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In the Name of God بسم الله

Does the Qur'an deny that the prophet performed miracles?

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zahralzu

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10:20:  They say: "If a sign were only sent down by his Lord for him!"; SO SAY: "The Unseen belongs only to Allah (God), so wait: I am waiting alongside you." 

13:7: Those who disbelieve say: "If only a sign were sent down from his Lord!" Yet you are only a warner; each folk has a guide.

29:50: And they said, 'Why is it that no signs (miracles) have been sent down to him from his Lord?" Say, "Signs are only with Allah, and I am only a plain warner."

29:51: Is it not sufficient for them that We have sent down to you the Book that is being recited to them? Surely in it there is mercy and advice for a people who believe.

 

Are these verses denying the prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had any miracle besides the quran? and that the pagans/jews/christians were asking for too much when demmanding for a miracle before accepting his prophecy? and do these verses not contradict our hadith in which the prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) performed thousands of miracles?

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Salam these verse are indicating that holy Quran is an everlasting miracle which has continued  until now & it will last until judgment  day which nobody could repeat it but on the other hand miracles which have done by other prophets (عليه السلام) has been limited to their era & not continued  until our era also some types of miracles likewise walking on water have been  remade by fooling eyes & other senses likewise Hollywood movies which also because prophet  Muhammad (pbu) has been  last messenger  so he could repeat all previous  miracles but greatness of miracle of Holy Quran has has superiority over all miracles.

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Salam. Prophets can perform miracles by the will of Allah.

And [We disposed] for Solomon the tempestuous wind which blew by his command toward the land which We have blessed, and We have knowledge of all things. (Al-Anbiya 81)

As you see, Prophets can perform miracles by the grace of the Lord. However, they reject and not perform miracles when the other party is not sincere. You say "throwing pearls before swine" in English for such cases I suppose. Why perform miracles when the other party is not sincere in their request and belittle the signs of God? Or when they ask for their doom? Or when they ask for impossible things?

See Surah al-Isra 90-93 to know what I mean. They are asking the Prophet to show God to them literally (which is impossible), or that Prophet brings them worldly materials (which is the opposite of what the Prophethood about) or that sky falls upon them (their doom) or other stupid things.

But when they are sincere, the Prophet performs miracles even if they don't ask for miracles.

With your permission my dear friend, I will quote related parts from my fav. books.

Edited by islamicmusic
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Quote

(i) Miracles:

Every Prophet raised by Allah was endowed with a kind of supernatural power by means of which he worked one or more miracles to prove the truth and Divinity of his message and mission.

The Holy Qur'an calls the miracles wrought by the Prophets by the will of Allah, 'Ayat' that is the sign of Prophethood. The Holy Qur'an says that in every age the people have asked the Prophets of their time to work some miracles for them. The demand being reasonable and logical, the Prophets acceded to it, because otherwise it was not possible for those who sought truth, to acknowledge their Prophethood. Anyway the Prophets declined to accede to a request for a miracle if it was made with an intention other than seeking truth. For example, if an offer was made in the form of a bargain and the people said to a Prophet that they would embrace his faith only if he worked a particular miracle, their request was ignored. However, the Holy Qur'an has recounted many miracles of the Prophets, such as bringing the dead to life, curing the incurable, speaking in the cradle, turning a staff into a serpent, describing the unknown and foretelling future events.

  Quote from the book Man and Universe by Martyr Ayatullah Murtaza Mutahhari

https://www.al-islam.org/man-and-universe-murtadha-mutahhari/

Quote

Denial of the Qur'an as a Miracle is to Negate it

Some people who are numerous in our time cannot understand the secret of a miracle, and though they wish to somehow accept the Qur'an, they deny its being a miracle, or even deny all miracles in the world, or offer frigid explanations or natural interpretations for all the miracles which are mentioned in the Qur'an such as the gaping of the sea for Moses or Moses's stick turning into a serpent. This is nothing but denying the Qur'an

The Qur'an describes in numerous verses the miracles of former prophets, thus proving the existence of miracles and showing that the Qur'an is one of these miracles. It is our duty to accept the invitation of the Qur'an as conscientious servants to ponder over this matter and discover its secret which is one of the great mysteries of Islamic teachings.

The Word 'Miracle'

The root of this word in Arabic means 'inability' and 'miracle' means an act which others are unable to do. Sometimes, instead of the word 'miracle' the word 'supernatural' is used. But neither of these two words has been used in the Qur'an. They are used by Islamic men of learning. Of course, the word 'miracle' is commonly used by Muslims, and may have also been used in the times of the Imams, but the word 'supernatural' was used only by the Ash'ari sect to mean 'miracle'. The Qur'an uses the word 'ayat' meaning 'sign' which is clearer than the other two.

Why has the Qur'an used 'Sign' for 'Miracle'?

'Ayat' means 'Sign' or 'a strong proof'. Why has the Qur'an used 'Sign' for 'Miracle? The reason is: A man may claim that he is an apostle of God to whom revelation is sent and therefore the people should accept him as he is quoting the words of God. Should the people believe him unquestionably or not?

There are three probabilities here: first: he may really be a messenger of God; second: he may be lying and is aware of his falsehood himself; third: he may have been misled by some mental and spiritual reaction in his own mind that made him believe about those revelations.

The third case often happens for the people who never lie or wish to lie, but are misled by some fancies.

When the Ghoreysh infidels called the Prophet a mad man, it was because he had such a fine record with people that they could not call him a liar. So in order to nullify his call, they said that he was suffering from mental illusions.

Thus, a man who claims to be a prophet must offer a strong proof in favour of his claim, and it is logical of people to demand such a proof, otherwise acceptance without proof is something foolish.

A miracle then is that sign or proof which confirms the claim of Prophethood. To clarify this, the following points will be discussed:

1. What is a miracle?

2. Is a miracle possible?

3. Has a miracle really happened?

4. How does a miracle attest to the veracity of a claimant?

5. The Prophet of Islam and Miracles

6. The Miracle of the Qur'an

What is a miracle?

Some people suppose that miracle is not a problem, but the important thing is to accept or reject God. They say if we believe in God, then miracles do not matter, for, we know that God has absolute power to do anything, to bring the dead back to life, turn a stick into a serpent, or take the Prophet within the space of a single moment from the temple of Mecca to the mosque of Jerusalem and to all the heavens.

But this matter is not so simple to suppose that by accepting God, all problems are solved. The reasons are as follows:

a) Some may define a miracle as something which may happen without a cause. But this is quite wrong, and it may have been coined by materialists or those who are in favour of a miracle, want to know the reason, and if it lacks a reason, it proves nothing.

Moreover , if (as an impossible hypothesis ) something happens without a cause , then nothing in the world can be proved, and hence no scientific natural, or philosophical principle remains steadfast and even the proof of God is shaken up. Why? Because we know God as the cause of Universe. If we suppose that there is no order in existence and things may appear without a cause, we cannot reject this probability that Universe has appeared without a cause. Thus, this definition of "miracle" is quite incorrect.2

b) Another group may say that a miracle is not the appearance of something without a cause. There is no exception to the Law of Causation, but another cause may take the place of the real cause. So, a miracle is the substitution of one cause for another.

For example, the true cause of the appearance of a human being is the intercourse between two other human beings. But if another cause replaces this one, it is a miracle.

Such a view shows ignorance of intellectual knowledge, for, if we admit that a system of cause
and effect rules over Universe, this system is not a conventional one which could be changed at will. Rather, it is a true, real and inviolable relationship. In other words, if in nature A is the cause of B, a real relationship exists between A and B, which neither A nor B can have with anything else other than themselves and hence none of them can exist without the other. Thus, nothing can have a cause and effect relationship with two things.3

c) There is a third definition for "miracle" to which the above intellectual objections do not apply, and that is: A miracle is neither the negation of the Law of Causation, nor a violation of and exception to it. It is beyond the principle of nature. There is a difference between "beyond the Law of Causation" and "beyond the principle of nature". A miracle is not the appearance of something out of the course of original cause, but in a way different from ordinary and natural course, so that supernatural interference is evident in it.

Thus, no cause replaces another to bring about a miracle, but the fact that a real and unalterable relationship exists between cause and effect is, in this way accepted and the issue of miracle is explained as follows:

The real causes of things for a man who wants to discover them through science and experiment are always unknown, and only God knows about them. Man can only have access to some conjunctions and relationships through science and experiment, which he must not take for causation.

Thus, a miracle is a phenomenon which occurs through a non-ordinary course which man has thought of as the only course.

Is a miracle possible?

The answer to this question was made explicit, to some extent, in the previous section, depending on our definition of a miracle. If we say a miracle is something which happens without a cause, then it is something impossible. And if we say that a miracle is the violation of the Law of Causation, and substitution of one cause for another, then again it is impossible.

But if we accept the third definition which is the exit of nature from the normal course of events, then a miracle is possible.

Hegel, the well-known European philosopher, has a statement on which he has laid the basis of many issues in his philosophy. He says there are a series of things which are indispensable for the intellect, the contrary of which is not possible, such as mathematical propositions, which he calls "analytical theorems". When in geometry you say the three angles of a triangle are equal to 180 degrees or two right angles, this is an intellectual requisite which admits of no other answer.

In philosophy and logic, the essential propositions belong to this kind. But there are a series of experimental issue with there being no indispensability about them. For instance, he says we have found by experience that water evaporates at 100 degrees of temperature. We call it as causation and consider heat to be the cause of evaporation. Similarly, when water freezes into ice at sub-zero temperature, we say cold is the cause of freezing. He says: These are not the requisites for intellect, and we give that verdict on the basis of experience, and had we since our birth experienced the contrary, namely heat for freezing and cold for evaporation, it would have made no difference to our intellect, since none of these two cases is indispensable to our intellect.

So far so good, and even Avicenna and others have paid attention to this matter and asked as to what should be done about natural sciences which are based on experience but it creates no necessity. Can experimental laws be brought under the criterion of philosophical causation? They say in cases where experience shows a relationship, such as heat causing evaporation, and cold causing freezing, there exists a real causation which cannot be replaced by another. But it is doubtful whether that cause is what we have discovered through our senses. Therefore, experimental sciences constantly change; one law is nullified and replaced by another.

For example, one day when they saw a stone, dropped from a height, falling down, they said the gravity is in the stone itself which tends to move towards the centre of the earth. They were unanimous about this verdict until Newton emerged and said the gravitational power lies in the earth which pulls the stone towards itself. This theory was followed by the theory of relativity which necessitated a re­appraisal of former laws and principles.

Therefore, it is an acknowledged truth that happenings are not without a cause, but it is not evident whether science can discover causes, and we should not call a relationship a cause. Neither heat nor cold, nor gravity are respectively the real causes of evaporation, freezing and fall of a stone. Such relationships are often subject to change.

Here, the difference between the principle of nature and Law of Causation becomes clear. For example, according to the principle of nature, a male and female must intercourse to produce an offspring. Is the authentic Law of Causation applicable here? Is it not possible for a cell in a womb to have the properties of the cells of both a male and a female?

Intellect does not negate this, but it says: Hitherto we have seen it occur only in one way, but there may be also another way, the secret of which is unknown to us, that by blowing into the female's ovum, it may obtain the property of a male's sperm. Thus, the Law of Causation has not been violated, but the principle of nature has, and that is the meaning of a miracle. In this sense, then, a miracle is possible.

Going back to Hegel's words, if someone claims to be a prophet and says his miracle is to draw a triangle of 190 degrees, he must, at once, be refuted, for, this is intellectually impossible, and a miracle does not make an intellectual impossibility feasible. Such a claim, in itself, is the reason for its falsehood. And again if someone claims Prophethood and says he can do something without a cause, it is false because it violates intellectual necessity.

But if someone claims to be able to perform something contrary to the principle of nature, the kind of thing for which, as Hegel says, "we have no reason to show its validity except that we have not experienced it before", we might accept it.

In other words, intellectual laws are absolute, and not conditional, while natural laws are conditional. In the case of a triangle, there exists no "if" about the total measure of its angles, but in natural laws there are conditions. For example, with regard to the Law of Gravity, we could say it is applicable if there is no obstacle in the way of objects.

In short, man has no power to discover real causes which are known only to God. He can only deduce relationships. The Qur'an says in Chapter "Divorce" (Talaq), Verse 31:

"And whoever trusts in Allah, He is sufficient for him; surely Allah attains His purpose."

Thus, there is no need of any apparent cause. But to prevent this supposition among the people that there is no cause and effect and predestination in the affairs of Universe, it says in the next part of the Verse:

"Allah indeed has appointed a measure for everything."

God can at His will do things in which there are not involved such means, that are known to man. These means act only as covers, and only God knows what the real cause is.

God can at His will acquaint human beings with the mysteries of cause and effect, and if anyone is allowed by God to know them, he can intervene in the affairs of the world, without acting contrary to the order of cause and effect. This is the meaning of what is stated in a narration saying that God's servant can be so close to Him that God becomes his eye to see, his ear to hear, and his hand to work with.

Can a Miracle really happen?

It is easy to answer this question, for, when a miracle is not above the Law of Causation, matters contrary to normal and natural processes, happen and have taken place frequently in the world.

Avicenna is quoted as saying: If you hear that a mystic has survived despite having eaten nothing for a month, do not get surprised, for this act, though contrary to the law of nature, does not go against the general law of existence. Ordinary people may die if they go without food for forty-eight hours, for their body is habitual to receiving food during this period. But a human being can, by strengthening his will power, check his body so much that even his heart-beat, breathing or digestion can be brought under his control.

Such examples are seen in ascetics who can control their breathing for a long time, and not breathe, while an ordinary person cannot do so even for a minute. This shows that the spirit is so strengthened as to dominate the body.

It is narrated that when Soviet leaders went on a visit to India, they were amazed at such things, and when they returned home they declared that such actions should be investigated at universities, as if this were a science by itself!

They had seen a man in a closed coffin being buried in a grave without any hole to let air in. When he was taken out after some time, he began to breathe. He seemed to have stopped breathing upon interment and resumed it upon coming out. There are many such examples, and strengthening will­power by practice accounts for them. ·

Thus, as a miracle is an act which is only contrary to natural laws, and considering the fact that prophets are, by God's grace, the most perfect human beings possessing the strongest spirits and the firmest will-power, it would be an easy task for them to perform miracles.

How does a miracle attest to the veracity of the claimant?

Logicians say that there are three kinds of indication;
1) Conventional,
2) Natural, and
3) Intellectual.

Conventional indication means treating something as the sign of another by agreement. For example, words indicate meaning: the word "bread" connotes something edible, and the word "water" something drinkable, while interchanging the place of these two by conventional would alter nothing. This is because there is no inherent relationship between a word and its meaning.

In the same way, traffic signs are conventional, and instead of 'green light' to indicate 'free passage', any other sign could have done.

Does a miracle denote the truth of Prophethood? Is there an agreement between God and his creatures that when they see someone performing miracles, they would know that he is sent by God and is telling the truth? Obviously not, for, God can send to the people whatever He wants through the Prophets, whose position we are going to prove.

Natural indication means experience, such as coughing as an indication of bronchitis, and quick beating of the pulse an index of fever, which are signs obtained through experience. A miracle does not belong to this category since it relates to experience.

Intellectual indication is based on reasoning and is like effect indicating the cause, which requires neither convention nor experience. A miracle belongs to this category.

The indication of a miracle may be described in two ways. It is said by a group that a miracle is a practical way of intellectual indication, such as deducing the satisfaction of a person from his action or from his silence. In jurisprudence, utterance of an impeccable person is considered as an acceptable reason, in the same way that the description of ablution by an impeccable person is an evidence for us. So is the absence of objection by the same person to our manner of ablution considered as an evidence of its correctness. And if we say: "Why should an impeccable person find fault with our ablution?" The answer is that if he did not do so, he would be encouraging ignorance, and such an innocent man abstains from a mean act.

These people say that a miracle attests to the veracity of Prophethood. So, if someone claims that he is sent by God, as God is aware of all actions of human beings, then his claim is made before God. And if he performed an extraordinary deed to prove his claim and attributed it either to himself or to God, it would be an evidence of his veracity. For, if he lied, God would not allow his deed to take place, since otherwise He would be encouraging ignorance.

But a number of scholars say that the above group has not understood the truth of a miracle, for, they have taken a miracle to be an act which God performs directly through a prophet without the latter's interference. It is God who brings a dead man back to life not Jesus who just sits by the dead.

But the issue goes beyond this. There is a relationship between a miracle and the performer of a miracle, so that this action would not be possible without him. A miracle indicates the spiritual perfection of a saint, and in performing a miracle his human power is connected to divine force, that is, God has granted him ability and will-power above that of a human being.

The aforementioned points show that a divine saint attains a position by his perfect obedience to God and by his practical asceticism, so that he gains a strong will by which he can dominate nature, and act as God's manifestation on earth. In this way, when saints perform a supernatural deed, they themselves are doing so with an ability above that a human being.

It is well-known that when Imam Ali with a single hand tore away the gate of the Kheibar Fort which fifty men could hardly lift, and threw it aside, he said: "I swear to God that I did not pluck off the gate of Kheibar by virtue of physical force, but a divine power supported me".

So Ali is saying that he performed the deed, but with a God-given strength. So Jesus' act of reviving a dead man is done by him with God's help. Thus, a miracle as an indication of the truthfulness of Prophethood and an intellectual indication is one hundred percent logical.

The Prophet of Islam and Miracles

Some Orientalists and Christian priests have expressed certain views as objections to the Qur'an and to our Prophet, which have been accepted, in a different form, by some Islamic writers, too. These relate to the miracles of the Prophet of Islam.

The Christian group has stated that according to the Qur'an, the Prophet himself abstained from miracles which he was asked to perform, and they have quoted certain verses in this connection which we will refer to afterwards.

Some Islamic writers of recent times have said that a miracle belongs to the era of the childhood of man when he was still a savage, and had not yet reached the stage of knowledge, logic and reasoning. As it was not possible to convince the people through logic and knowledge, the Prophets resorted to miracles. They say that a miracle is a childish language specific to children. So, when human beings attained mental maturity and could be able to understand the language of logic and reasoning, there was no longer any need for miracles. When a prophet is ordained and he offers a plan of reforms and laws for man's evolutionary advance, men of intellect and logic immediately accept him and submit to him.

The distinction between the Prophet of Islam and other prophets is that his advent is concurrent historically with the process of transition from wildness to thoughtfulness.

Iqbal Lahuri says: "The Prophet of Islam exists at a historical juncture, the past of which belongs to the childhood and wildness of man, and its future is related to the era of science and logic. For this reason, the nature of his revelation is different from that of others, and fundamentally his advent was to lead people to thoughtfulness and reasoning. Iqbal goes on to say that the source of the Prophet's mission, which is revelation, belongs to the past, and the spirit of his mission, which calls upon intellect, logic, knowledge, experience, experiment and absorbing lessons of history, belong to the future".

From the viewpoint of Iqbal, this is the philosophy of his being the last Prophet. This illustrates two points:
1) End of Prophethood

2) Absence of necessity for miracles.

This is what Iqbal states, and some other Islamic writers have followed it. In this connection, we could say briefly that in their philosophy of the "end of prophethood" they have made a big mistake. Iqbal has accepted the question of the end of "prophethood", but his accounting for it is incorrect. His philosophy reaches a conclusion which is contrary to his own expectation. He intends by this means to prove the end of prophethood, but if what he says is true, then unfortunately it leads to the end of religion, not of prophethood.

The above writers mention two points: firstly that during the period of mental maturity of man, there is no need for a miracle; secondly, for this same reason Islam has, according to the verses of Qur'an, constantly refused to produce miracles.

Concerning the first point, it is not true that there is no need for miracles in the time of man's mental maturity, for, as we said before, the Qur'an refers to such an act as a 'sign' not a 'miracle'. Sign of what? A sign that this man's words are not his own, but God's. If a prophet spoke logically with people and proved his word by means of reasoning and experience, he would be a sage and a man of learning, and that is different from, a prophet.

Philosophers' words are at the level of human beings but prophets want to say much more than that. Their words are not only logical and intellectual, but they also observe that these are not their own words; they are commanded to say so, that is, they have received revelations. The Prophet says: "I have one tongue directed at you, but my spirit is connected elsewhere, and I communicate to you what I am told, I am a messenger of God, and as a prophet, I deliver His message".

Suppose Socrates says that he has a specific philosophy in ethics. If we find his words logical, we accept them. But if he says that his words are not his own but God's message which he announces to us, we require him to prove it, for then the guarantee of it, the reward for obeying it, and the punishment for rejecting it, are all related to God, and not to him.

Many people speak logically, and if we do not obey them it does not matter. But if someone said that his words were God's words, we would be disobedient for not accepting them, and we would be showing devotion to God if we are obedient.

Therefore, it is true that a prophet can, in an era of mental maturity, prove his words to the people by logic and reasoning, but the truth of his words, and their belonging to God are two separate matters.

The Prophet of God may say: "Do not drink wine because it is harmful and filthy". You ask for a reason, and he says, "Look at those addicts and note what has happened to their nerves, digestion and liver, and see how the drunkards have damaged the society. Statistics on the number of crimes committed as a consequence of drinking go to prove its evil.

Logical and intelligent people will agree that it is a very logical instruction and one should abstain from drinking. But if this is conveyed as a message of God, a miracle is necessary to affirm his being a divine messenger.

The second point was that some people claim that according to the testimony of the Qur'an, the Holy Prophet refused to perform miracles and this shows that he had no miracles. To prove this, they have quoted a number of verses, the most explicit of which are from Chapter "the Israelites", Verses 90-93:

"And they say: We will, by no means, believe in you until you cause a fountain to gush forth from the earth for us, or you should have a garden of palms and grapes in the midst of which you should cause rivers to flow forth, gushing out, Or you should cause the heavens to come down upon us in pieces as you think, or bring Allah and the angels face to face (with us.) Or you should have a house of gold, or you should ascend into heaven, and we will not believe in your ascending until you bring down to us a book which we may read, Say: Glory be to my Lord; am I aught but a mortal apostle?"

Mecca is a dry and grassless land. There was no flowing water at that time, and the water that is consumed now there and in Mena and Arafat comes mostly from the Ta'if stream. Ta'if is 72 Kilometres south of Mecca, and Zobeida, wife of Harun-e-Rashid, the powerful Caliph who controlled all the public funds, ordered to carve a water-way through the mountains and let a stream flow from Ta'if to Mecca. But in the time of the Prophet, there was no water in Mecca except the Zamzam spring, which did not have as much water as it has now.

The Ghoreysh heathen, who were opposed to the Prophet, asked for the following miracles in order to believe him:

1. To make a spring gush out of the earth.

2. To have a garden of palms and grapes which Mecca lacked, with a stream flowing through it.

3. To make the heavens fall now as it is claimed that they will on Resurrection.

4. To bring down God and angels for them to see.

5. To have a house full of gold.

6. To ascend heaven and bring back a letter addressed to them so that they may believe him.

And God says to the Prophet: "Tell them that you are only a human being and a messenger of God".

On the basis of the last sentence, the above people and Christians claim that he had no miracles. But they are wrong in their claim for the following reasons:

We said before that a miracle is not an impossible thing. Impossible means something that intellectually cannot be done and is impracticable even with infinite power. When something is non-existent, it cannot exist in any way. But asking for a miracle is not asking for the impossible, for, a miracle is something out of the normal course of events, requiring only a supernatural power.

We also said that all prophets must have miracles, but only as a sign and evidence of the truth of their claim that they are sent by God. But are all prophets obliged to comply with whatever people demand? If so, they will sink to the level of magicians. People love to be amused, and each person desires something, and then all this turns into a joke.

A prophet confines his acts of miracle to the extent of proving that he is sent by God, and after that there is no necessity for him to perform miracles. There is no obligation for him to satisfy people's whims and wishes. It is enough for them to be sure of the truth.

Another point is that Prophets are not dealers to make a bargain with people to pay them something in return for their faith. The people are even encouraged by them to spend and fight in the way of God. Even so, the prophets are not willing to accept every kind of contribution. If they feel that a gift is for ostentation, it is refused. Or if a man offers his service as a soldier of Islam in order to have his name recorded in history, again he is rejected because he has shown no devotion in the way of God.

The demands of the Ghoreysh were in the form of a proposal for a bargain, to gain some benefits, and not a demand for a miracle to be converted. Asking for a spring, or a garden or orchard is to seek profit for oneself. Asking for the heavens to fall is meaningless since it would mean the death of all, and what is the use of such a miracle? Asking for the presence of God and angels is the demand for something impossible, and if God could be seen and heard by human beings, what need would there be for a prophet? The meaning of this demand is to turn God into a creature, and this is impossible. The same applies to angels, for they are not material beings, and such a demand is unreasonable. Asking for a house full of gold is again to seek profit, as if one understands nothing but money. The last demand, too, was only a pretext, and even if the Prophet could have produced such a letter, they would have said that he had written it himself.

These demands are, therefore, either profit seeking or stupid, and none of them is for the purpose of discovering truth. Therefore, the above writers have mistakenly supposed that such demands were similar to the demands of former peoples from their prophets. Had they made logical requests for the sake of discovering truth, the Prophet would not have refused them.

Another interesting point is that the Holy Qur'an has described many miracles of former prophets such as Noah, Lot, Saleh, Moses, Abraham, Jesus and many others, none of which can be doubted. It is reasonable to suppose that the Qur'an quotes so many miracles of prophets, yet the Prophet of Islam refuses to perform any on the excuse of being only a prophet? Or were those acts not miracles? Therefore, the meaning of the Prophet's answer is that what they demanded were not miracles, otherwise he would have complied accordingly.

Moreover, the Qur'an itself is a miracle as we will explain later. But did the Prophet have no other miracle? The Qur'an mentions some of them, such as the following: Chapter "the Israelites", Verse 1:

"Glory be to Him who made His servant to go on a night from the Sacred Mosque to the remote mosque of which We have blessed the precincts, so that We may show to him some of Our signs; surely He is the Hearing and Seeing."

This Verse describes an extraordinary physical journey of the Prophet in one night to places very far from each other (Mecca to Palestine) at a time when the fastest means of transport was a camel. Is this not a miracle? When this verse descended, the Ghoreysh infidels asked him: "What evidence have you for this journey?" The Prophet described a caravan which was on its way from Damascus to Mecca, its halting place and its acts. The Ghoreysh then realised that he had passed close by the caravan.

There is another story of a miracle by the Prophet in the Qur'an in Chapter "the Moon" (Qamar) Verses 1and 2:

"The hour drew nigh and the moon did rend asunder. And if they see a miracle they turn aside and say "Transient magic."

The Miracle of the Qur'an

We know that Muhammad is the Seal of Prophets, and his religion is the last and eternal one, and other Prophets have come as a prologue to him. In fact, they passed the preliminary stages when mankind, too, was undergoing its early phases, preparing for the final stage, which was the advent of Muhammad.

What is the explanation of this finality? I have discussed this subject in a little pamphlet called "The Finality of Prophethood;" and here I will mention a few points about it.

The creed of Muhammad has many differences with other religions, one of which is its main miracle. The miracles of other Prophets have been connected with natural events, such as reviving a dead man, a stick turning into a serpent, the sea going asunder and such likes.

Each of these is a transient issue, taking place at a certain time without lasting. For instance, a man is brought back to life, lives for some time and dies, and that is the end of it. A stick may become a serpent temporarily and once again return to its original state. Even some of the miracles of Muhammad are of this type. His journey from one place to another occurs at a special time, and then it all ends.

·But, for a religion which is to last many centuries, such short-lived miracles are not enough as it requires an eternal miracle. Thus, his principal miracle takes the form of a book. Other prophets have had books as well as miracles, but their books were not miracles, nor their miracles books.

Moses had the Old Testament, but he said that the book was not his miracle, his miracle was something else. The Prophet of Islam, however, had his book as his special miracle beside other miracles.

Another point about the last religion, which is also a secret of its finality, is that its duration compared with those of other religions resembles a specialised course by which man has become a clear-sighted expert.

It is in this era that in religious matters we can get expert theologians. Such men did not exist in the time of other religions, because religious jurisprudence belongs to this era. What a religious jurisprudent does today by his knowledge and reasoning was performed by the former prophets by means of revelation and prophethood. Moreover, the ground was not prepared for such expertness in those times, for, criteria and general principles are a pre-requisite for issuing a verdict on details, and the past religions lacked these criteria and general principles.

There are two terms commonly used for prophets: prophets with divine laws such as Abraham, Moses and Jesus, and prophets who followed their predecessors and had no divine laws of their own. What a religious jurisprudent does today is similar to the acts of the second group of prophets. Of course, such a jurisprudent in addition to this, also acts as a leader and spiritual magistrate, and directs people to do good deeds and forbids evil acts. He is a reformer who checks mischiefs.

In the religion of Islam, a prophet is not to be sent to do the work of experts, for, jurisprudents perform this duty. That explains the meaning of an utterance of the Prophet, saying: "The religious men of learning among my people are like the prophets of the Israelites". It refers to those prophets who only propagated the religion of Moses. In this sense then, jurisprudents are successors to the prophets who do not have divine laws.

Reasons for the Qur'an Being a Miracle

There are two miraculous aspects of the Qur'an: literal and spiritual. By literal aspect is meant its artistic beauty, and by spiritual sense its intellectual and scientific aspect. Beauty is related to technique and knowledge is related to discovery of truth.

We can divide beauty into two kinds:
1) Sensual beauty.
2) Mental beauty.

Sensual beauty is also of two types: auditory and visual. The beauty of a garden and flowers is visual, and the beauty of music and song is auditory. The beauty of language is mental. A fine piece of poetry or prose is most attractive. The mixture of prose and poetry of Sa'di with which the poet begins his "Golestan" is of this kind. Sa'di died seven hundred years ago, but his Golestan has still preserved its beauty because it is fluent and eloquent.

Gha'ani, the Shirazi poet, is from the same town as Sa'di. He tried to write a book to rival Sa'di's "Golestan", but could not succeed. It is narrated that in a cheerful party, a minstrel began melodiously reciting a poem of Sa'di which perfectly fitted the occasion. When Gha'ani heard it, he was so amazed at the beauty of it that he said: "This man has left nothing unsaid for other poets", and threw his own book of poetry into the fire. Gha'ani was a good poet, but when he compared his own work with Sa'di's, he had to admit the latter's exalted position as a poet over himself.

What has preserved the position of Hafez and Mowlavi? Their eloquence, clarity, originality, and charm.

All those who have a mastery of language and words, and are familiar with the Qur'an, and even those Europeans who are acquainted with Arabic language, have admitted that the divine book is unrivalled in beauty, and eloquence. Firstly, the Qur'an has a particular style; it is neither prose nor poetry. Unlike poetry it has no rhyme or rhythm, and has made no use of extravagant imagery which is a peculiarity of a poem. Sometimes, it is said that the best poetry is the most untrue, but in spite of all exaggerations, it is attractive because of its imagery and arrangement of words. Moreover, beauty of language is attainable in special topics such as love, epic, eulogy or satire, and no poet can be very artistic in describing spiritual matters, for the sense cannot be interfered with, and so he resorts to metaphor to convey the meanings. For instance in speaking of knowledge he alludes to it as 'wine', and in referring to the glory of God, he uses the metaphor 'lock of hair'.

But the Qur'an presents spiritual issues in a most fluent way. The Chapter "Hamd" which was discussed at the beginning of this book is a fine example of this. Every Muslim recites it lifelong and at least ten times a day while offering prayer, and yet it is so sweet and pleasant that it is never tiresome or boring.

The Qur'an is not prose either, for prose lacks melody, whereas the Qur'an is wonderfully melodious. Have you ever seen a prose book, either religious or non-religious, which would lend itself to tuneful readings in different styles?

The Qur'an is the only book which can be recited in that way, so that a systematic study of it is made in this respect, and various resonances can be used for it depending on the meaning of the verses concerned, illustrating fear, encouragement, consolation etc.

Have you heard the Old or New Testament being recited melodiously in Christian or Jewish lands? If they do, it would sound strange and become intolerable. Can Sa'di's prose be recited melodiously? This is a special quality of the Qur'an, which has had no precedent, and nothing like it afterwards in the Arabic language.

An interesting point about all those who retained the Qur'an by heart and adored it deeply, is that though they were masters of the language of their time, they could not produce even two lines which would resemble those in the Qur'an.

Imam Ali is admittedly the most eloquent man whose discourses in the "Nahjul-Balagha" have never been rivalled by any Arab writer or orator, and these have preserved their magnificence. He heard the first Verse of the Qur'an at the age of ten or eleven, possessed great talents and was thoroughly familiar with the Qur'an. But when we compare "Nahjul-Balagha" with the Qur'an, we find two quite different styles. Even when Imam Ali, in the middle of his fine discourse, quotes a verse of the Qur'an, you feel as if a brilliant star has suddenly shone in a dark sky.

This is Verse 30 from Chapter "Yunus":

"There shall every soul become acquainted with what is sent before, and they shall be brought back to Allah, their true Patron, and what they devised shall escape from them."

In this verse, Resurrection has been so clearly portrayed that one feels to be in the presence of his Lord after having seen so many false lords.

The era of the Qur'an is that of eloquence and rhetoric. It is well-known that there was a market named Akkaz where, in sacred months when fighting was forbidden, artistic skills in poetry were displayed, and the best poems selected and hung on the walls of the Kaaba. There were seven famous odes which had, for long, been placed there. When the Qur'an was revealed, these poems were removed and taken away. Lebeyd-bin-Ziad was a first-rate poet who after embracing Islam and becoming familiar with the Qur'an, abstained from composing poetry, and constantly recited the Qur'an instead. When he was asked why he did not apply his skill in the world of Islam, he said: "I can no longer do it. If this is the word, all other words are nonsensical. I enjoy the Qur'an so much that no pleasure can be compared with it." The Qur'an challenges all people to produce even one verse similar to that of this Holy Book.

Yet so many enemies of the Qur'an, both when it descended and afterwards, have not been able to take up this challenge, and even if they have tried, it has been a failure.

Thus, one of the reasons for the miraculousness of the Qur'an is its artistic aspect in the form of fluency and eloquence, combined with a charm which penetrated the hearts and won them over. The fact that infidels called the Prophet a magician was an implied confession that they could not rival the words of the Qur'an. When they saw a man, devoid of faith, being so deeply attracted to the Qur'an after listening to its recitation once or twice, they called him a magician.

Strangers, who visited Mecca and attended the ceremony of circumambulation of the Kaaba, were told beforehand by heathens that if they went there they should put some cotton wool in their ears so as not to hear the magical words of a man who would charm them.

A Medina chief who had come to Mecca was given this recommendation, and he so filled his ears with cotton wool that he said he could not even hear the sound of a drum. On his ceremonial walk round the Kaaba, he noticed a man in prayer whose features attracted him. He noticed that the man's lips were moving but he could hear nothing. Suddenly he thought that the recommendation of those people was meaningless, so he took the wool out of his ears, went near and listened to him. He was quietly reading the verses of Qur'an, and this softened his heart so quickly that he felt devotion for him involuntarily.

This chief became a loyal believer of Islam and helped in the emigration of the Prophet to Medina, and it was this very meeting which culminated in the spread of Islam in Medina.4 This was the effect of the Qur'anic charm and beauty.

History of literature shows that with the passage of time, the Qur'an has had an increasing influence on the Muslim literature. In the first and second centuries of the Hejira, Arabic literature had its own place, but as time went on, it came more and more under the influence of the Qur'an. In Persian literature, too, we see this especially from the time of Ferdowsi onward, and when we come to the sixth and seventh centuries of Hejira, that is, to Mowlavi's time, this becomes very pronounced, so that Mathnavi is full of references to the Qur'an. The second aspect of the miraculousness of the Qur'an is in its contents and spiritual matter. If we study the divine subjects of the Qur'an, its logic about Resurrection and prophets, or its philosophy of history and ethics, we would realise how great it is.

These are matters in which the Qur'an has a mission, and that is to guide human beings.

The Qur'an has another miraculous aspect which is occult predictions, as well as its consistency and absence of contradiction, a subject which requires many sessions to discuss.

  • 2. This question has been discussed at length in my book "Divine Justice". It is wrong to suppose that our inability forces us to do things on the basis of cause and effect, or as God is absolute and mighty, cause and effect have no importance for Him. It has already been proved that God's sanctity and perfection necessitate that things should be based on cause and effect. In the Qur'an, there are many verses showing that God carries out His commands through various means, either natural, such as rainfall and growth of plants and their likes, or through supernatural means, such as angels and invisible armies.
  • 3.The reason why no more than one effect can be produced from one cause, or vice versa, has been explained in my third volume of "Philosophical Principles".
  • 4. The story is about As'ad-bin-Zarara and Zakwan Khazavji, who had come to Mecca for a military pact to wage a war against the Owss tribe, but returned to Medina fully converted to Islam, and prepared the ground for the Prophet's emigration to Medina.

Quote from the book; Understanding the Quran  by Martyr Ayatullah Murtaza Mutahhari

https://www.al-islam.org/understanding-quran-part-2-murtadha-mutahhari/

 

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The earliest record of Islamic belief and practice is the Qur'an.  As it doesn't contain clear stories of Muhammed doing miracals (except the splitting of the moon Quran 54:1–2 which is not clear) It would seem that eather he didn't do any and the stories were invented after his death or any miracals he did were not important to the message of the Qur'an.

So for me the question is not whether he did miracals or not but why is it important?  The Qur'an in the verses quoted are clear that signs were not going to be given to authenticate the message.  So if you believe the qur'an why bother about whether Muhammed did miracals or not?

On the other hand, When we look at stories of some of the other prophets miracles were an intigral part of their message and teaching.  The Qur'an points out that Moses and Jesus both did miracals.  The Injil contains many accounts of the miracals of Jesus the Messiah and how he used them to explain his teaching and point people to spiritual truths.  It is clear that if we are going to understand God's message through these prophets we need to understand the miracals they did.  As miracals are not accredited to Muhammed in the Qur'an it is obvious that they are not important and don't help us to understand his message.

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Dave, the Holy Quran talks about the miracles of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) as well and it is not just splitting of the moon. There is the miracle of Isra (Night Journey).. Miraj (Ascension - Qaaba Qawsayn).. etc mentioned in the Holy Quran as well.

And some scholars listed the miracles of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) recorded in both sunni and shia sources. I suggest reading "Mujeezat-e Ahmadiyya" (the Miracles of Ahmad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) by Said Nursi: http://www.mediafire.com/file/0jugehkwuue3w1g/THE-MIRACLES-OF-MUHAMMAD.pdf/file

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On 11/10/2021 at 8:57 PM, Dave follower of The Way said:

The earliest record of Islamic belief and practice is the Qur'an.  As it doesn't contain clear stories of Muhammed doing miracals (except the splitting of the moon Quran 54:1–2 which is not clear) It would seem that eather he didn't do any and the stories were invented after his death or any miracals he did were not important to the message of the Qur'an.

So for me the question is not whether he did miracals or not but why is it important?  The Qur'an in the verses quoted are clear that signs were not going to be given to authenticate the message.  So if you believe the qur'an why bother about whether Muhammed did miracals or not?

On the other hand, When we look at stories of some of the other prophets miracles were an intigral part of their message and teaching.  The Qur'an points out that Moses and Jesus both did miracals.  The Injil contains many accounts of the miracals of Jesus the Messiah and how he used them to explain his teaching and point people to spiritual truths.  It is clear that if we are going to understand God's message through these prophets we need to understand the miracals they did.  As miracals are not accredited to Muhammed in the Qur'an it is obvious that they are not important and don't help us to understand his message.

its (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), please say his name with respect, and he (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) definitely performed miracles as per quran, 13:31, 17:1, 8:9, 36:9 and many more, my question wasn't weather he (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) performed miracles and if they're in the quran, i asked about the interpretation of 10:20, 13:7, 29:50, 29:51, since i didn't understand them it seemed to me as though these were verses that contradict other verses in which his miracles are relayed, but that's not the case, thanks. 

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@zahralzu I'm sorry that I didn't use the term of respect. Forgive me for causing you discomfort.

I have looked at the verses in the Qur'an which you mention - 13:31, 17:1, 8:9, 36:9 and I was unable to see any reference to a miracal.  Please could you explain these verses.

17:1 refers to the Isra and the Miraj which @islamicmusic mentioned.

Again it is not clear from the Qur'an text alone what happened.  It has to be explained by hadith.

Please could you help me understand this verse and the story?  al-Masjid al-Aqsa had not been built at this time - the Isra is said to have taken place just over a year before the Hijra - so in fact it is questioned whether there was any mosque anywhere at that time.  If that was the case where was the al-Masjid al-Haram?

The word in Arabic translated al-Masjid al-Aqsa could just mean the "furthest Mosque" so it is ambiguous where it was.

Also this event was not one which was witnesed by anyone.  It had to be recounted after it had happened.  Other miricals performed by previous prophets e.g. Moses and Jesus the Messiah were done in full view of many people who could witness to the events.

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On 11/12/2021 at 1:15 AM, Dave follower of The Way said:

Please could you help me understand this verse and the story?  al-Masjid al-Aqsa had not been built at this time - the Isra is said to have taken place just over a year before the Hijra - so in fact it is questioned whether there was any mosque anywhere at that time.  If that was the case where was the al-Masjid al-Haram?

The word in Arabic translated al-Masjid al-Aqsa could just mean the "furthest Mosque" so it is ambiguous where it was.

Hi you probably  have mistaken popular Image of the mosque with Golden dome which is "Dome of rock"that has been built during Ummayid era in place of ruins of second temple  witc original  al-Masjid al-Aqsa is another mosque besides it which at time it has been a place of worship which later current mosque has been built around  it.

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Al-Aqsa is the name of the silver-domed mosque inside a 35-acre compound referred to as al-Haram al-Sharif, or the Noble Sanctuary, by Muslims, and as the Temple Mount by Jews. The compound lies in the Old City of Jerusalem, which has been designated a World Heritage site by the United Nations cultural agency, UNESCO, and is important to the three Abrahamic religions.

Masjid Al-Aqsa | Muslim Hands UK image.jpeg.c9dfa59c497185f8e7e7d6011ac924c6.jpeg image.jpeg.f188e126c9d4071fd0ab5c5ec221b741.jpeg

https://www.visitmasjidalaqsa.com/islamic-history-of-al-masjid-al-aqsa/

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1. From Prophet Adam (عليه السلام) to Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)

Al Masjid Al Aqsa was the first qibla in Islam and it has been a significant and important place of worship for the Prophets of Islam. It was built 40 years after Al Masjid Al Haram in Makkah. There is a difference of opinion amongst scholars as to who exactly built Al Masjid Al Aqsa, with some scholars and historians asserting the view that Al Masjid Al Aqsa was built by Prophet Adam (عليه السلام), and others opining that it was built by Prophet Ibrahim (عليه السلام). It has also been rebuilt, renovated and expanded many times in the history of Islam.

https://www.visitmasjidalaqsa.com/islamic-history-of-al-masjid-al-aqsa/

On 11/12/2021 at 1:15 AM, Dave follower of The Way said:

If that was the case where was the al-Masjid al-Haram?

In similar fashion of as Masjid al Aqsa it's history  to time of descending  of prophet  Adam (عليه السلام) from heaven & rebuilding  it by prophet  Ibrahim /Abraham (عليه السلام)

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Pre-Islamic Period

Before Islam, the area of Ka'ba with the area around it was called al-Masjid al-Haram.[9]

In this period, al-Masjid al-Haram had no walls or buildings; it was just an area in which the Ka'ba was located. It is not historically known exactly when the area was recognized as a mosque, but there are some hadiths in this regard. According to these hadiths, the current location of al-Masjid al-Haram was chosen before the creation of human beings and the Ka'ba was built by angels.[10]

Some hadiths take Adam (a) to be the one who built or rebuilt the Ka'ba.[11] After that, Ibrahim (a) and Isma'il (a) reconstructed the building.[12] There is a hadith from the Prophet (s) to the effect that al-Masjid al-Haram was built by Ibrahim (a). This hadith took al-Masjid al-Haram to be the oldest mosque on earth.[13]

Before Qusayy b. Kilab b. Murra b. Ka'b, the fourth ancestor of the Prophet (s) and the head of Quraysh, people of Mecca did not build houses near al-Masjid al-Haram. However, Qusayy encouraged people to build houses near the Ka'ba, though with a certain space that allows tawaf (circumambulation around the Ka'ba).[14]

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Al-Masjid_al-Haram

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Location and Boundaries

Al-Masjid al-Haram is located in Mecca in the Arabia surrounded by the mountains Abu QubaysAjyadHindi, and 'Umar. The current boundaries of al-Masjid al-Haram are as follows: from the east to the Abu Qubays mountain, from the west to the 'Umar mountain and Shubayka Street, from the north to Shamiyya Street and the Hindi mountain, and from the south to Ajyad Street and Masfala.

The boundaries of the sacred area (haram) is different from different points: 6150 meters from Tan'im to al-Masjid al-Haram, 18000 meters from al-Ju'ranah to al-Masjid al-Haram, 15500 meters in the way to Ta'if from Huda to al-Masjid al-Haram, 17000 meters from the Layth way to al-Masjid al-Haram, and 11000 meters from the Jeddah path to al-Masjid al-Haram.

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Al-Masjid_al-Haram

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On 11/10/2021 at 1:27 PM, Dave follower of The Way said:

As miracals are not accredited to Muhammed in the Qur'an it is obvious that they are not important and don't help us to understand his message.

Hi  Quran is sufficint  miracle because  through all of thiese years no word of it changed which nobody could bring a book in similar  fashion of it although of false claims  of calling it a text which has been written  by using of Bible & Torah also Quran is superior to rest of miracles which rest of miracles  have had limited time for specific  time but on the other hand is a living miracle until judgment  day which you can learn from it anytime & anywhere .

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9 hours ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

Hi you probably  have mistaken popular Image of the mosque with Golden dome which is "Dome of rock"that has been built during Ummayid era in place of ruins of second temple  witc original  al-Masjid al-Aqsa is another mosque besides it which at time it has been a place of worship which later current mosque has been built around  it.

No I wasn't thinking of the Dome of the Rock. al-Masjid al-Aqsa as you quote

9 hours ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

it was built 40 years after Al Masjid Al Haram in Makkah.

So at the time the Isra took place it wasn't in existance.

9 hours ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

Al Masjid Al Aqsa was built by Prophet Adam (عليه السلام), and others opining that it was built by Prophet Ibrahim (عليه السلام). It has also been rebuilt, renovated and expanded many times in the history of Islam.

The place where the al-Masjid al-Aqsa is now situated was for over 1000 years the site of the Jewish tempel built by Soloman and the rebuilt in 516 BCE.  At that time there was no other building there whether built by Adam, Ibrahim or anyone else.

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10 hours ago, Dave follower of The Way said:

So at the time the Isra took place it wasn't in existance

Hi  , No history of both places returns to time of prophet  Adam (عليه السلام) & prophet  Ibrahim /Abraham(عليه السلام)  as places of worship which in each era different  buildings  have been built around these places by different  people  from different  faithsc since time of prophet  prophet  Adam (عليه السلام) & prophet  Ibrahim /Abraham(عليه السلام)  which  current  mosques as newest buildings  have been made around  these places by Muslims since time of prophet  Muhammad (pbu) as sign of protecting  these places by Muslims & Islam as last & final Abrahamic  faith.

10 hours ago, Dave follower of The Way said:

The place where the al-Masjid al-Aqsa is now situated was for over 1000 years the site of the Jewish tempel built by Soloman and the rebuilt in 516 BCE.  At that time there was no other building there whether built by Adam, Ibrahim or anyone else.

These places could be identified  by different  structures which at first place of Kaaba & Mecca has been located by tents from Paradise after descending  of prophet  Adam (عليه السلام) & lady Eve (sa) from paradise which then it has been  replaced  by  stone structure probably  place of al-Masjid al-Aqsa at first located by heavenly  structures  likewise heavenly  tents of Kaaba & Mecca which later has been replaced  by stone structure by prophet  Solomon/Suleiman  (عليه السلام).

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12 hours ago, Dave follower of The Way said:

So at the time the Isra took place it wasn't in existance

Hi  , No 

12 hours ago, Dave follower of The Way said:

The place where the al-Masjid al-Aqsa is now situated was for over 1000 years the site of the Jewish tempel built by Soloman and the rebuilt in 516 BCE.  At that time there was no other building there whether built by Adam, Ibrahim or anyone else.

 

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According to some researchers, "Masjid al-Aqsa" as occurs in the Qur'an refers to a vast area including Masjid al-Sakhra (where the Prophet's Ascension began), porticos, etc.[3] Thus, some Shiite exegetes interpret "Masjid al-Aqsa" in the first verse of Sura al-Isra' in the Qur'an as referring to Bayt al-Maqdis[4] as constructed by prophets David (a) and Solomon (a).[5] Masjid al-Aqsa is referred to in some hadiths as "Masjid Bayt al-Maqdis."[6]

Others claim that a construction called "Masjid al-Aqsa" today did not exist at the time of the Prophet's Ascension, and thus, the word, "masjid" in the Qur'an should be taken in its general meaning of a place of worship.[7]

Today, "Masjid al-Aqsa" or the "Roofed Masjid al-Aqsa" refer to an independent building constructed in the period of 'Abd al-Malik b. Marwan around the sacred shrine, and the area including this mosque as well as Masjid al-Sakhra, Masjid 'Umar,[8] Buraq Wall, [9]. and so on.

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Masjid_al-Aqsa

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