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Why didn't Sheikh al-Kulayni directly narrate from Imam Mehdi (AS)?

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17 hours ago, The Alchemist said:

Which other books you mean? What are their names?

Brother, I asked an scholar and he told me book of Al-kafi by a mohaqiq who compiled sahih Ahadith of the book but I forgot the name of the book. You can ask any reputable scholar and they will tell you a book which contains sahih Ahadith of al-kafi. I learned that there are more than 6000 reliable Hadith and 9000 are daif in al-kafi. That much Ahadith are not a small number.

 

17 hours ago, The Alchemist said:

Not my view. Back those pre-printing press days, you know, preserving books required alot of sources. It is a generally held view that those books which were important and exceptional were preserved.

This is just a guess. There is alot of evidence which says that in past circumstances were not as peaceful as today and some books were lost due to those circumstances.

 

17 hours ago, The Alchemist said:

Why did he not avail that advantage by collecting all necessary ahadith from Imam Mehdi (عليه السلام) thereby reducing efforts & time?

As already explained, Imam was under occultation and it was not easy for anyone to contact Imam as governments were anti-Shia. I am sorry to say but Ignoring such a fact is a folly.

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On 8/13/2022 at 9:14 AM, The Alchemist said:

Sheikh al-Kulayni has narrated a vast number of narrations leading to Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (عليه السلام). Did that not involve alot of risk & time? Besides risk & time, it also made the asnaad prone to be weaker due to the increase in number of narrators in them. Perhaps, it is due to this, that scholar like Baqir al-Majlisi has categorised around 58% of al-Kafi as weak and unreliable.

Salam he  has not categorized it in similar fashion of Sunni works which weakeness is equal to unreliabelity but on the other hand it's about choosing strongest hadith between hadiths with same content which in case of finding conflicts between similar hadidths he has choosen strongest hadith between multiple hadith with same content .

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مِرآةُ العُقُول فی شرح اخبار آل الرسول

It is a book in Arabic in the description of Kitab al-Kafi written by Allameh Majlisi. One of the features of this book is document reviews in the form of short sentences, description and breadth in the hard  concepts of  hadiths.

 

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Allameh Majlisi wrote this book based on the four divisions of hadith (authentic - weak - reliable - good). Majlesi states in the introduction of the book: the presence of news in the likes of such valid principles makes it permissible to act on it, but we are forced to refer to their document when there is a conflict to prefer the narrations over each other, because the authenticity of all the narrations in the book does not contradict the fact that some of them are stronger[3]

At the beginning  the book of "مرآة العقول" there were notes and footnotes that Allameh Majlisi wrote on Usul Kafi during teaching of hadiths, which he compiled in an neat and orderly manner at the insistence of his student Mohammad Sadiq.[4]

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/مرآة_العقول_(کتاب)

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21 hours ago, elite said:

No. He was be able to meet, but there is no evidence that he met any of the deputies of the Imam(عليه السلام)  Al Kulayni Lived in Ray and Qum  where  as deputies of the Imam (عليه السلام) lived in Baghdad.  Al Kulayni went to Baghdad in Hijri 327 and died  in Hijri 329.

Thanks brother @elite, for your relevant & to the point input.

It is believed that al-Kulaini travelled abroad to collect narrations. If deputies of Imam (عليه السلام) were not there in his city, it comes into mind why did he not go to their city for collecting ahadith from them as he had travelled to various cities for that purpose.

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On 8/13/2022 at 6:46 PM, The Alchemist said:

No usuli faqeeh ever relies on narrations with weak asnaad. If a hadith with weak sanad has something exceptional in its content (matn), there is no use comparing it with saheeh hadith or verses of Qur'an. To put it straight, ahadith with weak asnaad has almost no value at all, even if their content appears to be reasonable

Salaam,

Where did you get this from?

Marasaleen e Saduq are acceptable to many scholars and are considered reliable.

Zaeef never means they are only worth rejecting. 21 types of weak riwayaat are classified by the experts of ILMUL HADEES OF WHICH  ONLY THREE TYPES ARE WORTH REJECTING, REST ARE ACCEPTED BY ALL EXPERTS OF SUNNI AND SHIA JURISTS.

 

 

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38 minutes ago, Zainuu said:

Salaam,

Where did you get this from?

Marasaleen e Saduq are acceptable to many scholars and are considered reliable.

Zaeef never means they are only worth rejecting. 21 types of weak riwayaat are classified by the experts of ILMUL HADEES OF WHICH  ONLY THREE TYPES ARE WORTH REJECTING, REST ARE ACCEPTED BY ALL EXPERTS OF SUNNI AND SHIA JURISTS.

 

 

Thanks for your input brother @Zainuu.

Why should zaeef ahadith be relied upon? Zaeef hadith literally means there are problems in its sanad i.e. one or more narrators in the chain have issues; they may be untruthful, fabricators, exaggerators or they might have issue with their memory, etc. etc.

If a hadith has a zaeef sanad, it is assumed that the words in its matn may have something added or removed, that is, the matn may not have directly come from Aima (عليه السلام).

Yes, there are categories of weak narrations too. The weakest perhaps is called maudhu (fabricated) that is completely rejected.

But ask any scholar of hadith, if a hadith with zaeef sanad has some detail in its content (matn) that is exceptional i.e. something that is not confirmed from reliable narrations. That particular detail is thrown away and only what is confirmed through reliable narrations is taken. To put it plain, only what is stated in saheeh hadith is taken. If that is so, what is use of quoting a weak narration?

Even there is a debate about saheeh narrations. Some classical scholars argued that if a saheeh narration comes into category of khabr-i-wahid, that narration is deemed as conjecture if introduces something new. There always remains a doubt about it that the narrator may have misunderstood it or misheard it. All classical sunni hadith scholars (except Ibn Hazm) are of this view. As regards classical shia hadith scholars, I came across a post here in ShiaChat that said Allama Muhammad ibn Idris al-Hilli, and Syed al-Murtaza are of this view.

The hadith about which there remains no doubt is saheeh mutawatir category.

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4 hours ago, The Alchemist said:

It is believed that al-Kulaini travelled abroad to collect narrations. If deputies of Imam (عليه السلام) were not there in his city, it comes into mind why did he not go to their city for collecting ahadith from them as he had travelled to various cities for that purpose.

Salam being special deputy of Imam doesn't mean that people likewise Kulayni (رضي الله عنه) & other famous shia scholars have had free access to them without surveillance of Abbasids & their informants who have been disguising themselves as shias for finding Imam Mahdi (aj) & his place of hideout through the especial deputies under disguise of collecting Hadith  from them which because one main duties of  special deputies of Imam (aj) has been "Preserving Concealment of Imam al-Mahdi (a)" it would be possible that informants of Abbasid find out vital information about finding him in middle of argument with especial deputies  which for knowing reason of not visiting Kulayni (رضي الله عنه) with special deputies you must read about life of special deputies which how they have preserved life of Imam Mahdi (aj) which many times they have had to hide their identity or pretend to be someone else likevise oil merchant or etc in order to that they can visit Imam (عليه السلام) so therefore it has not been possible for them to gain attention of Abbassids & their informants by regular & long visits for naraating & collecting hadiths.

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Regarding all this, preserving concealment of Imam (a) and his outward features was one of the essential duties of the special deputies. When Husayn b. Ruh al-Nawbakhti was appointed as the deputy of Imam (a), Abu Sahl Isma'il b. 'Ali al-Nawbakhti, a very distinguished Shi'a, lived in Baghdad. Once a person asked Abu Sahl about the reason behind appointment of Husayn b. Ruh and not him [Abu Sahl]. Abu Sahl answered, "The one who has appointed Husayn b. Ruh is wiser than us, since my duty is debating with their enemies. If I knew Imam's (a) place as Abu l-Qasim [Husayn] knows, maybe in the middle of argument I would disclose it to the enemy; while, if Abu l-Qasim has hidden Imam (a) under his cloak, he would never uncover him even if he is sliced to pieces."[22]

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Four_Deputies

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'Uthman b. Sa'id al-'Amri

Main article: 'Uthman b. Sa'id al-'Amri

'Uthman b. Sa'id al-'Amri was the first special deputy of Imam al-Mahdi (a) and was titled as "Samman", meaning oil-seller which was a cover for his religio-political activities; since he put anything he was supposed to deliver to Imam (a) in oil containers and delivered them to Imam (a).[3]

Previously, some deputies of Imams (a) used this technique such as Muhammad Qattan delivered religious taxes to Imam (a) in a facade of a draper.[4] He was a special deputy of Imam (a) for five years since 260/874.

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Four_Deputies

https://www.al-islam.org/special-deputies

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Muhammad_b._Ya'qub_al-Kulayni

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4 hours ago, The Alchemist said:

It is believed that al-Kulaini travelled abroad to collect narrations. If deputies of Imam (عليه السلام) were not there in his city, it comes into mind why did he not go to their city for collecting ahadith from them as he had travelled to various cities for that purpose.

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Uthman_b._Sa'id

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Muhammad_b._Uthman

https://en.wikishia.net/view/'Ali_b._Muhammad_al-Samuri

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Regarding all this, preserving concealment of Imam (a) and his outward features was one of the essential duties of the special deputies. When Husayn b. Ruh al-Nawbakhti was appointed as the deputy of Imam (a), Abu Sahl Isma'il b. 'Ali al-Nawbakhti, a very distinguished Shi'a, lived in Baghdad. Once a person asked Abu Sahl about the reason behind appointment of Husayn b. Ruh and not him [Abu Sahl]. Abu Sahl answered, "The one who has appointed Husayn b. Ruh is wiser than us, since my duty is debating with their enemies. If I knew Imam's (a) place as Abu l-Qasim [Husayn] knows, maybe in the middle of argument I would disclose it to the enemy; while, if Abu l-Qasim has hidden Imam (a) under his cloak, he would never uncover him even if he is sliced to pieces."[22]

 

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At the beginning of his deputyship, he had a good and respectable status in the Abbasid court. However, he faced some troubles later and was forced to live in hiding and was imprisoned for five years. One of the most important incidents during the life of al-Husayn b. Ruh is the case of al-Shalmaghani who was a trusted agent of him, however, al-Shalmaghani held deviant ideas later which led to a handwriting issued by Imam al-Mahdi (a) cursing him.

 

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Characteristics

Al-Husayn b. Ruh was among the wisest people of his time and knew all about the circumstances of his time. In interactions with opposers of Shi'a, he practiced taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation) so much[8] that he dismissed one of his servants because of cursing Mu'awiya.[9]

About the secret-keeping of al-Husayn b. Ruh, Abu Sahl al-Nawbakhti said that if he hid Imam (a) under his clothes and they cut him to pieces to show Imam (a), he would not do that.[12]

 

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Although the agents of the second deputy of Imam (a) were about ten people, but when Muhammad b. 'Uthman was ill, appointed al-Husayn b. Ruh as his deputy and the representative of Imam al-Mahdi (a) and asked Shi'a personalities to refer to him after his demise.[15] According to al-'Allama al-Majlisi, when the second deputy passed away, al-Husayn b. Ruh sat in his house and the servant of Muhammad b. 'Uthman handed the box containing the trusts of Imamate to al-Husayn b. Ruh.[16] On Shawwal 5, 305/March 26, 918, a letter was issued by Imam al-Mahdi (a) for approval of al-Husayn b. Ruh.[17]

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Al-Husayn_b._Ruh_al-Nawbakhti

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Four_Deputies

 

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2 hours ago, The Alchemist said:

Thanks for your input brother @Zainuu.

Why should zaeef ahadith be relied upon? Zaeef hadith literally means there are problems in its sanad i.e. one or more narrators in the chain have issues; they may be untruthful, fabricators, exaggerators or they might have issue with their memory, etc. etc.

If a hadith has a zaeef sanad, it is assumed that the words in its matn may have something added or removed, that is, the matn may not have directly come from Aima (عليه السلام).

Yes, there are categories of weak narrations too. The weakest perhaps is called maudhu (fabricated) that is completely rejected.

But ask any scholar of hadith, if a hadith with zaeef sanad has some detail in its content (matn) that is exceptional i.e. something that is not confirmed from reliable narrations. That particular detail is thrown away and only what is confirmed through reliable narrations is taken. To put it plain, only what is stated in saheeh hadith is taken. If that is so, what is use of quoting a weak narration?

Even there is a debate about saheeh narrations. Some classical scholars argued that if a saheeh narration comes into category of khabr-i-wahid, that narration is deemed as conjecture if introduces something new. There always remains a doubt about it that the narrator may have misunderstood it or misheard it. All classical sunni hadith scholars (except Ibn Hazm) are of this view. As regards classical shia hadith scholars, I came across a post here in ShiaChat that said Allama Muhammad ibn Idris al-Hilli, and Syed al-Murtaza are of this view.

The hadith about which there remains no doubt is saheeh mutawatir category.

I guess the topic will derail if I go in detail.

Sanad was never a point of question in the start. A hadith or qawl from the Prophet (S) and Aimma (عليه السلام) was was just read by its content (matn) and understood and done. I heard one hadith from Imam As Sadiq (عليه السلام) regarding validation of a hadith for which the first criteria he mentioned was the content and not the sanad.

Sanad comes into question when you are unable to breakdown the matn or content.

Look man, a simple question.

If a hadith says, "Allah is one" will you reject it and never read it if its chain has a problem?

Obviously no. Something which can be mapped from Quran is obviously reliable even if its sanad is incorrect.

Correct sanad is not what Scholars of Hadith are looking for. Correct hadith according to Quran and authentic traditions is what they are looking for.

This is not a small thing actually.

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Matn comes after sanad. Matn is only valid when sanad is reliable. This is not topic here. To discuss it, do reply to this thread:

 

44 minutes ago, Zainuu said:

I guess the topic will derail if I go in detail.

Sanad was never a point of question in the start. A hadith or qawl from the Prophet (S) and Aimma (عليه السلام) was was just read by its content (matn) and understood and done. I heard one hadith from Imam As Sadiq (عليه السلام) regarding validation of a hadith for which the first criteria he mentioned was the content and not the sanad.

Sanad comes into question when you are unable to breakdown the matn or content.

Look man, a simple question.

If a hadith says, "Allah is one" will you reject it and never read it if its chain has a problem?

Obviously no. Something which can be mapped from Quran is obviously reliable even if its sanad is incorrect.

Correct sanad is not what Scholars of Hadith are looking for. Correct hadith according to Quran and authentic traditions is what they are looking for.

This is not a small thing actually.

 

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7 hours ago, The Alchemist said:

Thanks brother @elite, for your relevant & to the point input.

It is believed that al-Kulaini travelled abroad to collect narrations. If deputies of Imam (عليه السلام) were not there in his city, it comes into mind why did he not go to their city for collecting ahadith from them as he had travelled to various cities for that purpose.

Al Kulayni narrated a letter (Tawqi) of Imam Mahdi(عليه السلام) through Ishaq b. Yaqub from Muhammad b.Uthman al-Amri (second deputy). That is mentioned in Kitab al-Ghayba of Sheikh Tusi pg 290 & Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ni’ama of Shaikh al-Saduq. Vol 2 pg 483 hadith no:4.

وأخبرني جماعة، عن جعفر بن محمد بن قولويه وأبي غالب الزراري (وغيرهما) عن محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، عن إسحاق بن يعقوب قال:سألت محمد بن عثمان العمري رحمه الله أن يوصل لي كتابا قد سئلت فيه عن مسائل أشكلت علي، فورد التوقيع بخط مولينا صاحب الدار عليه السلام: أما ما سألت عنه أرشد الله وثبتك من أمر المنكرين لي من أهل بيتنا وبني عمنا، فاعلم أنه ليس بين الله عز وجل وبين أحد قرابة، ومن أنكرني فليس مني، وسبيله سبيل ابن نوح عليه السلام. وأما سبيل عمي جعفر وولده، فسبيل إخوة يوسف على نبينا وآله وعليه السلام. وأما الفقاع فشربه حرام ولا بأس بالشلماب. وأما أموالكم فما نقبلها إلا لتطهروا فمن شاء فليصل، ومن شاء فليقطع، فما آتانا الله خير مما آتاكم. وأما ظهور الفرج فإنه إلى الله عز وجل، كذب الوقاتون. وأما قول من زعم أن الحسين عليه السلام لم يقتل، فكفر وتكذيب وضلال. وأما الحوادث الواقعة فارجعوا فيها إلى رواة حديثنا، فإنهم حجتي عليكم وأنا حجة الله (عليكم). وأما محمد بن عثمان العمري رضي الله عنه وعن أبيه من قبل، فإنه ثقتي وكتابه كتابي. وأما محمد بن علي بن مهزيار الاهوازي فسيصلح الله قلبه، ويزيل عنه شكه. وأما ما وصلتنا به فلا قبول عندنا إلا لما طاب وطهر، وثمن المغنية حرام. وأما محمد بن شاذان بن نعيم فإنه رجل من شعيتنا أهل البيت. وأما أبوالخطاب محمد بن(أبي) زينب الاجدع (فإنه) ملعون وأصحابه ملعونون، فلا تجالس أهل مقالتهم وإني منهم برئ وآبائي عليهم السلام منهم براء. وأما المتلبسون بأموالنا فمن استحل منها شيئا فأكله فإنما يأكل النيران. وأما الخمس فقد أبيح لشيعتنا وجعلوا منه في حل إلى وقت ظهور أمرنا لتطيب ولادتهم ولا تخبث. وأما ندامة قوم قد شكوا في دين الله على ما وصلونا به فقد أقلنا من استقال ولا حاجة لنا في صلة الشاكين. وأما علة ما وقع من الغيبة فإن الله عز وجل يقول:﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لاَ تَسْأَلُوا عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ إِنْ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ تَسُؤْكُمْ﴾. إنه لم يكن أحد من آبائي إلا وقد وقعت في عنقه بيعة لطاغية زمانه، وإني أخرج حين أخرج ولا بيعة لاحد من الطواغيت في عنقي. وأما وجه الانتفاع في غيبتي فكالانتفاع بالشمس إذا غيبتها عن الابصار السحاب، وإني لامان أهل الارض كما أن النجوم أمان لاهل السماء، فاغلقوا (أبواب) السؤال عما لا يعنيكم، ولا تتكلفوا على ما قد كفيتم، وأكثروا الدعاء بتعجيل الفرج فإن ذلك فرجكم. والسلام عليك يا إسحاق بن يعقوب وعلى من اتبع الهدى.

H 247 - Informed me a group of scholars from Ja’far bin Muhammad Quluwayh and Abi Ghalib Zurari etc. from Muhammad bin Yaqub Kulaini from Ishaq bin Yaqub that he said: “I asked Muhammad bin Uthman Amari to write to the Imam a letter containing questions that were difficult for me. The Imam sent the following reply: “May the Almighty Allah keep you on guidance. You asked about those of our family and cousins. You should know that no one is related to the Almighty Allah. Anyone who denies us is not from us and his end will be same as the son of Prophet Nuh ((عليه السلام)). As for the matter of my Uncle, Ja’far and his sons; it is same as the matter of the brothers of Yusuf ((عليه السلام)). Barley wine is unlawful (Haraam). There is no problem in turnip extract. We only accept the monies sent by you so that you may be purified. Now whoever likes, should send it, whoever likes may not. The provision that the Almighty Allah has bestowed is better than whatever you send us. As for the reappearance and advent, it solely depends on the will of Allah and those who fix a time for it are liars. As for the saying of those who think that Imam Husain ((عليه السلام)) has not been slain is a kind of disbelief, denial, deviation and misguidance. But as for the problems, which will occur in the future, you should refer to the narrators of our traditions for their verdicts as they are my proofs on you, and I am Allah’s proof on them.” As for Muhammad bin Uthman Amri, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, he is trustworthy and reliable one of mine and his writing is my writing. As for Muhammad bin Ali bin Mahziyar Ahwazi, then very soon, Allah would reform his heart and remove his doubt. As for the money that you sent for me, it is not acceptable to me, except that which is pure. And the compensation for a singing girl is unlawful. As for Muhammad bin Shazan bin Naeem; he is a Shia of Ahle Bayt ((عليه السلام)). As for Abul Khattab Muhammad bin Ali Zainab Ajdaa; he and all his associates are accursed and you don’t cultivate the company of those who harbor their belief; and my forefathers and I are aloof from them. As for those who are in possession of our funds, in such a way that they consider them lawful for themselves and spend them; they have in fact devoured (Hell) Fire. As for Khums, it is lawful for our Shia till the time of reappearance, so far as their children are pure and not involved in sinful activities. As for the funds that are sent to us and after which they fell into doubts and became regretful of having paid to us, then anyone who wants, we would return to him and we are not needful of the money of those who harbor doubt with regard to Allah. As for the cause of occultation, the Almighty Allah has said: “O you who believe! Do not put questions about things, which if declared to you may trouble you…” (5:101) Each of my forefathers in his time was compelled by the oath of allegiance to the tyrant ruler and when I reappear, I would not be having the allegiance of any tyrant on my neck. As for how people would benefit from me during my occultation, it is like getting benefits from the sun concealed by clouds. I am the security for folks of the earth just as stars are security for inhabitants of the heavens. Therefore, do not ask what you are not in need of and do not put yourself into undue trouble. And pray more for an early reappearance; as in it lies your success. Peace be on you, O Ishaq Ibn Yaqub and peace be on all those who follow the guidance…”

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On 8/15/2022 at 4:36 PM, elite said:

Al Kulayni narrated a letter (Tawqi) of Imam Mahdi(عليه السلام) through Ishaq b. Yaqub from Muhammad b.Uthman al-Amri (second deputy). That is mentioned in Kitab al-Ghayba of Sheikh Tusi pg 290 & Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Ni’ama of Shaikh al-Saduq. Vol 2 pg 483 hadith no:4.

وأخبرني جماعة، عن جعفر بن محمد بن قولويه وأبي غالب الزراري (وغيرهما) عن محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، عن إسحاق بن يعقوب قال:سألت محمد بن عثمان العمري رحمه الله أن يوصل لي كتابا قد سئلت فيه عن مسائل أشكلت علي، فورد التوقيع بخط مولينا صاحب الدار عليه السلام: أما ما سألت عنه أرشد الله وثبتك من أمر المنكرين لي من أهل بيتنا وبني عمنا، فاعلم أنه ليس بين الله عز وجل وبين أحد قرابة، ومن أنكرني فليس مني، وسبيله سبيل ابن نوح عليه السلام. وأما سبيل عمي جعفر وولده، فسبيل إخوة يوسف على نبينا وآله وعليه السلام. وأما الفقاع فشربه حرام ولا بأس بالشلماب. وأما أموالكم فما نقبلها إلا لتطهروا فمن شاء فليصل، ومن شاء فليقطع، فما آتانا الله خير مما آتاكم. وأما ظهور الفرج فإنه إلى الله عز وجل، كذب الوقاتون. وأما قول من زعم أن الحسين عليه السلام لم يقتل، فكفر وتكذيب وضلال. وأما الحوادث الواقعة فارجعوا فيها إلى رواة حديثنا، فإنهم حجتي عليكم وأنا حجة الله (عليكم). وأما محمد بن عثمان العمري رضي الله عنه وعن أبيه من قبل، فإنه ثقتي وكتابه كتابي. وأما محمد بن علي بن مهزيار الاهوازي فسيصلح الله قلبه، ويزيل عنه شكه. وأما ما وصلتنا به فلا قبول عندنا إلا لما طاب وطهر، وثمن المغنية حرام. وأما محمد بن شاذان بن نعيم فإنه رجل من شعيتنا أهل البيت. وأما أبوالخطاب محمد بن(أبي) زينب الاجدع (فإنه) ملعون وأصحابه ملعونون، فلا تجالس أهل مقالتهم وإني منهم برئ وآبائي عليهم السلام منهم براء. وأما المتلبسون بأموالنا فمن استحل منها شيئا فأكله فإنما يأكل النيران. وأما الخمس فقد أبيح لشيعتنا وجعلوا منه في حل إلى وقت ظهور أمرنا لتطيب ولادتهم ولا تخبث. وأما ندامة قوم قد شكوا في دين الله على ما وصلونا به فقد أقلنا من استقال ولا حاجة لنا في صلة الشاكين. وأما علة ما وقع من الغيبة فإن الله عز وجل يقول:﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لاَ تَسْأَلُوا عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ إِنْ تُبْدَ لَكُمْ تَسُؤْكُمْ﴾. إنه لم يكن أحد من آبائي إلا وقد وقعت في عنقه بيعة لطاغية زمانه، وإني أخرج حين أخرج ولا بيعة لاحد من الطواغيت في عنقي. وأما وجه الانتفاع في غيبتي فكالانتفاع بالشمس إذا غيبتها عن الابصار السحاب، وإني لامان أهل الارض كما أن النجوم أمان لاهل السماء، فاغلقوا (أبواب) السؤال عما لا يعنيكم، ولا تتكلفوا على ما قد كفيتم، وأكثروا الدعاء بتعجيل الفرج فإن ذلك فرجكم. والسلام عليك يا إسحاق بن يعقوب وعلى من اتبع الهدى.

H 247 - Informed me a group of scholars from Ja’far bin Muhammad Quluwayh and Abi Ghalib Zurari etc. from Muhammad bin Yaqub Kulaini from Ishaq bin Yaqub that he said: “I asked Muhammad bin Uthman Amari to write to the Imam a letter containing questions that were difficult for me. The Imam sent the following reply: “May the Almighty Allah keep you on guidance. You asked about those of our family and cousins. You should know that no one is related to the Almighty Allah. Anyone who denies us is not from us and his end will be same as the son of Prophet Nuh ((عليه السلام)). As for the matter of my Uncle, Ja’far and his sons; it is same as the matter of the brothers of Yusuf ((عليه السلام)). Barley wine is unlawful (Haraam). There is no problem in turnip extract. We only accept the monies sent by you so that you may be purified. Now whoever likes, should send it, whoever likes may not. The provision that the Almighty Allah has bestowed is better than whatever you send us. As for the reappearance and advent, it solely depends on the will of Allah and those who fix a time for it are liars. As for the saying of those who think that Imam Husain ((عليه السلام)) has not been slain is a kind of disbelief, denial, deviation and misguidance. But as for the problems, which will occur in the future, you should refer to the narrators of our traditions for their verdicts as they are my proofs on you, and I am Allah’s proof on them.” As for Muhammad bin Uthman Amri, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, he is trustworthy and reliable one of mine and his writing is my writing. As for Muhammad bin Ali bin Mahziyar Ahwazi, then very soon, Allah would reform his heart and remove his doubt. As for the money that you sent for me, it is not acceptable to me, except that which is pure. And the compensation for a singing girl is unlawful. As for Muhammad bin Shazan bin Naeem; he is a Shia of Ahle Bayt ((عليه السلام)). As for Abul Khattab Muhammad bin Ali Zainab Ajdaa; he and all his associates are accursed and you don’t cultivate the company of those who harbor their belief; and my forefathers and I are aloof from them. As for those who are in possession of our funds, in such a way that they consider them lawful for themselves and spend them; they have in fact devoured (Hell) Fire. As for Khums, it is lawful for our Shia till the time of reappearance, so far as their children are pure and not involved in sinful activities. As for the funds that are sent to us and after which they fell into doubts and became regretful of having paid to us, then anyone who wants, we would return to him and we are not needful of the money of those who harbor doubt with regard to Allah. As for the cause of occultation, the Almighty Allah has said: “O you who believe! Do not put questions about things, which if declared to you may trouble you…” (5:101) Each of my forefathers in his time was compelled by the oath of allegiance to the tyrant ruler and when I reappear, I would not be having the allegiance of any tyrant on my neck. As for how people would benefit from me during my occultation, it is like getting benefits from the sun concealed by clouds. I am the security for folks of the earth just as stars are security for inhabitants of the heavens. Therefore, do not ask what you are not in need of and do not put yourself into undue trouble. And pray more for an early reappearance; as in it lies your success. Peace be on you, O Ishaq Ibn Yaqub and peace be on all those who follow the guidance…”

This is often quoted. Perhaps, this narration (or a similar) is also found in al-Ihtijaj.

This does not explain why did Sheikh al-Kulaini not narrate from companions of the Imam (عليه السلام) of his time and rather he chose to narrate from reliable and unreliable narrators of Imam al-Sadiq (عليه السلام)?

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On 8/13/2022 at 10:53 PM, Muslim2010 said:

The following are the words of Great scholar Al- Kulaini who has collected the hadiths of the prophet and 12 imams and complied it in the form of book Al-kafi:

Introduction
(by al-Kulayni)

In the Praise of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
All praise belongs to Allah Who is praised for His bounties, worshipped for His Might, obeyed in His rule and feared for His Majesty. He possesses all that is attractive; His commands pervade in all of His creation. He is High, the Most High. He is near in His Highness and the Most High above being seen. His being the first has had no beginning and He is eternal. He existed before the existence of all things and He is the eternal Who guards all things. He is the overwhelming power and the preservation of the things does not burden Him. He is the only Almighty in His kingdom and only power to compel what is to compel. Through wisdom He has revealed His authority over His
creation. He created all things in their origin new and at the very beginning through His might and wisdom and nothing existed to invalidate His being the originator of all things. No other cause existed to compete His invention. He alone created what He wished as He wished to reveal His wisdom and the reality of His Lordship. Reason is not able to grasp Him. Imagination is not able to reach Him.
Eyes are not able to see Him. Measurement is not able to limit Him. Statements fail to describe Him. Eyes turn dull in trying to see Him. Describing Him by means of qualities looses the right path. He is veiled without any barrier and is concealed without any covering. He is known but is not seen and is described without a form. He is characterized without a body. There is no Lord except Allah, the Most Great, the Most High. Imagination looses the right path in trying to reach His reality.
Intelligent becomes exhausted and is not able to reach Him. So also is the case with imaginations and eyesight. He is all hearing and all knowing. Allah has established His authority over His creatures through His messengers (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) and has explained things with evidence. He has sent His messengers with glad news and warnings. So that those who would find salvation would do so with proper evidence and those would be destroyed would be so for ignoring proper evidence. So that people would learn about their Lord what they are ignorant of and know Him through His Lordship after that they were ignorant of this fact, so that they would believe in Him as the only One Lord after considering other things like Him.
I thank Him in a way that would be a cure for the souls, of a degree to please Him, enough to fulfil the duty to express gratitude for His favors to us in the form of His pleasant blessings, graceful bounties and beautiful trials.
I testify that there is no Lord except Allah alone Who has no partners. He is the only Lord, the only self-sufficient Who has no companion or children.
I testify that Muhammad (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) is His servant. He is His chosen one, His messenger whom He sent at a time of lapse of messengers and at the time of the long sleep of the nations, wide spread of ignorance, mischief and shortages of authority, blindness to the truth, prevailing injustice and the disappearance of religion.
Allah sent His book to him (Muhammad (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) that contains the statements and explanations, a reading in straight forward Arabic language so that people may become pious.
Allah has explained and organized this book for the people and with knowledge He has given the details. He has explained a religion in it, certain obligations are made obligatory therein and certain matters are declared for His creature in it. It contains signs that lead to salvation and evidence that call to guidance.
He (Muhammad (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) preached His message and executed His commands. He fulfilled his responsibilities with patience for the sake of his Lord. He worked hard for His cause, gave good advice to his followers and invited them to salvation. He encouraged them to speak of (Allah), gave them guidance to the right path after his passing away through a system, reason, basis for the people and signs that he established for them so that they would not be mislead after him. It was all due to his kindness and sympathy for them.
When his life ended and his days were over, Allah took his soul to Himself. With Allah he is well pleased for his deeds. His reward is a good deal and his position very great. He left this world leaving behind among his followers the Book of Allah and the executor of his will, Amir al-Mu’minin Ali (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) the master of the believers and the leader (Imam) for pious people.

The twine that he left behind was a united companion. They each acknowledge and speak in support of the other.
The Imam speaks of Allah from the Book. He speaks of what Allah has made obligatory on His servants, of obedience to Him, of obedience to the Imam (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) and the acknowledgement of Leadership with Divine Authority
. He speaks of His rights that are meant to be for the completion of religion, His commandments, establishment of His authority, seeking guidance in His light from its mines, His chosen and select people who possess good from Him. Allah through the Imams of guidance from the family of His Prophet (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) has explained His religion. Through them He has clarified the ways of His system. Through them He has opened the inside of His knowledge. He has made them to be the path to know Him, the sources of knowledge of His religion, the medium between Him and His creatures, the gate that lead to know His right and has given them the knowledge of His hidden secret.
Whenever, an Imam from them would leave this world He would establish a clearly known successor for that Imam for His creatures as a bright guide, an Imam and guardian with the truth and justice. Allah and those who preach for Him and supervise over His creatures have established their authority.
Through their guidance people follow the religion and through their light people of the lands find their way.
Allah has made them, (Imams (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) the life for people, the light in darkness, the key to the words and the pillars of Islam. He has based the system of His obedience and the fulfillment of obligation submission to them (Imams (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) in all that one would know and ask them what one is ignorant of. He has prohibited others from engaging in what they are ignorant of and from rejecting what they would not know. It is because Allah has willed to save, from His creatures whoever He would will, from injustice and darkness.

May Allah grant blessings upon Muhammad (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) and the select members of his family whom Allah has cleansed thoroughly.

After my words about Allah and His Messenger, above herein below is my response to your note.

I have understood your concerns about the conditions of the people of our times who seem to have agreed up on ignorance to be the standard and authority in their dealings. They cooperate and work together to establish the ways and the manners of ignorance and distance themselves from knowledge and the people of knowledge. Consequently, knowledge is almost banished and the sources of knowledge are about to depart the people. It is all because they rely so much on ignorance (ignorant people) and lose the (blessing of) the people of knowledge. You have asked, "Can the dealings of the people be considered proper in following a religion without knowing the rules and laws therein that show what is lawful or otherwise? Can they decide and settle all matters on the basis of what they feel is good and live a life in such a manner? Can they just do what their ancestors had been doing and rely on their own understanding of the issues great or small?"

To understand the answer to your question, O brother in faith, may Allah grant you blessings, note the following:
Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has created human beings and has given them distinction over the animals. He has given them the ability to understand and distinguish good from bad. Human beings have been given the ability to understand Allah’s commands and prohibitions.
There are two kinds of people. (a) There are those who are physically and mentally safe and sound and (b) those who lack such abilities. Safe and sound people are held responsible to follow the commands and prohibitions of Allah. Those who lack such abilities are exempt because of their inability to learn, discipline and fulfill responsibilities. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has designed education, good manners and moral discipline to serve as means of survival for the people who are safe and sound. Had it been permissible for safe and sound people to follow ignorance it would have been permissible for them not to become obligated to fulfill responsibilities. Such a condition would amount to make the coming of the Divine messengers and education useless. Ignoring the book of guidance, the Divine messengers and education would destroy the whole civilization. This would be a return to atheism. The justice and wisdom of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, required the creation of creatures who would understand the commands and prohibitions of Allah so that people would not live a useless life. Instead they realize the greatness of Allah, acknowledge His Oneness and that He is the Lord. They must know that He is their Creator Who gives them sustenance. The proof of His existence is so clear and obvious. The signs of His authority are shinning and manifest. His lighthouses are visible everywhere and call people to believe in Allah, the Most Majestic, and the Most Gracious. Each sign testifies to the existence of the Lord and the One Who deserves to be worshipped. Such proofs that exist in each sign are proofs of the effect of the creation in them. Each creature is a marvelous proof of His plan. He invites them to know Him so that they will not remain ignorant of His existence and ignorant of His religion and laws.
People of wisdom do not consider ignorance of his existence a permissible attitude, as is the case of denying His religion. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, said:
"Did they not make a covenant (with Allah) in the Book not to speak any thing other than the Truth about Allah and to study its contents well? " (7:169) They call a lie something that is beyond the limit of their knowledge . . ." (10:39)
People are bound to obey the commands of Allah and His prohibitions. It is not permissible for them to follow ignorance (ignorant people).
It is obligatory for them to ask if they would not already know and to acquire proper understanding of religion.
Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has said, "Not all believers have to become specialists in religious learning. Why do not some people from each group of believers seek to become specialists in religious learning and, after completing their studies, guide their group so that they will have fear of Allah." (9:122)
If people who are physically and mentally safe and sound were permitted to stay ignorant Allah would not have asked them to ask and learn. He would not have needed to send any messengers, books and guidance. In such case, they would have lived like animals or like people physically and mentally defective and if so they would not remain in existence even for a blinking of an eye. In fact, it is not permissible for them to live without discipline and education. Thus, it became necessary for those physically and mentally sound to find instructors to educate and discipline them and provide answer to their questions. The best and most important education for people of reason, the education worthwhile for one to study assiduously is the religious education. The education that would teach one about the Creator, His Oneness and how to worship Him, is the most important one. It is important to be educated in the issues of Shari‘a, His laws of guidance, His commandments, prohibitions, warnings and discipline.
This is necessary because there is solid evidence to support the need for such education, that responsibility is real, life is short, indifference and procrastination is not acceptable. The condition for a worship to be proper and acceptable is to fulfil all the obligations on the basis of certainty, knowledge and proper understanding. Only than the worshiper would be considered praiseworthy in the sight of Allah and deserving rewards and His great blessings.
On the other hand, one who acts without proper knowledge and understanding does not know what and for what reason one is acting. Ignorant people do not have trust in what they do. They do not acknowledge any thing because acknowledgement does not come without doubt free knowledge of the subject to be acknowledged.
The person who has doubts is not like a person who has certainty of the matters of piety, humbleness before the Lord and the need to seek nearness to Him. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has said, "Those who have witnessed the truth only they have proper knowledge." (43:87)
Only the testimony of those who possess proper knowledge is accepted and it is because of the knowledge of the subject of the testimony. Without the knowledge of the subject of the testimony it would not have been accepted. The acceptance of the deeds of the people who act with doubts is up to Allah to decide. He may accept such deeds because of His grace or He may refuse to accept because of the absence of the conditions such as knowledge and certainty. It is Knowledge, proper understanding and certainty that separate one from those mentioned in the following words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, "Certain people worship Allah to achieve worldly gains. They are confident when they are prosperous, but when they face hardships they turn away from (worship).
They are lost in this life and will be lost in the life to come. Such loss is indeed destructive." (22:11)

It is all because of acting without knowledge and certainty in the beginning and in the end. The scholar has said, "One who accepts the faith with certainty he remains in it steadfast and the faith benefits him. Those who accept the faith without certainty they leave it just as they came in."
He has also said, "Those who get their religion from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) the strength of their faith is as such that mountains may be destroyed but not their faith. Those who get their religion from the words of the people they may reject it"
He has also said, "Those who do not know us through the Holy Quran they fail to protect themselves against mischief."
For this reason so many religions have emerged in our times as well as disgraceful systems that almost have entered the level of disbelief. This is because of the opportunity that Allah has provided for every one. One whose faith in the will of Allah is to remain solid He makes the means that would make it so happen, available. He then gets his religion from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) with certainty and proper understanding. His religion is stronger than the heavy mountains. Those whose faith in the will of Allah is to be temporary and bound to failure, - may He grant us refuge- He gives them the opportunity to follow certain ideas that are devoid of Divine authority. They follow what seems good to one to follow and such other matters like following what others do, certain interpretations and so on without proper understand and certainty. In such case Allah may or may not accept their deeds. They may live as a believer in the morning and a disbeliever in the evening or vice versa. It is because such people may easily follow the influential elements in the society or act upon what they feel is good.
The scholar (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) has said, "Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has created the prophets with prophet-hood they can be nothing but prophets. He has created the executors of the will of the prophets as the executors thus they can be nothing but the executors of the wills of the prophets. He has given temporary faith to certain people. He may complete it for them or remove it from them as mentioned in this Quranic expression, " The established faith the temporary faith."
You have mentioned that you are confused in the issues of the verification of hadith due to the difference in variously narrated texts and that you know the reason for variation but you do not find reliable people to discuss with. You have said that you wish you had a book sufficient (Kafi) that would contain all issues of the religion. A book that would provide a student all the material that he would need is urgently needed. A book is needed that would help people to have proper guidance in the matters of religion to follow the correct instructions of the truthful people (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) and the prevailing Sunnah, the basis of practices. So that one would fulfil his responsibilities towards Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, and follow the Sunnah of (the Holy Prophet).
You have said, that you hope such a book would, Allah willing, help our brothers in faith to find the right guidance.
My brother in faith, may Allah grant you proper guidance, please note that there is no other way to sort out the confusion that comes from the variation of the narration of the scholars except by the help of the principles that the scholar (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) has set. "Compare a narration with the text of the Holy Quran. Whatever agrees with the Holy Quran is acceptable and what does not agree is rejected."

Also he has said, "Leave alone what agrees with the views of the others because the right is in what is opposite to them."
Also there are his (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) words, "Follow what is unanimously agreed upon because there is no harm in what is unanimously agreed upon."
We are only able to apply such principles to a very few of such cases. We do not find any thing better and more precautionary than to refer to the scholar (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) and accept that which is within the limit of his (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) words, "Whichever you would follow in submission and obedience is excusable for you."
Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, has made the compilation of the book that you had wished for possible. I hope it will prove to be up to your expectations. It may have shortcomings, but our intentions have not been insincere to provide good advice because to provide good advice to our people is obligatory. We also hoped to be considered as partners of all benefits of this book up to the end of time.
The Lord is one, the Messenger is one, the last prophet (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) is one and the Shari‘a is one. What Muhammad (DivineSupremeCovenantBody) has made lawful will remain lawful up to the Day of Judgment and what he has made unlawful will remain unlawful to the Day of Judgment. We extended the Book on ‘People with Divine Authority’ to a certain degree although not as it should have been done because we did not like to be deprived of the benefits thereof. I hope Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Gracious, will approve what is based on our intentions. If life will give us a chance we intend to compile a book of a bigger volume to serve the causes as they should be served, by the will of Allah, the Most High. From Him comes the power and means. From Him one expects help and increase in rewards and opportunity.
May Allah grant blessings up on Muhammad and his purified family.
The first thing is the book of Intelligence and the virtue of knowledge, the excellence of the people of knowledge, the defects of the people of ignorance and its harms. Intelligence is the focal point and the axes of the matters. On the basis of Intelligence come the rewards and sufferings and Allah is the best One to provide good opportunities."

The author has mentioned in clear words the reasons for collection of hadith and writing the book Al-Kafi , instead of considering [a youth]after 1200 years to mention that why the scholar has not collected the hadith as per his present intentions and wishes. 

:hahaha:

 

On 8/13/2022 at 11:20 PM, Muslim2010 said:

Words of Appreciation for his Efforts
Al-Najashi
has said, "In our people al-Kulayni was the chief scholar in Ray, Iran. He was the most reliable in the matters of hadith.
Al-‘Allama al-Hilli has confirmed this and ibn Dawud also has expressed similar words about him.
Al-Tusi, the great scholar has called him the most dependable expert in hadith, the man of highest esteem and a scholar in hadith.
Al-Sayyid Radi al-Din ibn Tawus has said, "Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub al-Kulayni is universally accepted for his leadership and reliability."
He has also said, "Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub, al-Kulayni is the most eloquent and the most truthful in the knowledge of hadith."
Ibn al-Athir has called him to be of the outstanding leaders of the Shi‘a and their great scholar."
He has also described him as "A reformer of the Shi‘a at the end of the third century, as their leader and as a renown scholar among them."
Al-Tayyibi has called him the reviver of the ’Ummah, the whole Muslim community at the end of that century . . . He was among the most learned in Islamic jurisprudence.39
Ibn Hajar has said, "He was one among the Shi‘a scholars of law and an author of their school." 40
He has also said, "Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni was among the chief scholars of the Shi ‘a world in the days of al-Muqtadir." 41
Al-Shaykh Husayn ibn 'Abd al-Samad al-Harithi al-Hamdani has said, "Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni was the religious chief of his time and an outstanding, noble minded and highly learned scholar. He was the most reliable person in hadith, the best critic and the most conversant in it." 42
Al-Qadi Nur Allah al-Shushtari placed him at the top of the scholars of hadith and the chief guardian thereof. 49
Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi, the great scholar has said,
"He is unparalleled among all the scholars we have seen. The study of his compiling hadith, his manner of editing them, proves him to be a Divinely gifted scholar.
"May Allah grant him the highest rewards reserved for the doers of the good for his services to Islam and the Muslim community." 44
He also has called him "The shaykh (the chief) al-Sadiq (the most truthful) and Thiqatu al-Islam (the most trustworthy in Islamic learning), as one acceptable to people of all classes. Both Shi‘a and non-Shi‘a have praised him." 46
Mirza ‘Abd Allah al-Afandi has said, "The person generally referred to with the title Thiqatu al-Islam (the trustworthy in Islamic issues) is Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub ibn Ishaq al-Kulayni al-Razi, the compiler of the book al-Kafi. He is the earliest religious chief of the Muslim world in the sight of the masses and the elite alike and the Mufti, scholar of law for both the Shi‘a and the Sunni Muslims." 46

wasalam

 

On 8/14/2022 at 9:54 AM, Muslim2010 said:

Biography of al-Kulayni
"Kulayn was a village 27 kilometers south west of the city of Ray, a well-known city in Iran. The ruins of the village still are near Tehran, Iran. Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub Kulayni, the compiler of al-Kafi was born in this village.
Further evidence that he was born therein is the fact that in history he is called the religious scholar of Shi‘a of Ray in his time.
Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub ibn Ishaq al-Kulayni al-Razi al-Baghdadi was from a noble family of Kulayn. Outstanding scholars in jurisprudence and hadith came from this family.

Al-Kulayni, of all other compilers of hadith, alone was a contemporary of all the four successive special representatives and ambassadors of Imam al-Mahdi, the twelfth Imam (DivineSupremeCovenantBody). He had the chance to collect hadith from the proper sources. Al-Kafi, the book is a unique collection of hadith. Al-Kulayni compiled this book on request from a prominent Shi ‘a scholar (as mentioned in his introduction to al-Kafi).
Prominent scholars of Islamic studies in search of knowledge would meet him at his place to discuss, exchange notes and to confer with him for better understanding of the issues.

Al-Kulayni was a great scholar, a reliable narrator of hadith and a man of great learning. He was of the outstanding scholars of law and an authority in the science of hadith science. He was a man of great chastity, piety, integrity and holiness.
His book al-Kafi, no doubt, is a treasure of Islamic literature, Shari‘a (law), Divine commandments and prohibitions, in the form of texts of the Sunna, the statements, actions and the approvals of the Holy Prophet and the twelve Imams (DivineSupremeCovenantBody). It is a text of the basis of the Islamic education and culture.
Al-Kulayni has himself prefaced his book, al-Kafi and has also provided certain explanatory notes in certain chapters which shows his skill and proficiency in writing and in Arabic literature.
He was well versed in categorizing the narrators of hadith and the texts of hadith. He is the author of a book in the science of hadith and an expert in scrutinizing the narrators. He was a great scholar of theology and he has written a book refuting al-Qaramitah (one of the several names applied to the sect of Isma‘ilies who were once very active in politics)."

The biography of Al-Kulaini as mentioned in the preface part of Alkafi (English version) is presented above, that indicates he collected the hadith in the form of book on the request of some prominent shia scholar. However there is no name mentioned in its introduction part.

Distinctive Features of Alkafi:
1. The compiler of al-Kafi, al-Kulayni was a contemporary of the four successive special
representatives of Imam al-Mahdi (DivineSupremeCovenantBody). As al-Sayyid ibn Tawus has pointed out, "All the works and the collections (of hadith) of al-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ya‘qub al-Kulayni had been completed during the life time of the special representatives of Imam al-Mahdi
(DivineSupremeCovenantBody). It is a ground to believe the veracity of his collection of hadith. 71
2. The compiler, except in the case of a few hadith, has named the whole chain of narrators up to the infallible Imam (DivineSupremeCovenantBody). In certain cases he deletes the first narrator probably because he quotes from the original book that narrates directly from the Imam
(DivineSupremeCovenantBody). 72

wasalam

Question asked in OP is still unanswered.

Avoid copy pasting long texts.

If you don't know the answer, don't waste our time by posting irrelevant long posts. If there is something relevant there, you could have just sent that portion.

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Posted (edited)
45 minutes ago, The Alchemist said:

Question asked in OP is still unanswered.

Avoid copy pasting long texts.

I have mentioned the words of scholar Al-kulaini that he has made in the Introduction of book Al-kafi. The book english version also includes the words of appreciation from reputed sunni and shia  scholars that are just sufficient to reject your false claims as you have made in the last post about the scholar for degrading him ,the link is given below:

wasalam

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Posted (edited)
16 minutes ago, Muslim2010 said:

I have mentioned the words of scholar Al-kulaini that he has made in the Introduction of book Al-kafi. The book english version also includes the words of appreciation from reputed sunni and shia  scholars that are just sufficient to reject your false claims as you tried to make in the last post about the scholar ,the link is given below:

wasalam

Did I say that he was not a good scholar? Read OP. I didn't say anything like that.

Sheikh al-Kulaini was an excellent scholar. He has rendered excellent services for Islam. I'm not questioning his intent or abilities. Read OP again.

What I just asked in OP is an objective question which comes into mind when you read history of compilation. So simple is that. Why did he choose a method that is more similar to that of sunni compilers? He could have focused on getting narrations from the Imam (عليه السلام) of time or from his (عليه السلام) deputies or from reliable friends of his (عليه السلام) deputies, or from friends of friends of his (عليه السلام) deputies? That would have made his work contain more saheeh narrations.

What was the reason, the wisdom behind going all the way to collect narrations from narrators (reliable and unreliable) who could narrate about Imam al-Sadiq (عليه السلام)? This made al-Kafi more than half unreliable (as per the standards of Allama Majlisi).

I'm not criticising anyone. I'm just asking a simple question that a student of hadith should answer.

Wasalam.

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Posted (edited)
6 minutes ago, The Alchemist said:

Did I say that he was not a good scholar? Read OP. I didn't say anything like that.

What you have said is written in the last post that I have shown to you and thats why it has been responded by subsequent posts. 

I do not find any reason to give you any more than the best words of Al-Kulaini himself that I have done. Its upto you take his words or not its none of my concern. 

Best regards

 

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2 minutes ago, Muslim2010 said:

What you have said is written in the last post that I have shown to you and thats why it has been responded by subsequent posts. 

I do not find any reason to give you any more than the best words of A-Kulaini himself that I have done. Its upto you take his words or not its none of my concern. 

Best regards

 

Take some time to read my posts again.

I'm not criticising the great scholar at all. I'm just asking a few questions which come into mind while reading about hadith compilation.

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15 hours ago, The Alchemist said:

I'm not criticising the great scholar at all. I'm just asking a few questions which come into mind while reading about hadith compilation.

I have made my view in my early post in this thread, the link is given below:

 

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On 8/19/2022 at 9:33 PM, The Alchemist said:

What was the reason, the wisdom behind going all the way to collect narrations from narrators (reliable and unreliable) who could narrate about Imam al-Sadiq (عليه السلام)? This made al-Kafi more than half unreliable (as per the standards of Allama Majlisi).

Salam your statement is not true about Majlisi which Majlisi has chosen strongest hadith between multiple hadith with same content in al-Kafi so therefore he has not called other half unreliable but he called it weaker narretions.

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Features and Advantages

At the time of writing al-Kafi, al-Kulayni used 'The four hundred hadith booklets' written by the companions of the Ahl al-Bayt (a), known as Usul arba'a mi'a. He met with those companions of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) - or those who had seen them - to collect the hadith which had the shortest chain of transmission. Being contemporary with the Four Deputies paved the way for him to best verify these hadiths. However, about the last part of this statement it should be said that it was not common to present hadith books to Ahl al-Bayt (a) and the number of books presented is very small compared to the number of books which has not been presented. Furthermore, al-Kulayni had no special connection with the Four Deputies.

An important feature of al-Kafi is its order and comprehensiveness.[11] Al-Kafi is also known for its large number of hadiths, clear classification of hadith, completeness in chains of transmitters, and coverage of various topics in theology, jurisprudence, ethics, etc.

Al-Kulayni has tried to bring the most detailed, authentic and clear hadith at the beginning of each section, and the more concise and ambiguous ones later.[12]

 

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Writing Approach

Al-Kulayni states in his introduction that he has collected hadith in such a way that they agree with the consensus and there is no incompatibility between them and the Qur'an. Furthermore, when he saw no preference between two incompatible hadiths, he chose the one he deemed more correct and authentic.[10]

 

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In the Words of Great Scholars

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid says, "This book is among the best Shi'a books and enjoys a lot of benefits."[3]

 

Al-Shahid al-Awwal introduces it as a book of hadith similar to which has not been written by any Shi'a scholar.[4]

Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi writes, "Al-Kafi is the most accurate and most comprehensive of all primary hadith sources, and it is the greatest and best book ever written by the Imamiyyah."[5]

Agha Buzurg Tihrani says, "Al-Kafi is a book of hadiths reported from Ahl al-Bayt (a) to which no similar book has been authored."[6]

Al-Astarabadi quotes from his teachers that, "No book has ever been written similar nor close to it in rank".[7]

Ayatollah Khoei mentions that his teacher, Muhammad Husayn Na'ini, would call doubting the sources of al-Kafi, "the business of the incompetent".[8]

 

 

 

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Researches Carried Out on al-Kafi

Since al-Kafi has always been a topic of discussion among scholars of hadith, many researches have been carried out on it. In al-Dhari'a, Agha Buzurg Tihrani has listed 27 commentaries on Usul al-kafi or the whole of al-Kafi, and 10 marginal notes on al-Kafi.[16]

Some Commentaries

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Al-Kafi_(book)

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On 8/19/2022 at 9:33 PM, The Alchemist said:

What was the reason, the wisdom behind going all the way to collect narrations from narrators (reliable and unreliable) who could narrate about Imam al-Sadiq (عليه السلام)?

 

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The Kulaini's era should be called the era of hadith. Because the movement that was started to learn and write hadiths spread all over the Islamic countries and the people who were thirsty for the knowledge of hadiths went from one city to another and from one gathering to another in search of a narrator in order to learn a hadith from him and add to their collections. . The efforts of the Sunnis in this era were so impressive that it can be said that the Sunnis have everything they have from this era. In this era, which is approximately one century, six hadith books of Ahl al-Sunnah (Sahah Seth) have been compiled.

At this time, the disciples of Imam Hadi, (عليه السلام), Imam Hasan Askari, (عليه السلام), and Imam Reza, (عليه السلام), were still alive. But nothing was left of them except small and scattered books and pamphlets, and many of these books and pamphlets have been also lost in the same era.

 

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He has met with some narrators of hadiths who had heard hadith directly from Imam Askari ((عليه السلام).) or Imam Hadi ((عليه السلام).). In the second half of the third century and the first half of the fourth century AH, he was considered one of the greatest Shia scholars. Based on what has been stated in the translation and history books about his personal and scientific position of Kulaini, everyone from his compliants and his opponents have mentioned his grace and greatness.[1]

opponents of Kulaini

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Ibn Athir says: He gave a new life to the Imami sect in the third century, and he is a great, virtuous and famous leader and scholar in that religion.

Ibn Hajar Asqalani says: Kulaini is one of the noble leaders of the Shiites during the days of the al-Muqtadir the Abbasid ruler.

compliants

On 8/19/2022 at 9:33 PM, The Alchemist said:

This made al-Kafi more than half unreliable (as per the standards of Allama Majlisi).

 

Quote

Muhammad Taqi Majlisi says: The truth is that there is no one like Kulaini among the Shiite scholars, and whoever pays attention to the news and arrangement of his book, will realize that he has been  approved by Allah, the Blessed and Exalted.

 

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Najashi says: In his time, he was the sheikh and leader of the Shiites in Ray, and he recorded the most hadiths and is the most trusted of all.

Ibn Tawus says: The endorsement and trustworthiness of Sheikh Kulaini is common to all.

https://www.hawzahnews.com/news/379285/۲۰-سال-زمان-برای-نوشتن-کتاب-الکافی

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/الکافی_(کتاب)

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On 8/21/2022 at 1:41 PM, Ashvazdanghe said:

Salam your statement is not true about Majlisi which Majlisi has chosen strongest hadith between multiple hadith with same content in al-Kafi so therefore he has not called other half unreliable but he called it weaker narretions.

What does dhaeef means? Weaker chain of transmissions which are certainly unreliable to greater extent.

On 8/21/2022 at 2:58 PM, Ashvazdanghe said:

Sheikh al-Kulaini was an distinguished scholar. OP is not questioning his abilities and intent. You've not presented any answer for the OP.

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21 minutes ago, The Alchemist said:

What does dhaeef means? Weaker chain of transmissions which are certainly unreliable to greater extent.

Salam your definition is based on Sunni definition of Daheef (weak) 

Shia definition

Quote
 
 

A weak hadith is a hadith that does not have the characteristics of a valid (Sahih) hadith , a good hadith , and a reliable hadith , or whose narrators are accused of lying or deviant beliefs. Also, the hadiths whose chain of narrators does not have a chain of transmission are also called weak hadiths. There is a difference of opinion regarding the implementation of a weak hadith.

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/حدیث_ضعیف

Ṣaḥīḥ Ḥadīth (Arabic: الحديث الصحيح, lit: Authentic Hadith) is a hadith which its chain of narrators would be connected to Imams (a) through Shi'a and trusted hadith narrators.

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Since there are some incorrect hadiths among hadith collections, religious scholars, based on rational and religious criteria, have established two sciences of rijal and diraya for characterization of various kinds of hadith. In the field of rijal, they consider the chain of narrators as well as individual narrators to evaluate the validity of hadiths; then they classified hadiths as follows: sahih, muwaththaqhasan (praised hadith), da'if (weak hadith).

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Sahih_(Hadith)

Reliable Hadith

Al-ḥadīth al-muwaththaq (Arabic: الحديث الموثق ) or reliable hadith is a hadith with a full continuous chain of transmitters up to the Infallible Imam (a), although one or more transmitters in the chain has deviated from Imamiyya, despite their reliability. For example, they might be Sunnis or of various Shiite sects other than Imamiyya, such as Fatahiyya and Waqifiyya, who do not believe in the Twelve Imams (a).

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Reliable_Hadith

Quote

Hadith Hasan (a good hadith)  is a narration in which one of the narrators or all of them are Imamiyya Madhhab and Mamdouh (endorsed ) ; But they are not trustworthy (Thiqa) and there is no clarity about their justice.[1]

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/حدیث_حسن

 

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34 minutes ago, The Alchemist said:

What does dhaeef means? Weaker chain of transmissions which are certainly unreliable to greater extent.

Salam your definition is based on Sunni definition of Daheef (weak) 

Shia definition

Quote
 
 

A weak hadith is a hadith that does not have the characteristics of a valid (Sahih) hadith , a good hadith , and a reliable hadith , or whose narrators are accused of lying or deviant beliefs. Also, the hadiths whose chain of narrators does not have a chain of transmission are also called weak hadiths. There is a difference of opinion regarding the implementation of a weak hadith.

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/حدیث_ضعیف

Ṣaḥīḥ Ḥadīth (Arabic: الحديث الصحيح, lit: Authentic Hadith) is a hadith which its chain of narrators would be connected to Imams (a) through Shi'a and trusted hadith narrators.

Quote

Since there are some incorrect hadiths among hadith collections, religious scholars, based on rational and religious criteria, have established two sciences of rijal and diraya for characterization of various kinds of hadith. In the field of rijal, they consider the chain of narrators as well as individual narrators to evaluate the validity of hadiths; then they classified hadiths as follows: sahih, muwaththaqhasan (praised hadith), da'if (weak hadith).

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Sahih_(Hadith)

Reliable Hadith

Al-ḥadīth al-muwaththaq (Arabic: الحديث الموثق ) or reliable hadith is a hadith with a full continuous chain of transmitters up to the Infallible Imam (a), although one or more transmitters in the chain has deviated from Imamiyya, despite their reliability. For example, they might be Sunnis or of various Shiite sects other than Imamiyya, such as Fatahiyya and Waqifiyya, who do not believe in the Twelve Imams (a).

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Reliable_Hadith

Quote

Hadith Hasan (a good hadith)  is a narration in which one of the narrators or all of them are Imamiyya Madhhab and Mamdouh (endorsed ) ; But they are not trustworthy (Thiqa) and there is no clarity about their justice.[1]

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/حدیث_حسن

 

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35 minutes ago, The Alchemist said:

Weaker chain of transmissions which are certainly unreliable to greater extent.

 

Some have called the weak hadith the injured hadith. [2]

Ayatollah Sobhani believes that a weak hadith is different from a fake hadith . Reciting a fake hadith is not permissible, but a weak hadith can be used as a reference for understanding the correct hadith . [3]

Regarding the degrees of weak hadith, it has been said that the more a weak hadith is far from the conditions of authenticity of the hadith, including more number of narrators [in chain], the weaker the narration will be. [4]

Quote


An example of weak hadiths is the narration that is mentioned in Sheikh Tusi's Kitab al-Ghaibah , according to which there will be twelve Mahdis after the twelvth Imam . [5] Shiite scholars, including Fazl bin Hassan Tabarsi and Mohammad Baqer Majlesi, have considered this narration to be weak. [6]

According to Sunni scholars, the definition of weak hadith is not much different from the definition of Shia , although they differ from each other in the method and example of the narrator. [7]

 

Acting on a weak hadith
There is a difference of opinion about acting on a weak hadith. [8] From the point of view of some, if the action based on  weak news is wellknown , it is considered an acceptable (Maqbool مقبول) hadith . [9] One of the most famous hadiths that are weak and accepted is the hadith of Umar bin Hanzalah . [10] Shahid Thani , while quoting the opinion of most Shiite scholars, considers it okay to report weak news if it is related to stoies or sermons or the reward of some actions. [11]

Quote

 

Types of weak hadith

Weak hadith has many characteristics based on the conditions of transmission and narrators. Some of the most famous of these attributes are hadith mowquf and hadith mursal . [12]

 

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/حدیث_ضعیف

https://fa-wikishia-net.translate.goog/view/حدیث_ضعیف?_x_tr_sl=auto&_x_tr_tl=en&_x_tr_hl=fa&_x_tr_pto=wapp

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Mursal ḥadīth (Arabic: حدیث مُرسَل) is a terminology in hadith sciences and diraya, referring to a hadith one or more transmitters of which are left out or omitted. There is a disagreement among scholars as to whether mursal hadiths are reliable. Some of them believe that all mursal hadiths are reliable, but many Shiite scholars believe in the unreliability of such hadiths, except in certain cases, such as the mursal hadiths of al-Mashayikh al-Thalatha (the Three Masters),the People of Consensusal-Shaykh al-Saduqal-Shaykh al-Tusi, and so on.

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Mursal_Hadith

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53 minutes ago, The Alchemist said:

Weaker chain of transmissions which are certainly unreliable to greater extent.

مرآة العقول

An Arabic commentary on al-Kafi is written by Thagha al-Islam Kulaini. Allameh Majlisi wrote this book based on the four divisions of hadith (authentic - weak - reliable - good). In the introduction of the book, Majlesi says: the presence of news in the likes of such valid principles makes it permissible to act on it, but we are forced to refer to their document when there is a overlap to prefer the traditions over each other, because the validity of all the narrations in the book does not contradict the fact that some of they are stronger[3]

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/مرآة_العقول_(کتاب)

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20 minutes ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

مرآة العقول

An Arabic commentary on al-Kafi is written by Thagha al-Islam Kulaini. Allameh Majlisi wrote this book based on the four divisions of hadith (authentic - weak - reliable - good). In the introduction of the book, Majlesi says: the presence of news in the likes of such valid principles makes it permissible to act on it, but we are forced to refer to their document when there is a overlap to prefer the traditions over each other, because the validity of all the narrations in the book does not contradict the fact that some of they are stronger[3]

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/مرآة_العقول_(کتاب)

A dhaeef hadith is never equal to a saheeh hadith. In fiqhi matters, perhaps dhaeef hadith does not hold much value.

Weakness in asnaad (of narrations in al-Kafi) solely occurred due to the fact that Sheikh al-Kulaini focused on collecting narrations of Imams (عليه السلام) other than the Imam of Time (عليه السلام).

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21 minutes ago, The Alchemist said:

What does dhaeef means? Weaker chain of transmissions which are certainly unreliable to greater extent.

Salam your definition is based on Sunni definition of Daheef (weak) 

Shia definition

Quote
 
 

A weak hadith is a hadith that does not have the characteristics of a valid (Sahih) hadith , a good hadith , and a reliable hadith , or whose narrators are accused of lying or deviant beliefs. Also, the hadiths whose chain of narrators does not have a chain of transmission are also called weak hadiths. There is a difference of opinion regarding the implementation of a weak hadith.

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/حدیث_ضعیف

Ṣaḥīḥ Ḥadīth (Arabic: الحديث الصحيح, lit: Authentic Hadith) is a hadith which its chain of narrators would be connected to Imams (a) through Shi'a and trusted hadith narrators.

Quote

Since there are some incorrect hadiths among hadith collections, religious scholars, based on rational and religious criteria, have established two sciences of rijal and diraya for characterization of various kinds of hadith. In the field of rijal, they consider the chain of narrators as well as individual narrators to evaluate the validity of hadiths; then they classified hadiths as follows: sahih, muwaththaqhasan (praised hadith), da'if (weak hadith).

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Sahih_(Hadith)

Reliable Hadith

Al-ḥadīth al-muwaththaq (Arabic: الحديث الموثق ) or reliable hadith is a hadith with a full continuous chain of transmitters up to the Infallible Imam (a), although one or more transmitters in the chain has deviated from Imamiyya, despite their reliability. For example, they might be Sunnis or of various Shiite sects other than Imamiyya, such as Fatahiyya and Waqifiyya, who do not believe in the Twelve Imams (a).

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Reliable_Hadith

Quote

Hadith Hasan (a good hadith)  is a narration in which one of the narrators or all of them are Imamiyya Madhhab and Mamdouh (endorsed ) ; But they are not trustworthy (Thiqa) and there is no clarity about their justice.[1]

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/حدیث_حسن

 

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1 hour ago, The Alchemist said:

dhaeef means?

Hadith Dha'eef (weak Hadith)

A Hadith is weak if none of the conditions of Sahih, Hasan or Mowathaq is found in it. The narrators or transmitters of a weak Hadith are known to be unjust, afflicted by immoral characters or are known for fabricating the Hadith.

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Hadith Maqbool (Accepted Hadith)

A Maqbool Hadith is the one that the scholars considered it acceptable and acted upon it whether it is a Sahih or Hasan or even a weak Hadith. The most famous Maqbool Hadith is the one narrated by Omar Ibn Al-Hanzalah. 13

https://www.al-islam.org/sciences-hadith-mansour-leghaei/meeting-9-science-al-mostalahaat-part-2

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Maqbulat 'Umar b. Hanzala

Maqbūla ʿUmar b. Ḥanẓala (Arabic: مَقبولة عُمَر بن حَنظَلة) is a well-known hadith from Imam al-Sadiq (a) appealed to in some crucial issues in fiqh (jurisprudence) and usul al-fiqh, such as the issue of ta'arud al-adilla (conflict between pieces of evidence), wilaya al-faqih, etc. The hadith is transmitted by 'Umar b. Hanzala.

 

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He asked Imam al-Sadiq (a) questions about the judicial authority to whom the Shi'as should refer and the way conflicting hadiths should be reconciled or preferred over one another. In books of rijal of the early centuries, there is no comment about the reliability or unreliability of 'Umar b. Hanzala, but Shiite jurisprudents have accepted this hadith because of its content and the occurrence of People of Consensus in its chains of the transmitters, and issued fatwas on its basis. Thus, the hadith came to be known as "maqbula" (accepted). The hadith is cited by al-Kulaynial-Shaykh al-Saduq, and al-Shaykh al-Tusi in the Four Books.

 

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Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi writes that the hadith has been transmitted from 'Umar b. Hanzala through different chains from Dawud b. al-Husayn-who is a Waqifi but reliable transmitter of hadiths- there is no comment on 'Umar b. Hanzala's reliability or unreliability, but al-Shahid al-Thani considered him as reliable. 

 

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Content

The hadith is appealed to in some crucial issues of fiqh and usul al-fiqh, such the conflict between pieces of evidence (particularly, conflicts between hadiths), wilaya al-faqih, etc.

The hadith has two parts:

  1. The first part of 'Umar b. Hanzala's question from Imam al-Sadiq (a) concerns the judicial authority to whom the Shi'as should refer. This part has been appealed to in order to prove wilaya al-faqih.
  2. The second part is concerned with the ways to prefer some of the conflicting hadiths over the others. This part has been very helpful with respect to the issue of conflicting hadiths in fiqh.

Application to the Issue of Wilaya al-Faqih

Many Shiite jurisprudents have appealed to this hadith in their discussions of wilaya al-faqih to show its legitimacy. This is based on the remark by Imam al-Sadiq (a) in this hadith: "I have made him a ruler for you". The remark is said to show that a faqih (jurisprudent) is appointed by the Imam (a) as the ruler of the Shi'as.

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Maqbulat_'Umar_b._Hanzala

a brief of narration 

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Umar bin Hanzalah says, I asked Imam Sadiq ((عليه السلام).) about two of our friends (i.e., Shiites) who had a dispute between them regarding a loan or inheritance, and they had gone to the judges for judgment. Is this correct?
He said: Whoever refers to them regarding right claims or wrong claims, has actually referred to Taghut (i.e. unjust ruling power); And whatever he takes according to their ruling, he actually takes it unlawfully; Although what he receives is his fixed right; Because he took it by the decree and by the vote of the tyrant and that power which Allah commanded to disbelieve to it.

 

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I asked: What should they do?

He said: They should look and see who is among you who has narrated our hadith, who has studied our halal and haram, and who has become an expert and knows our rulings and laws... They should accept him as a judge and referee. because I have made him ruler over you.

 

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I said, what if each of them made a person a judge and they were satisfied that those two persons would be overseers for them, and those two judges gave different rulings, and both of them had hadiths from you, and their hadiths were different? [What then?]
He said: The ruling of the one who is more just and jurisprudent and more truthful and pious in narrating the hadith is more correct, and the ruling of the other person should not be taken into account....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

I said, if both of them are equal in this respect and are desired by the [tyrant or unjust] rulers? He said: If that is the case, you should wait until you reach the presence of Imam [Masoom/infallible], because waiting for a mistake is better than falling into destruction.

https://fa.wikishia.net/view/مقبوله_عمر_بن_حنظلة (Contains full hadith in Arabic & Farsi)

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addendum

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  • Mu'allaq hadith: a hadith with an omitted transmitter at the beginning of its chain of transmitters.

 

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Mursal ḥadīth (Arabic: حدیث مُرسَل) is a terminology in hadith sciences and diraya, referring to a hadith one or more transmitters of which are left out or omitted. 

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Mursal_Hadith

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