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In the Name of God بسم الله

Historicity of the Prophets (S)

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Does anyone know how to refute claims of archaeologists who say that Prophets like Musa (عليه السلام) and Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and others never existed (Astaghfirullah) because they couldn't find records or archaeological evidence, and that the Torah as it is now wasn't really compiled until after the Babylonian Exile. They claimed the Prophets were made up as part of a coping mechanism by the Israelites to deal with their losses. They even argued that the Israelites were all originally polytheists but then became monotheists upon contact with the Zoroastrians.

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Majority of  archaeological evidences likewise tombs of Jewish prophets & their other great personalities & synagogues have been located in Iran & Iraq (Mesopotamian region) specially  Wadi Al-Salam Cemetery in Najaf   since Achaemenid /əˈkiːmənɪd/ era which both of Zoroastrians & Jews have had impact on each other in many aspects of life likewise belief system & food & etc which majority of archeologists have neglected these two countries & shia Hadiths about Jewish prophets due to wars & political issues & just relying on sunni sources in narrations .


In Hadiths

In some hadiths, this cemetery is referred to by the term "beyond Kufa", without mentioning the exact name "Wadi al-Salam". For instance, the Hadith narrated by al-Majlisi al-Thani (al-Majlisi II) from al-'Ayyashi: "The first site on earth where God was worshiped was the back of Kufa. When God ordered the angels to prostrate for Adam (a), they obeyed behind Kufa", said Imam 'Ali (a).[5]



Tombs of Hud (a) and Salih (a)

According to some hadiths, two prophet's tombs, Hud (a) and Salih (a), are situated in Wadi l-Salam. In fact, there are two tombs said to belong to these two prophets. Initially, with al-'Allama Bahr al-'Ulum's attempt, a dome and a construction composed of chalk and stone, were built. The construction was renovated with the aid of an Iranian benefactor, and the dome was ornamented with beautiful tiles in 1337/1918-9.[12]



Location and Historical Background

Wadi l-Salam is located in Najaf, a city of IraqImam 'Ali's (a) holy shrine and a street named 'Ali b. Abi Talib are situated in the south of it. It meets the road between Najaf and Karbala from the East, Hay al-Muhandisin region from the North, and former sea of Najaf from the West.

According to hadiths, the background of this cemetery goes back to pre-Islamic era. There are not many historical proofs of its state before Islam; nevertheless, it appears that this place has been a cemetery since long time ago. Some Hadiths have extended its background to the time when the angels prostrated for Adam (a), as in a Hadith said to be from Imam 'Ali (a)[6].

On the basis of some hadiths, some of the prophets have been buried in Wadi l-Salam. As al-Majlisi narrated from al-'Ayyashi, this spot has been a place for Adam's prayer and some of other prophet's coming after him.[7]

Wadi l-Salam Cemetery - wikishia



Shia viewpoint 

What is the proof for Prophet Adam and Nuh ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) being buried in Najaf?
How can we find out whether or not Prophet Adam and Nuh ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) are buried in Najaf?
Concise answer

The main reasoning that proves the burial of Prophet Adam and Nuh ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) in Najaf are the many hadith that disclose this fact.

Detailed Answer


2- Imam Sadiq (عليه السلام) said: “Kufa is a garden of the gardens of paradise. The graves of Prophets Nuh, Ibrahim, and 370 other prophets is there, and Imam Ali’s (عليه السلام) grave is located there.”[2]


Sunni viewpoint


Burial place
Muslims believe that Abraham was buried, along with his wife Sarah, at the Cave of the Patriarchs in the Old City of Hebron, the West Bank. Known to Muslims as the Sanctuary of Abraham it is also thought to be the burial site of his son Isaac, his wife Rebecca, their son Jacob, and his wife Leah.

Abraham in Islam - Wikipediahttps://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Abraham_in_Islam

Habakkuk the Prophet, Hosting Kermanshah's Jews



The word Habakkuk in Hebrew means "embraced". It is said that when Habakkuk the Prophet was a small kid, following the request of his mother, he was given a second life. His mother embraced the dead child and put him in his bed, then she started Teffila and before ending the Teffila, the child was resurrected. This is the reason why the name Habakkuk was given to the child. Habakkuk the Prophet ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)), was appointed as a prophet after Yasheia the Prophet ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) and two years before the birth of Christ.



This was until the Cyrus, Iranian King, conquered Babel and freed the prisoners and motivated them to return to Urshalim. Apparently, the Prophet along with some of his followers headed to go to Iran and they settled at a place currently known as Toyserkan. He passed away and was buried at the same place. His name is mentioned in Torah and he has a high position in Jewish religion.




His shrine is one of the oldest structures of Iranians that goes back to 2500 years ago and considering its interesting architectural style, there is a great possibility that it relates to Seljuks era. The structure is located at southeast of Toyserkan. The grave of this prophet is exactly located in the middle of the courtyard, with a stone placed on the grave and there is an inscription in Farsi and Hebrew. It is said that his father's name was Shioua Lovit, and his mother's name was Lesho Namit.
The shrine is surrounded by an octagonal wall and its dome, but later it was found that there is a big basement underneath, which consists of three parts or three floors, and apparently it has remained untouched and hidden.


Habakkuk the Prophet, Hosting Kermanshah's Jews (iranjewish.com)



Peyghambariyeh or the Four Prophets Mausoleum is a Safavid (1501–1736) structure located west of the Chehel Sotoun monument in Qazvin. It is believed that this is where four Jewish prophets, who brought word of the birth of Jesus Christ to the East, have been buried. This is also where Saleh, one of the sons of the Second Shia Imam Hasan Bin Ali (625- 670 AD), has been buried. The icosagonal structure has elaborate stucco reliefs and a Quranic inscription written in gold over a Persian blue background. The structure was registered as a National Heritage Site in 1996



Salaam, Salum, Sahuli, Alqia:
It appears that these prophets were contemporary with “the companions of the cave”.  Their death’s time was different but after the burying of the first prophet in this place, their followers buried the other prophets next to him. The shrine of these four prophets is located in Qazvin, Peighambarieh St.

Four Prophets Mausoleum | ToIran, Tourism Platform


The buried prophets in Iran

 During the history, Iran sometimes has been counted as a secure country that has welcomed many immigrants. A group of these immigrants were prophets that had chosen Iran for life. In Achaemenian period, among many people were captured by Nebuchadnezzar (Bokhtonnasr) and came to Iran, the prophets and the nobles were seen.
In the following, there is some information about the buried prophets in Iran or their tomb maybe in Iran:

Shem and Lam: (Sim and Lam)
According to the belief of the people of Semnan and also based on the contents of the available inscription, two children of Noah named Shem on Nabi and Lam on Nabi have been buried in a place near Semnan. 





The prophet Khalid (Khalid e Nabi)

Only the Holy Mohammad (P.B.U.H) and Khalid Ibn Sanan were from Arabs and the other prophets were from Bani Israel.

 Khalid Ibn Sanan was contemporary with Anushirvan and has lived in the land of Banighatfan. It was narrated that the daughter of Khalid Ibn Sanan named Mahyah has attended the Holy Mohammad.

About the tomb of  Khalid e Nabi: The great analyst of  Hanafi religion, Sheikh Ishmael Haqqi points about  the  location  of  the tomb of  Khalid e Nabi that this tomb is located in Jorjan area and at the top of a mountain named God Mountain.
The address of the tomb: the Province of Golestan – the town of Kalaleh – towards “Qarequzi Sofla” and “Yoli Bodraq”- 38 Kilometers  of  dirt road to the tomb of  Khalid e nabi (the prophet Khalid).



According to some signs and ahadith, in Fatrat period, no prophet has been chosen as God’s messenger. Although based on the idea of the analysts, during this period, 4 prophets had this mission to propagandize the religion of Jesus Christ that three of them named Simon (Shamun), John (Yuhanna), Jonah (Yunus) were from Bani Israel and the fourth named Khalid Ibn Sanan e Abasi was Arab. 



Joshua (Yusha‘):
According to the idea of some historians, Joshua was freed from the captivity of Nebuchadnezzar (Bokhtonnasr) by Cyrus (Korosh) and came to Iran. Joshua is bruied in historical cemetery of Takht e Foolad in Esfahan that its antiquity goes back before Islam and is located in Imam Sajjad St. The area that Joshua is buried ٫ is named“ Lesan ol Arz”. According to the narrations “ Lesan ol Arz ” is the place that the earth talked with Imam Hasan (p.B.U.H) and informed  him of  approaching the enemy when Imam passed there.



Habakkuk (Hayaquq):
This name has two pronunciations: Hayaquq and Habaquq. The meaning of Habakkuk is “hugged” 

 He lived in Hamedan and after he died, he was buried in Tuysarkan. The tomb of Habakkuk is located in the south-west of the city of Tuysarkan.



Haggai (Hajjy):
He lived in the reign of Darius (Darush) the great. His name in Torah is the Holy “Hakky” and its meaning is “happy”. He was contemporary with Mardkhay. The tomb of this prophet is located in Hamedan near Imam Khomeyni Square, inside Bazaar, in Peighambar row and inside Peighambar mosque.

Mardkhay is one of the nobles and one of the Bani Israel’s prophets that he lived in the reign of Xerxes (Khashayarsha) and he descends from the Holy Jacob (Yaqub). Mardkhay played a great role in preventing the massacre of Jews in the reign of Xrexes and that’s why he is very respectable for Jews. The shrine of Mardkhay and his nephew is located in Hamedan near Imam Khomeyni Square and in Shariati St.

Kedar (Qeydar):
The Holy Kedar is the 30th ancestor of the Holy Mohammad (P.B.U.H). It was said in Yaqubi history: the Holy Ishmael had 12 sons that the oldest was the Holy Kedar and after the Holy Ishmael died, Kedar called the people to theism. The meaning of Kedar is “negro”. The shrine of this holy man is located in the town of Khodabandeh, (Kedar) the Province of Zanjan.



Ishmael (Ismail):
This prophet was contemporary with Taloot and he is related to the story of David (Davood) and Jaloot. There is a tomb almost 50 kilometers of the city of Saveh   in the road of Bouinzahra that according to the saying of the local people and some documents, is the Holy shrine of one of the great prophets named the Holy Ishmael. The way of the shrine is located in mountainous road 9 kilometers of the village of Vardeh. There is an inscription there that indicates the presence of Nasser-ed-Din Shah and his companions.



The deceased Seyyed Abdullah Jazayeri, one of the scholars of Shushtar (died 1173 H.L), in the ninth chapter of “Tazkareye Shushtar’ says: many of Bani Israel’s prophets lived around Shushtar and Dezful, near Dezful river, such as: Isaac, Simon, Jacob, Levi, George and Rubil. It has been said in the book of Alghadir that the tomb of Rubil, Jacob’s son, is in Egypt.



George (Jerjis):
It has been mentioned of the tomb of George in the city of Shushtar in a book named “The culture of villages and religious places of the country.” There is a village in the south-west of Shushtar called George that there is a tomb next to it named the prophet George. There are other tombs such as Rubin, Hezqil, Syuib (Shoaib), Simon (Shamun), Isaac (Is’haq), Enoch (Idris) and Mardkhay around this tomb. It is doubtful in the accuracy of the tomb of George in this place and his tomb is probably in Mosuel, Iraq.


The buried prophets in Iran – Arash Nooraghayee


The Tomb of Daniel is the traditional burial place of the biblical and Islamic[1] prophet Daniel. Various locations have been named for the site, but the tomb in Susa, Iran (Persia), is the most widely accepted, it being first mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Asia between 1160 and 1163.

The Book of Daniel mentions that Daniel lived in Babylon and may have visited the palace of Susa‌, Iran, but the place where he died is not specified; the tradition preserved among the Jews and Arabs is that he was buried in Susa. Today the Tomb of Daniel in Susa is a popular attraction among local Muslims and Iran’s Jewish community alike.

Tomb of Daniel - DibaTravel Tomb of Daniel Tomb of Daniel

Tomb of Daniel | Iran Tour and Travel with IranianTours



List of Islamic prophets buried in Iran - Wikipedia


The most important temples of the Jews in Iran (irantour.tours)

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