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In the Name of God بسم الله

Quran asks us to follow fallible companions?

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Guest TruthSeeker2021

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Guest TruthSeeker2021

My question is not weather if the companions are going to heaven or hell but weather there is a precedence in the Quran to follow companions who are fallible beings.

In the quran chapter 9 verse 100:

وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلْمُهَـٰجِرِينَ وَٱلْأَنصَارِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَـٰنٍ رَّضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا۟ عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّـٰتٍ تَجْرِى تَحْتَهَا ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ ٱلْفَوْزُ ٱلْعَظِيمُ

 

As for the foremost—the first of the Emigrants1 and the Helpers2and those who follow them in goodness, Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. And He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow, to stay there for ever and ever. That is the ultimate triumph.

 

As you can see in the underlined text " and those who  follow them" them being the foremost from muhajreen and ansar whom are fallible companions, Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) will be pleased with them. Why is Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) asking us to follow fallible companions?

 

 

 

 

 

 

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As for the foremost, referred in above verse is Imam Ali a,s who believed in prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and prayed along with him well before others, Many sunni reports provide the evidence.

Wasalam

 

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Superiority of Abu Bakr & Umar is considered by Ali, In Sahih Bukhari. How Shia reject this hadith?

There are a few Hadith in Sunni books that Ali Ibn Abi Talib considers the superiority of Abu Bakr and Umar more than himself, or as the best people after the prophet Muhammad ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)).

Let’s look at the source of these Ahadith and then compare with other Ahadith of Sunni books.

1- Hadith about Ali ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) or from him should be common hadith between Shia and Sunni, or be found in Shia sources too or be Motawater, otherwise they are not acceptable.

Usually one of the people who has narrated these Ahadith is unknown or Sunni Scholars have emphasized that he is not trustable. Also these Ahadith are not Motawater. Overall the sources of these Ahadith are weak.

On the other hand at least one hadith like these should be mentioned in Shia sources, but there is no one.

 

3- According to the Sunni sources, most of Sahabah (companions of the prophet) have confessed to the superiority of Ali Ibn Abi Talib over all. Such as al-Tirmidhi who has narrated from Aisha bint Abi Bakr that Ali ibn Abi Talib is the most precious one for the prophet.( Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, V 5, P362. Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, V 3, P 157)

Abdullah son of Ahmad ibn Hanbal ask his father about the superiority of Sahabah after the prophet. Ahmad ibn Hanbal name three Caliphs in turn. Then Abdullah say: so what about Ali ibn Abi Talib?? He answers: Ali is from Ahlul Bayt and nobody can be compared with him. (Manaqib al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, P 163)

“یا عمّار! ان رأیت علیاً قدسلک وادیاً و سلک النّاس وادیاً غیره فاسلک مع علی ودع النّاس انّه لن بدلک علی ردی و لن یخرجک من الهدی”
“O Ammar! If you see Ali goes to a way and others go to another way, you should go to Ali’s way and leave the others because Ali does not lead people to bad and inferiority, and he does not people astray from the guidance route”

(al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Ta’rikh Baghdad, V 4, P 410. Abu Nu`aym al-Isfahani, Hilyat al-awliya, V 1, P 186)

Quote

4- Abu Bakr himself confess he is not superior or the best:

“ولّيتكم وَ لَستُ بخيركم”

“I accepted your leadership while I wasn’t your best”

(Ibn Sa’d Ibn Mani, Tabaqat Al-Kubra, V 3, P 182. Tafsir Al-Qurtobi, V 3, P 262. ibn Qutayba al-Dinawari, al-Imama wal-Siyasa, P 22. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-Ummal, V 5, P 636. And more…)

5- there are some valid and reliable narratives from Ali ibn Abi Talib in which he emphasize on his superiority. Ibn Abi’l Hadid narrates in Sharh Nahj-ul-Balaghah, V 10, Part 20, P 25:

وقال عثمان لعلي عليه السلام إنّك إن تربّصت بي فقد تربّصت بمن هو خير منّي ومنك،

 قال: ومن هو خير منّي؟

قال: أبو بكر وعمر.

فقال: كذبت ، أنا خير منك ومنهما ، عبدت اللّه قبلكم وعبدته بعدكم.

“ Uthman told Ali: if you were waiting for me, I would be waiting for someone better than you and me.

Ali said: and who is better than me?

Uthman replied: Abu Bakr and Umar.

So Ali said: you lied, I am better than you and those two, (because) I have been worshipping Allah before you and after you.

Conclusion:

Overall, it turns out that not only those hadith about superiority of Caliphs to Ali ibn Abi Talib have not reliable sources, but also they are in contrary with the reality!

 When there are many authentic hadith from the prophet, Sahabah, Scholars and even Ali himself about his superiority to all, so just a few contrary statements cannot be acceptable. They are rejected by both Shia and Sunni sources.

https://islampfr.com/superiority-ali-abu-bakr-umar/

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On 9/18/2021 at 2:57 AM, Guest TruthSeeker2021 said:

 

وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلْمُهَـٰجِرِينَ وَٱلْأَنصَارِ

This is very profound verse!!! 

Apparently, this verse is mentioning two categories:

a) immigrants

b) helpers

And this verse specify whom from immigrants and helpers we need to focus on i.e., al-sabiqoon al-awwaloon. Then the verse further adds some other people who followed the sabiqoon al-awwaloon in goodness (احسان). 

We need to understand who are the sabiqoon al-awwaloon and what exactly is meant by goodness (احسان) here? Because if you look at the very next verse it is telling us that among those who are around the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), there are hypocrites and Allah will punish them twice. 

So lets first try to understand what احسان means and whom Allah s.wt calls as محسنين :

إِنَّ الله يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإِحْسَانِ

16:90) BEHOLD, God enjoins justice, and the doing of good

احسان itself is above عدل . And this is very important aspect.

Justice ( عدل) is for a person to give what he owes and take his money, and  goodness (احسان) is to give more than he owes and take less than what he owes. The Holy Qur’an used the word احسان in three meanings: good work (العمل الحسن), charity to others (الإحسان إلى الآخرين) and good performance of work (الحسن للعمل). 

Keeping in view this very fact, and the phrase coined by our Ahlul Sunnah brothers that "all companions are just" (صحابة كلهم عدول), we can say that even if they consider all of them as just, all of them are not the محسنين for sure, because of the very definition of "ahsaan". So the verse 9-100 you have quoted, is asking us to find & follow the محسنين from the companions. 

Now back to the three meanings of Ahsaan. In the following verses, faith and good deeds are considered good, and that is in the relationship with God Almighty, such as belief in God Almighty and His signs. God Almighty said about some Christians:

(وَإِذَا سَمِعُواْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ تَرَى أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُواْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا آمَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِينَ * وَمَا لَنَا لاَ نُؤْمِنُ بِاللّهِ وَمَا جَاءنَا مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَنَطْمَعُ أَن يُدْخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الصَّالِحِينَ * فَأَثَابَهُمُ اللّهُ بِمَا قَالُواْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَذَلِكَ جَزَاء الْمُحْسِنِينَ)(المائدة/83ـ 85)

{5:83-85) And when they hear what has been revealed to the messenger you will see their eyes overflowing with tears on account of the truth that they recognize; they say: Our Lord! we believe, so write us down with the witnesses (of truth). And what (reason) have we that we should not believe in Allah and in the truth that has come to us, while we earnestly desire that our Lord should cause us to enter with the good people? Therefore Allah rewarded them on account of what they said, with gardens in which rivers flow to abide in them; and this is the reward of those who do good.}

And the pious, who seek God’s forgiveness during the morning hours, who help the needy, are also considered doers of good. 

إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ* آخِذِينَ مَا آتَاهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ مُحْسِنِينَ* كَانُوا قَلِيلًا مِّنَ اللَّيْلِ مَا يَهْجَعُونَ* وَبِالْأَسْحَارِ هُمْ يَسْتَغْفِرُونَ* وَفِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ لِّلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ (الذاريات/15 ـ 19)

{51:15-19) Surely those who guard (against evil) shall be in gardens and fountains. Taking what their Lord gives them; surely they were before that, the doers of good. They used to sleep but little in the night. And in the morning they asked forgiveness. And in their property was a portion due to him who begs and to him who is denied (good)}

Also, abstaining from corruption and supplicating to God coupled with fear and hope is considered good:

 (وَلاَ تُفْسِدُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلاَحِهَا وَادْعُوهُ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا إِنَّ رَحْمَتَ اللّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ)(الأعراف/56).

{7:56) And do not make mischief in the earth after its reformation, and call on Him fearing and hoping; surely the mercy of Allah is nigh to those who do good (to others).}

It is worth noting that the Noble Quran sees that every good deed that a person does is in fact a charity to himself:

 (إِنْ أَحْسَنتُمْ أَحْسَنتُمْ لِأَنفُسِكُمْ وَإِنْ أَسَأْتُمْ فَلَهَا..)(الإسراء/7)

{17:7) If ye did well, ye did well for yourselves; if ye did evil, (ye did it) against yourselves.}

Now we also see in Quran that "mujahideed" or jihad is also considered as good. It is considered that one who conveys the true beliefs and monotheistic values, calls to resist the enemies, and bears adversity and harm for the sake of that, within the circle of احسان.

(إِذْ قَالَ لِقَوْمِهِ أَلَا تَتَّقُونَ* أَتَدْعُونَ بَعْلًا وَتَذَرُونَ أَحْسَنَ الْخَالِقِينَ* الله رَبَّكُمْ وَرَبَّ آبَائِكُمُ الْأَوَّلِينَ* فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَإِنَّهُمْ لَمُحْضَرُونَ* إِلَّا عِبَادَ الله الْمُخْلَصِينَ* وَتَرَكْنَا عَلَيْهِ فِي الْآخِرِينَ* سَلَامٌ عَلَى إِلْ يَاسِينَ* إِنَّا كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ)

(الصافات/124 ـ131)

{37:124-131) When he said to his people: Do you not guard (against evil)? What! do you call upon Ba'l and forsake the best of the creators, Allah, your Lord and the Lord of your fathers of yore? But they called him a liar, therefore they shall most surely be brought up. But not the servants of Allah, the purified ones. And We perpetuated to him (praise) among the later generations. Peace be on Il-yasin. Even thus do We reward the doers of good.}

احسان also includes those sincere believers who wanted to wage jihad, but disease or lack of money prevented them from doing so and Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) mentioned them in Quran as:

(ليْسَ عَلَى الضُّعَفَاء وَلاَ عَلَى الْمَرْضَى وَلاَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لاَ يَجِدُونَ مَا يُنفِقُونَ حَرَجٌ إِذَا نَصَحُواْ لِلّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ مِن سَبِيلٍ والله غَفُورٌ رحِيمٌ)

(التوبة/91)

{9:91) It shall be no crime in the weak, nor in the sick, nor in those who do not find what they should spend (to stay behind), so long as they are sincere to Allah and His Messenger; there is no way (to blame) against the doers of good; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful;}

And the "mohsin" in general is everyone who strives sincerely to God.

 (وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا وَإِنَّ الله لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ)

(العنكبوت/69).

{29:69) And (as for) those who strive hard for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways; and Allah is most surely with the doers of good.}

احسان also includes a person’s good relationship with others, such as good dealing with a divorced wife upon returning to her or when she is released with kindness until her waiting period expires. As well as reconciliation and the waiver of some rights to preserve marital life and remove differences. Giving money to a divorced wife who has not consummated the marriage before setting the dowry. The same applies to spending in wealth and poverty, pardoning people, and controlling one's anger. As well as caring for parents, the elderly and the elderly people in general. 

So you have seen the scope of احسان and what is meant when Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) calls someone as "Mohsin". 

On 9/18/2021 at 2:57 AM, Guest TruthSeeker2021 said:

وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَـٰنٍ

You only need to follow the goodness, you are not suppose to follow anyone's wrong doing or corruption. That's the key. 

Now who are the sabiqoon al-awwaloon? If we ask from brothers of Ahlul Sunnah about the tafseer & taveel of this phrase that sabiqoon al-awwaloon are the first how many??? The first 10 people converted to Islam, or the first 100 people converted to Islam. You will find that they do not know and there are difference of opinion among them about who are the sabiqoon al-awwaloon. 

Lets not take their interpretation, lets go through the Quran, find out the Sabiqoon. 

ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مُقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ

35:32) Then We gave the Book for an inheritance to those whom We chose from among Our servants; but of them is he who makes his soul to suffer a loss, and of them is he who takes a middle course, and of them is he who is foremost in deeds of goodness by Allah's permission; this is the great excellence.

Then in chapter 21 you will find the verse:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ هُمْ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ رَبِّهِمْ مُشْفِقُونَ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ يُؤْمِنُونَ 

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ بِرَبِّهِمْ لَا يُشْرِكُونَ وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ مَا آتَوْا وَقُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ رَاجِعُونَ

أُولَٰئِكَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَهُمْ لَهَا سَابِقُونَ

21:57-61) Surely they who from fear of their Lord are cautious, And those who believe in the communications of their Lord, And those who do not associate (aught) with their Lord, And those who give what they give (in alms) while their hearts are full of fear that to their Lord they must return, These hasten to good things and they are foremost in (attaining) them.

And then in chapter 56 you will find that humans will turn into three groups:

وَكُنْتُمْ أَزْوَاجًا ثَلَاثَةً

56:7) And you shall be three sorts

فَأَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ 

وَالسَّابِقُونَ السَّابِقُونَ أُولَٰئِكَ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ

56:8-11) Then (as to) the companions of the right hand; how happy are the companions of the right. And (as to) the companions of the left hand; how wretched are the companions of the left. And the foremost are the foremost. These are they who are drawn nigh (to Allah),

See how Quran has taken you to the door step of Sabiqoon who actually are the Muqarraboon. 

Now you also need to see who these Muqarraboon are!! 

كَلَّا إِنَّ كِتَابَ الْأَبْرَارِ لَفِي عِلِّيِّينَ وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا عِلِّيُّونَ كِتَابٌ مَرْقُومٌ 

يَشْهَدُهُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ

83:18-21) Nay! Most surely the record of the righteous shall be in the Iliyin. And what will make you know what the highest Iliyin is? It is a written book, Those who are drawn near (to Allah) shall witness it.

The Muqarraboon are the ones whom Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) has appointed as witness over us. :)

وَجَاهِدُوا فِي اللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِ ۚ هُوَ اجْتَبَاكُمْ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ ۚ مِلَّةَ أَبِيكُمْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۚ هُوَ سَمَّاكُمُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَفِي هَٰذَا لِيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْكُمْ وَتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ ۚ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِاللَّهِ هُوَ مَوْلَاكُمْ ۖ فَنِعْمَ الْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ النَّصِيرُ 

22:78) And strive hard in (the way of) Allah, (such) a striving a is due to Him; He has chosen you and has not laid upon you an hardship in religion; the faith of your father Ibrahim; He named you Muslims before and in this, that the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you, and you may be bearers of witness to the people; therefore keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and hold fast by Allah; He is your Guardian; how excellent the Guardian and how excellent the Helper!

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنْتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَنْ يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّنْ يَنْقَلِبُ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ ۚ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ

2:143) And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you; and We did not make that which you would have to be the qiblah but that We might distinguish him who follows the Messenger from him who turns back upon his heels, and this was surely hard except for those whom Allah has guided aright; and Allah was not going to make your faith to be fruitless; most surely Allah is Affectionate, Merciful to the people.

Congratulations!!! Quran has taken you to the door step of Imams of Ahlul Bayt (عليه السلام). 

علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن إبراهيم بن عمر اليماني، عن سليم بن قيس الهلالي، عن أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليه قال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى طهرنا وعصمنا وجعلنا شهداء على خلقه، وحجته في أرضه، و جعلنا مع القرآن وجعل القرآن معنا، لا نفارقه ولا يفارقنا

http://shiaonlinelibrary.com/الكتب/1122_الكافي-الشيخ-الكليني-ج-١/الصفحة_239

The above hadith is in line with the verse of purification, the verse of wilayah, the verses mentioning them being witness, the hadith that they are with Quran, and the hadith of thaqalayn. 

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Sabiqoon al-Awwaloon according to Ahlul Sunnah:

قال سعيد بن المسيب وابن سيرين وقتادة : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } الذين صلوا القبلتين جميعا ، وقال عطاء : هم أهل بدر ، وقال الشعبي : هم الذين بايعوا بيعة الرضوان ، المصدر ( معاني القرآن - النحاس ج:3 ص: 247 ).

وأخرج ابن جرير ، وابن أبي حاتم ، وأبو الشيخ ، وأبو نعيم في المعرفة ، عن أبي موسى ، أنه سئل عن قوله : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } قالوا : هم الذين صلوا القبلتين جميعا.

وأخرج ابن أبي شيبة ، وابن أبي حاتم ، وابن المنذر ، وابن مردويه ، وأبو نعيم في المعرفة ، عن سعيد بن المسيب في قوله : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } قال : هم الذين صلوا القبلتين جميعا.

وأخرج ابن المنذر ، وأبو نعيم ، عن الحسن ومحمد بن سيرين في قوله : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } قالوا : هم الذين صلوا القبلتين جميعا وهم أهل بدر.

وأخرج ابن مردويه ، عن ابن عباس : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } قال : أبو بكر وعمر وعلي وسلمان وعمار بن ياسر.

وأخرج ابن أبي شيبة ، وابن المنذر ، وابن أبي حاتم ، وابن مردويه ، وأبو الشيخ ، وأبو نعيم في المعرفة ، عن الشعبي في قوله : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } قال : من أدرك بيعة الرضوان وأول من بايع بيعة الرضوان سنان بن وهب الأسدي ، المصدر ( الدر المنثور في التفسير بالمأثور - السيوطي ج:4 ص:269 ).

 

وأخرج أبو الشيخ ، وابن عساكر ، عن أبي صخر حميد بن زياد ، قال : قلت لمحمد بن كعب القرظي (ر) أخبرني عن أصحاب رسول الله (ص)  وإنما أريد الفتن ، فقال : إن الله قد غفر لحميع أصحاب النبي (ص) وأوجب لهم الجنة في كتابه محسنهم ومسيئهم ، قلت له : وفي أي موضع أوجب الله لهم الجنة في كتابهم ، قال : ألا تقرأ { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } الآية ، أوجب لجميع أصحاب النبي (ص) الجنة والرضوان وشرط على التابعين شرطا لم يشترطه فيهم ، قلت : وما اشترط عليهم ، قال : اشترط عليهم أن يتبعوهم باحسان ، يقول يقتدون بهم في أعمالهم الحسنة ولا يقتدون بهم في غير ذلك ، قال أبو صخر : لكأني لم اقرأها قبل ذلك وما عرفت تفسيرها حتى قرأها علي محمد بن كعب ، المصدر ( الدر المنثور في التفسير بالمأثور - السيوطي ج:4 ص:272 ).

 

- وأخرج ابن مردويه من طريق الأوزاعي ، حدثني : يحيى بن أبي كثير والقاسم ، ومكحول وعبدة بن أبي لبابة وحسان بن عطية ، أنهم سمعوا جماعة من أصحاب النبي (ص) ، يقولون : لما انزلت هذه الآية : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } إلى قوله : ( وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ ) ( التوبة : 100 ) قال رسول الله (ص) : هذا لأمتي كلهم وليس بعد الرضا سخط ، المصدر ( الدر المنثور في التفسير بالمأثور - السيوطي ج:4 ص:272

وقال في الكشاف : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ ( التوبة : 100 ) } و { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ ( التوبة : 100 ) }  هم الذين صلوا إلى القبلتين ، وقيل : الذين شهدوا بدرا ، وعن الشعبي من بايع بالحديبية وهي بيعة الرضوان ما بين الهجرتين ومن الأنصار أهل بيعة العقبة الأولى ، وكانوا سبعة نفر وأهل العقبة الثانية وكانوا سبعين ، والذين آمنوا حين قدم عليهم أبو زرارة مصعب بن عمير فعلمهم القرآن ، وقرأ عمر (ر) والأنصار بالرفع عطفا على السابقون ، وعن عمر : إنه كان يرى .... ، المصدر ( الكشاف - الزمخشري ج:2 ص:289 )

وقال في تفسير ابن كثير : يخبر تعالى عن رضاه عن السابقين من المهاجرين والأنصار والتابعين لهم باحسان ورضاهم عنه بما أعد لهم من جنات النعيم والنعيم المقيم ، قال الشعبي : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنصَارِ ( التوبة : 100 ) } من أدرك بيعة الرضوان عام الحديبية ، وقال أبو موسى الأشعري ، وسعيد بن المسيب ، ومحمد بن سيرين ، والحسن ، وقتادة هم الذين صلوا إلى القبلتين مع رسول الله (ص) ، المصدر ( تفسير ابن كثير ج:2 ص:384 )

وقال في تفسير الجلالين : 100 - { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنصَارِ ( التوبة : 100 ) } وهم من شهد بدرا أو جميع الصحابة { وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَانٍ ( التوبة : 100 ) } إلى يوم القيامة باحسان في العمل { رَّضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمْ ( التوبة : 100 ) } بطاعته  { وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ ( التوبة : 100 ) } بثوابه { وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ( التوبة : 100 ) } وفي قراءة بزيادة من { خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ ( التوبة :100 ) } المصدر ( تفسير الجلالين ج:1 ص:258 )

 

الطبري في تفسيرة : واختلف أهل التأويل في المعنى بقوله : { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } فقال بعضهم : هم الذين بايعوا رسول الله (ص) بيعة الرضوان أو أدركوا ، ذكر من قال ذلك ، حدثنا : بن وكيع ، قال : ثنا : محمد بن بشر ، عن إسماعيل ، عن عامر { وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ( التوبة : 100 ) } قال : من أدرك بيعة الرضوان ، قال : ثنا : بن فضيل ، عن مطرف ، عن عامر ، قال : المهاجرون الأولون من أدرك البيعة تحت الشجرة ، حدثنا : بن بشار ، قال : ثنا : يحيى ، قال : ثنا : إسماعيل بن أبي خالد ، عن الشعبي ، قال : المهاجرون الأولون الذين شهدوا بيعة الرضوان ، حدثني : الحرث ، قال : ثنا : عبد العزيز ، قال : ثنا : سفيان ، عن مطرف ، عن الشعبي ، قال : المهاجرون الأولون من كان قبل البيعة إلى البيعة فهم المهاجرون الأولون ومن كان بعد البيعة فليس من المهاجرين الأولين ، المصدر ( تفسير الطبري ج:11 ص:6 ).

Just shared this to show the confusion of Ahlul Sunnah about sabiqoon al-awwaloon.

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6 hours ago, Cool said:

 

6 hours ago, Cool said:

وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَـٰنٍ

You only need to follow the goodness, you are not suppose to follow anyone's wrong doing or corruption. That's the key. 

 

 

Is there multiple sunni commentry (tafseer) that take this view of following them IN goodness or amal?

 

The issue with the English language is translating " بِإِحْسَـٰنٍ"  with the prepositions of in and with which is important because the preposition can entail two drastic meanings

 The difference  in meaning depending on the preposition:

  • Follow them with goodness
    • This means follow the Sabiqoon period and do so righteously. 
      • This is a problem because this is an instruction from Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) to follow fallible humans which is contradiction in the school of ahlul bayt which instructs us to follow only infallible human beings. This statement is equivalent to follow prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) we know you can't just follow the prophet and enter jannah you have to also follow him doing good amal or deeds.
  • Follow them in action
    • This means follow the Sabiqoon in only in the matters of good actions that they do, in other words follow there good deeds and not the individuals
      • This translations is in line with the school of ahlulbayt and that you don't follow fallible being but only follow the good deeds those said individuals did such as giving up your wealth and safety for the cause of Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى).

If you say that the translation using the preposition in is the actual true translation and what that denotes such as following them(sabiqoon) in only there good deeds and not the individuals themselves, is there mutilple sunni tafseer that take this view as well?

 

 

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14 hours ago, Cool said:

 

 

8 hours ago, Guest TruthSeeker2021 said:

Is there multiple sunni commentry (tafseer) that take this view of following them IN goodness or amal?

Yes, I have shared their tafasir and their differences on sabiqoon al-awwaloon.

In Tafsir Jalalayn:

14 hours ago, Cool said:

 وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَانٍ ( التوبة : 100 ) } إلى يوم القيامة باحسان في العمل { رَّضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُمْ ( التوبة : 100 ) } بطاعته

According to ibn Asakir:

14 hours ago, Cool said:

وشرط على التابعين شرطا لم يشترطه فيهم ، قلت : وما اشترط عليهم ، قال : اشترط عليهم أن يتبعوهم باحسان ، يقول يقتدون بهم في أعمالهم الحسنة ولا يقتدون بهم في غير ذلك

 

8 hours ago, Guest TruthSeeker2021 said:

you say that the translation using the preposition in is the actual true translation and what that denotes such as following them(sabiqoon) in only there good deeds and not the individuals themselves,

It is very logical to say that. You will find that some of the earlest Muslims used to flee from the battle of Uhud, leaving behind Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), should anyone like to follow them in this very act? No, infact Quran has condemned the very act of turning backs specifically while facing the enemies:

وَلَقَدْ كَانُوا عَاهَدُوا اللَّهَ مِن قَبْلُ لَا يُوَلُّونَ الْأَدْبَارَ وَكَانَ عَهْدُ اللَّهِ مَسْؤُولًا

33:15) And certainly they had made a covenant with Allah before, that they would not turn (their) backs; and Allah's covenant shall be inquired of.

قُلْ لَنْ يَنْفَعَكُمُ الْفِرَارُ إِنْ فَرَرْتُمْ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ أَوِ الْقَتْلِ وَإِذًا لَا تُمَتَّعُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

33:16) Say: Flight shall not do you any good if you fly from death or slaughter, and in that case you will not be allowed to enjoy yourselves but a little.

Neither anyone would love to follow them in raising their voices on Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) or moving ahead of Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), both of these actions are disliked by Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى):

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

49:1) O you who believe! be not forward in the presence of Allah and His Messenger, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing.

أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَنْ تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ

49:2) O you who believe! do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, and do not speak loud to him as you speak loud to one another, lest your deeds became null while you do not perceive.

And I can quote much more from history. The battle of Jamal is one example where heavy weights from companions fought each other. Among them were those who participated in Badr. Imam Ali (عليه السلام) , Talhs, Zubayr, Ummul Mo'mineen Aisha etc. So do we accept that sabiqoon al-awwaloon fought & killed each other? Those who followed Imam Ali (عليه السلام) & those who followed the party of Ummul Mo'mineen Aisha, all are rightly guided? And what is the احسان in that very battle? 

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fyi

Quote
وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ {100}

[Shakir 9:100] And (as for) the foremost, the first of the Muhajirs and the Ansars, and those who followed them in goodness, Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flOw, to abide in them for ever; that is the mighty achievement.
[Pickthal 9:100] And the first to lead the way, of the Muhajirin and the Ansar, and those who followed them in goodness - Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him, and He hath made ready for them Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide for ever. That is the supreme triumph.
[Yusufali 9:100] The vanguard (of Islam)- the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds,- well-pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 9:100]

This verse clearly proclaims the equality of muhajirs and ansar in general sense. The preference given to one individual over another by Allah or the Holy Prophet was due to the degree of submission to Allah and taqwa (piety). So the argument put forward by Umar bin Khattab at the time of deciding the issue of taking hold of the reins of power in the conference hall of Saqifa bani Sa-ada by reciting this verse without wa after ansar to establish the superiority of muhajirs over ansar (if wa is dropped it means the ansar should obey or follow the muhajirs) was unislamic or contrary to the teachings of the Quran. It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari that when Obay ibn Ka-ab pointed out this omission Umar replied that he always thought this verse to be a proof of the muhajir's superiority over the ansar.

This verse and other verses like it in praise of the companions of the Holy Prophet, whether muhajirs or ansar, are applicable only to those who were sincere in faith. The hypocrites, who were also "companions" (sahabah) as per its definition laid down by the Muslim scholars, cannot be accepted as those praised by the Quran. So to say that all the companions, even the deserters, were true believers is illogical and contrary to historical facts.

All the commentators unanimously agree that "the first of the foremost" among women was Khadijah, wife of the Holy Prophet, and among men was Ali ibn abi Talib.

Hakim Nayshapuri, in his Mustadrak Alal Sahihayn, writes on page 22 of kitab al Ma-rafat:

"There is no difference of opinion among the historians that Ali ibn abi Talib was the first Muslim."

Ibn Abd al Bar, Qartabi, Suyuti, Tabarani, Bayhaqi and others also have confirmed it.

Please refer to the event of dawat dhil ashirah on page 4. Among others refer to Tarikh Tabari vol. 2, page 63, for authenticity of the tradition, according to which Ali was the first Muslim, and his faith was not only accepted by the Holy Prophet but also he was declared by him, whose words were always revelation revealed (Najm: 4), to be his brother, lieutenant and successor-and on that day obedience to him was made obligatory by the Holy Prophet for all the believers. Whosoever raises the issue of his age either does not know that whomsoever Allah wills He makes him His representative even if he is a baby in the cradle (Ali Imran: 46-Isa was a messenger of Allah in the cradle just as he was a messenger of Allah in maturity), or with ulterior motives, wants to introduce some one else as the first Muslim.

The Holy Prophet said:

"Ali prayed with me seven years before the other Muslims. He is the siddiq al akbar (the greatest truthful) and the faruq al azam (the greatest distinguisher of truth from falsehood). Whoso claims either of these titles is a liar."

https://quran.al-islam.org/

&

Quote
إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُنَافِقُونَ قَالُوا نَشْهَدُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِنَّكَ لَرَسُولُهُ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ لَكَاذِبُونَ {1}

[Pickthal 63:1] When the hypocrites come unto thee (O Muhammad), they say: We bear witness that thou art indeed Allah's messenger. And Allah knoweth that thou art indeed His messenger, and Allah beareth witness that the hypocrites indeed are speaking falsely.

 

اتَّخَذُوا أَيْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً فَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ سَاءَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {2}
[Pickthal 63:2] They make their faith a pretext so that they may turn (men) from the way of Allah. Verily evil is that which they are wont to do,

 

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا فَطُبِعَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ {3}

[Pickthal 63:3] That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore their hearts are sealed so that they understand not.

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 but I am leaving among you two weighty things: the one being the Book of Allah in which there is right guidance and light, so hold fast to the Book of Allah and adhere to it. He exhorted (us) (to hold fast) to the Book of Allah and then said: The second are the members of my household I remind you (of your duties) to the members of my family. 

https://sunnah.com/search?q=khumm

Two Weighty things were left AMONG Companions. Hierarchy is clear. 

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Salam.

The Holy Quran asks us to obey Allah and His Messenger unconditionally. And some people (AhlulBayt, companions, maraji etc.) conditionally.

If you study the Verse of Obedience (Quran, 4:59) and its interpretations, you will see that the Quran says "Obey" twice but not thrice.

"O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those people of authority among you..."

Thus, making it clear that the obedience to God and Prophet is unconditional. However, obedience to others is conditinal.

And when it somes to the verse you mentioned; we forget the same thing. The obedience to the Muhajireen and Ansaar is not unconditional.

Because if we follow all the companions, then we would need to fight amongs one another as well. Because, the history tells us that companions fought one another gathering huge armies. So, the order of following is not an unconditional and general one. It is specific.

The fact that the English translation of the verse missed to translate the word "Minal" (amongst) is a proof for this. The verse says, those who follow the SABIQOON AL-AWWALEEN (first generation) AMONGST Muhajireen and Ansaar. So, the verse does not order us to follow all the Muhajireen and Ansaar. It tells us to follow the FOREMOST among them.

And if you study the Holy Quran, you will see that the Muslim Ummah is categorized in 3 different ways. 1- SABIQOON (first comers)  2- AL WUSTA (the middle ones) and 3- AL AKHAREEN (the last ones, in the end times).

And if you study the Hadiths (especially sunni hadiths, I was a sunni, so I know), you will see that the اٰخَر۪ينَ AKHAREEN (special muslims in the end times) is praised more by the Prophet. The hadiths that go like:

"Peace be upon you! The abode of the believing people and we, if God so wills, are about to join you. I love to see my brothers." They (the companions) said: Aren't we your brothers, O Messenger of Allah? He said: You are my companions, and our brothers are those who have, so far, not come into the world."

"The parable of my Ummah is that of rain, it is uncertain if the first (awwaleen) or last (akhareen) of it is better"

There are even some hadiths that mention the Akhareenn doing a good deed is more worth than 30-40 companions doing the same deed.

Even the Holy Quran praises the Akhareen: "Along with others of them (AKHAREEN) who have not yet joined them yet. He is the Mighty, the Wise." (Quran 62:3)

So, you see, when the Holy Quran and the Prophet praise the three categories of the Ummah, they praise certain people among those generations. And the number 73 emerges.

In the battle of Uhud, Hamza ((رضي الله عنه)) and his 72 friends. In Karbala, Hussain ((عليه السلام)) and his 72 friends. And in Iran, Beheshti and his 72 friends. They were all best martyrs of Islam of these 3 generations.

And Allah made us "the wusta/middle nation" is a sign that we should follow the martyrs of Karbala first.

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On 9/18/2021 at 3:27 AM, Guest TruthSeeker2021 said:

My question is not weather if the companions are going to heaven or hell but weather there is a precedence in the Quran to follow companions who are fallible beings.

In the quran chapter 9 verse 100:

وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلْأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلْمُهَـٰجِرِينَ وَٱلْأَنصَارِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحْسَـٰنٍ رَّضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا۟ عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّـٰتٍ تَجْرِى تَحْتَهَا ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ ٱلْفَوْزُ ٱلْعَظِيمُ

 

As for the foremost—the first of the Emigrants1 and the Helpers2and those who follow them in goodness, Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. And He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow, to stay there for ever and ever. That is the ultimate triumph.

 

As you can see in the underlined text " and those who  follow them" them being the foremost from muhajreen and ansar whom are fallible companions, Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) will be pleased with them. Why is Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) asking us to follow fallible companions?

 

 

 

 

 

 

There were three groups of believers at the time of the revelation of the verse and these groups are mentioned in the verse 74 & 75 of surah Anfal (8)  and  verse 8,9 & 10 of the surah al-Hashr (59).

1.       Muhajir 2. Ansar 3. Who came after them (in faith)

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْ بَعْدُ And those who believed afterwards… 8:75 (revealed in 2 AH)

Muhajir & Ansar had preceded in the faith over the third group.

Al-Sabiqun is a plural noun  and it’s adjective is ‘al-Awwalun’ means they were the former people at the time of the revelation of the verse form the all the three groups.

the people who preceded  in the death  and now became  the  ‘awwalun’  the former,  with ‘ahsan’ out of the three groups of people  were referred in the verse 9:100 (revealed in 9 AH)

The preceded one, the former from the Muhajir and Ansar and those followed them (in faith) with  ihsan, Allah is pleased with them and they  are pleased with him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great achievement .  9:100

 Quran says to follow the messenger of Allah(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) & Quran.

 So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Ummi, who believes in Allah and His words, and follow him that you may be guided.7:158

 And this is a Book We have revealed, blessed one, so follow it and fear Allah that you may receive mercy.6:155

 Now who will achieve the great achievement?

 and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he indeed achieves a great achievement. 33:71

 [Shakir 9:71] And (as for) the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger; (as for) these, Allah will show mercy to them; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.

[Shakir 9:72] Allah has promised to the believing men and the believing women gardens, beneath which rivers flow, to abide in them, and goodly dwellings in gardens of perpetual abode; and best of all is Allah's goodly pleasure; that is the grand achievement.

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