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In the Name of God بسم الله

Abu Bakr

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(Salam)

Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Quhafah is, no doubt, a very important figure in Islamic history. Asin over 80% of the Muslim world revere him as the first Khalifa (successor) to Rasulullah Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). But is Abu Bakr really what he is made out to be?

First and foremost, the point of this topic isn't to cause disunity, but it's just discussing our Islamic history. In the Qur'an, how many times does it say 'And remember...'? This is because Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) wanted to stress that taking lessons from the past is just as important as taking lessons from today.

Now let's get into the personality that is Abu Bakr. We very well know that Imam Ali (عليه السلام) is the soul of the Prophet, as is evident is Surah Aali Imran 3:61: "...and ourselves and yourselves..." So what does Imam Ali (عليه السلام) have to say about Abu Bakr?

In Sahih Bukhari, it is narrated that, long story short, Abbas and Ali went to Abu Bakr seeking their rights, and both Abbas and ALI think that Abu Bakr is 
'A liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest.' 
 
This is in Sunni books, not Shia. Reference:
 
Reference                  : Sahih Muslim 1757c
In-book reference     : Book 32, Hadith 58

Imam Ali has a sermon in Nahjul Balagha, sermon number 3. He talks about how the Khilafat was usurped from him and he talks about Abu Bakr:
"By Allah, [Abu Bakr] the son of Abi Quhafah has dressed himself with it [the Khilafat]..."
"It is strange that during his [Abu Bakr's] lifetime he wished to be released from the Khilafat but he confirmed it for the other one [Umar] after his death. No doubt these two [Abu Bakr & Umar] shared its [the Khilafat's] udders strictly among themselves."

As can be inferred from the words of Imam Ali (عليه السلام), Abu Bakr was someone who was hungry for power. 
Question: 'Wasn't Abu Bakr honoured with Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) in the cave in Surah al-Tawbah, 9:40:

[Shakir] "If you will not aid him [the Prophet], Allah certainly aided him when those who disbelieved expelled him, he [the Prophet] being the second of the two, when they were both in the cave, when he [the Prophet] said to his companion [Abu Bakr]: 'Grieve not, surely Allah is with us.' So Allah sent down His tranquillity upon him and strengthened him with hosts which you did not see, and made lowest the word of those who disbelieved; and the word of Allah, that is the highest; and Allah is Mighty, Wise."?

In the Ayat, Allah calls Abu Bakr the 'companion' of Rasulullah, and therefore it's an honour, isn't it? No. Being a companion on its own isn't an honour.  For example, Allah uses 'companion' when referring to the polytheists who were in the prison with Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) (عليه السلام):
[Shakir] "[Yusuf said:] 'O my two mates ['saahibay] of the prison! are sundry lords better or Allah the One, the Supreme?'" (Surah Yusuf 12:39)
Yusuf's 'companions' weren't even Muslims, so how can one say that Abu Bakr being a 'companion' of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is an honour?

Let's analyise this Ayat. First Allah says that He will help the Prophet (عليه السلام), and that He did help the Prophet in the incident of the cave. So why was Abu Bakr with him in the first place? The answer is no one really knows. There's no hadith that says that the Prophet asked Abu Bakr to join him. Allah says that the Prophet said to Abu Bakr 'Do not grieve,' and apparently this is the Prophet consoling Abu Bakr. Nay, this is not the like. The disbelievers were trying to kill the Prophet, and they found the cave. Abu Bakr was being loud because of his sobbing, and that's why the Prophet said 'Do not grieve.' It was because if the disbelievers heard Abu Bakr, they would kill the Prophet, not because the Prophet was consoling Abu Bakr.

Now Allah says that He sent down tranquility onto Abu Bakr, right? Wrong. Allah sent down tranquility onto the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). Notice how Allah was using pronouns to refer to the Prophet throughout the whole Ayat: 

"If you do not help him, Allah has helped him, when he was one of two and he said to his companion 'Do not grieve..."
So why suddenly do the pronouns change? When Allah says "So Allah sent down His tranquility upon him...," like in the rest of the Ayat, 'him' means the Prophet (Muhammad, peace be upon him and his family).

So we've established that the verse of the cave has no virtue for Abu Bakr whatsoever. But why should we think negatively of Abu Bakr? What is Saqifa? I'll tell you:
The Prophet (sawa) died on Imam Ali's (عليه السلام) lap. The Imam executed the Prophet's will, buried him and led the funeral prayers. Abu Bakr was in the Prophet's house, and Umar comes in and tells him to go quickly to (a place called) Saqifa, where people have chosen a leader. Abu Bakr rushes straight to Saqifa, leaving the Prophet, and gave a sermon that explained why he should be Khalifa.

A part of Abu Bakr's sermon:
"The Muhajiroon (immigrants) have a greater right to Khilafat than the Ansar (helpers), because they are closer to the Prophet..."
Let's refute. Firstly, notice how Abu Bakr never says 'I was appointed.' This is because firstly, he wasn't appointed, and secondly, he doesn't have the audacity to say that he was.
Also, if Abu Bakr's argument for him being the Khalifa is closeness to the Prophet, who was closer than Imam Ali?
Imam Ali (عليه السلام) himself says 'When there were only three people in the religion, it was always the Prophet, Khadija, and I [Ali].'
O Abu Bakr, if you are so close to the Prophet, at the shi'b of Abu Talib, where were you? At Badr, where were you? Abu Bakr was not with the Prophet in his early days, that was only one man, Ali Ibn Abi Talib (عليه السلام).

So if everything Abu Bakr said was nonsense, how did he become leader? 
What happened was that Umar grabbed Abu Bakr's hand, pledged allegiance, and Abu Bakr is now Khalifa.
Is that how Muslims choose their leaders? If a non-Muslim saw this they'll make fun of our religion.
Question: 'If Abu Bakr was an illegitimate leader, why didn't people stand up to him?'

They did stand up to him, but Abu Bakr ordered Khalid Ibn Walid to kill the ones who didn't pledge allegiance. Simple as that.

For this one, only Sunni sources are used.

There's a hadith in Sahih Bukhari that says:


"Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Fatima is a part of me, 
and he who makes her angry, makes me angry.
""

 

There's another hadith, and you can use 'Sunnah.com' to find this, that says:

"Fatima and Al `Abbas came to Abu Bakr, seeking their share from the property of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and at that time, they were asking for their land at Fadak and their share from Khaibar. Abu Bakr said to them, " I have heard from Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) saying, 'Our property cannot be inherited, and whatever we leave is to be spent in charity, but the family of Muhammad may take their provisions from this property." Abu Bakr added, "By Allah, I will not leave the procedure I saw Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) following during his lifetime concerning this property." Therefore Fatima left Abu Bakr and did not speak to him until she died."

Fatima, daughter of the Prophet of Allah, had a secret funeral and was buried during the night.
To this day, no one knows where her grave is.
The hadith about Fatima's burial:
 
 "...So she [Fatima] became angry with Abu Bakr and kept away from him, and did not speak to him till she died. She remained alive for six months after the death of the Prophet. When she died, her husband `Ali, buried her at night without informing Abu Bakr and he said the funeral prayer by himself."
 

Now you tell me: do you want a leader who makes the daughter of the Prophet of Allah angry? Do you want a leader who stole the khilafat from Imam Ali and killed anyone who didn't pledge allegiance? I'm not forcing anyone to say that Abu Bakr is illegitimate, but not gonna lie, it's kinda obvious.
 
I want to stress again that this topic is not meant to cause disunity. If there was anything I said that was offensive, reply and I'll change it, insha Allah.
 
May Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) guide us all.

(Wa sallallahu 'alaa Sayyidina wan-Nabiyyina Muhammad)

(Wa 'alaa AhlulBaytihit tayyibeenat tahireen)

Ameen, Ya Arhamar-Rahimeen!

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