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In the Name of God بسم الله

The Qurʼānic View of the Gospel (Blogging Theology) Dr. Khalil Andani

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Dr. Andani gives an impressive explanation of "al-Kitab" and "al-Hikma" and how these terms are used universally and associated with all prophets in the general sense during the Meccan Period...then specifically, how every time Jesus (a) is mentioned the terms "Taurat wa Injil" are likewise mentioned is similarly interesting in the Medinan surahs...notice the areas of disagreement between Dr. Khalil Andani and Dr. Ali Ataie...like Dr. Khalil, I too believe when Qurʼān refers to "Injil" it's referring to a verbal revelation and isn't alluding to an actual or tangible (i.e. written) document like the Arabic Diatessaron. 

Edited by Eddie Mecca
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ʾĀyah 10:94 "And if thou (O Muhammad) art in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto thee, then question those who read the Scripture (that was) before thee. Verily the Truth from thy Lord hath come unto thee. So be not thou of the waverers." Of course Muhammad (peace be upon him) doesn't doubt but we (Muslims) doubt and often when Allah monologues with the Prophet, He's indirectly addressing us through him. Allah could possibly be referring to remnants of marginalized Ebionite communities long thought to be extinct here. The Ebionites (first generation Jewish-Christians) fell into obscurity and eventually vanished altogether due to persecution by the Europeans (i.e. Roman Empire) and Trinitarians. There's an opinion by some nonreligious, Jewish and Muslim scholars that a small contingent of Ebionites survived and migrated to the Arabian Peninsula and hence resisted the sectarian cleansing efforts of the Trinitarians..   

"After the end of the First Jewish–Roman War, the importance of the Jerusalem church began to fade. Jewish Christianity became dispersed throughout the Jewish diaspora in the Levant, where it was slowly eclipsed by Gentile Christianity, which then spread throughout the Roman Empire without competition from Jewish Christian sects. Once the Jerusalem church was eliminated during the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135, the Ebionites gradually lost influence and followers. Some modern scholars, such as Hyam Maccoby, argue the decline of the Ebionites was due to marginalization and persecution by both Jews and Christians. Following the defeat of the rebellion and the expulsion of Jews from Judea, Jerusalem became the Gentile city of Aelia Capitolina. Many of the Jewish Christians residing at Pella renounced their Jewish practices at this time and joined to the mainstream Christian church. Those who remained at Pella and continued in obedience to the Law were labeled heretics. In 375, Epiphanius records the settlement of Ebionites on Cyprus, but by the fifth century, Theodoret of Cyrrhus reported that they were no longer present in the region.

The Ebionites are still attested, if as marginal communities, down to the 7th century. Some modern scholars argue that the Ebionites survived much longer and identify them with a sect encountered by the historian Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad around the year 1000. There is another possible reference to Ebionite communities existing around the 11th century in northwestern Arabia in Sefer Ha'masaot, the "Book of the Travels" of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, a rabbi from Spain. These communities were located in two cities, Tayma and "Tilmas", possibly Sa`dah in Yemen. The 12th century Muslim historian Muhammad al-Shahrastani mentions Jews living in nearby Medina and Hejaz who accepted Jesus as a prophetic figure and followed traditional Judaism, rejecting mainstream Christian views. Some (secular) scholars argue that they contributed to the development of the Islamic view of Jesus due to exchanges of Ebionite remnants with the first Muslims."

 

Edited by Eddie Mecca
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