's grave is used to bury a new dead person after thirty years have passed. Is there any problem in exhuming the grave after the above period?

Answer: If it is accepted that the effects of the deceased have completely disappeared during this period, there is no obstacle.

3- Burying the dead in a martyr's grave after 30 years Question: Is it possible to exhume a martyr's grave after 30 years and bury another dead body in the grave of that martyr?

Answer: If they do not touch Lahad and bury someone over the Lahad  and it is not considered an insult to the martyr, there is no problem.

Quote

Laḥad (Arabic: لَحَد) is a rectangle hole dug at the bottom of the grave to the side facing the qibla where Muslims burry the body of a dead one of theirs. The philosophy of closing lahad is known to be that the soil does not reach the corpse.

Muslim jurists have considered closing of lahad recommended and Shia jurists have advised it to be hardened with mud and to recite a special du'a while placing lahad stones.

Meaning

Lahad is a rectangle hole dug at the side of the bottom of the grave. To create lahad, the side of the bottom of the grave which faces the qibla is dug in rectangle form to a size which fits the body of the dead one.[1]

Adobes, stones or the like with which lahad is covered are called lahad stones.[2]

 

On 6/20/2024 at 9:07 AM, coldcow said:

  I would think that would be halal if there is dirt in the coffin?

It's not Halal that dirt touches body of dead muslim which Shias are using Lahad for protection of corpse from touching by dirt .

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Lahad

Accodinf to Ayatollah Sistani in special  condition ; if burying dead person in th ground is not possible so then he/she can be put in a building  (morgue) or coffin .

Quote

Issue 602 - It is obligatory to bury the dead in the ground in such a way that his smell does not come out, and that predators cannot take out his body, and if there is a fear that animals will take out his body, they should strengthen the grave with bricks and the like. .


Issue 603 - If it is not possible to bury the dead in the ground, they can put him in a building [morgue] or a coffin instead of burying him.

Issue 605 - If someone dies on a ship, if his body does not rot and his being on the ship is not an obstacle, then they should wait until they reach land and bury him in the ground, otherwise they should bathe him on the ship and shroud him after Reciting the dead man's prayer , they should put him in a vat (big pot) and close the door and throw him into the sea, or tie something heavy to his feet and throw him into the sea, and if possible, he should be thrown in a place where he will not be immediately preyed upon by animals.

https://www.sistani.org/persian/book/50/27/

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Addndum

Reburial acoding to Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi

https://portal.anhar.ir/node/15519/?ref=sbttl#gsc.tab=0

https://www.tabnak.ir/fa/news/891476/فتاوای-آیت-الله-العظمی-مکارم-شیرازی-مدظله-در-مورد-دفن-در-قبر-مرده-دیگر

 

A person is buried in the grave of his father who died 50 years ago. But after the burial, they notice small pieces of the bones of the previous corpse that remained and were not buried. What is the task now?
question
Hello,  father of my wife died last year. We had no place to bury him except the grave of his father who died about 50 years ago. His grave was dug with the consent of the people around him, of course I was not present during the exhumation and  grave digger has exhumed the grave, the bones in the grave were put in a bag, they dug a small pit under the body of the my wife's father and buried his father's bones, but due to The carelessness of the grave digger after burying the my wife's father  and pouring dirt on his grave, small pieces of bones from the previous body were left on the dirt. We only knew that a dead person's grave can be exhumed after 30 years, but now that I have inquired, it is said that the bones of the dead body must have been turned into dust  in order to do this, while the leg bones of the dead body were almost intact and strong. What should I do with this unknown error?
Brief answer
In the assumption of the question, it is necessary to re-bury all the bones that have been appeared (even elsewhere) and you have no more duty than this.
Appendices:
The answer of the great Marjas of Taqlid to this question is as follows:[1]
Grand Ayatollah Khamenei:
It is necessary to bury all the bones that have been appeared and you have no more duty than this.
Grand Ayatollah Sistani:
You don't have to do anything.
Hazrat  Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi :
And in the premise of the question, it is necessary to bury the bones of the dead and they have no other duty than that.

https://www.islamquest.net/fa/archive/fa43975

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On 6/20/2024 at 5:37 PM, coldcow said:

I'm pretty sure cremation is haram.  To be done in a modern way it does require a lot of very high heat.  When I've seen hindus do it, there's a lot of wood, but I doubt they get fully cremated.

Yeah it's undoubtedly is Haram anyway in countries likewise Japan  china , it's doing it by industrial cremation (ovens) machines which although of full cremation it's Haram .

 

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