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In the Name of God بسم الله

Aqidah differences between Shia and Sunni school

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Posted (edited)
On 5/3/2021 at 4:13 AM, seekingthebeloved said:

:salam:

what are the main aqidah differences?

The following link mentions the information about the differences in Shia and Sunni  school of thoughts:

https://www.al-islam.org/shiite-encyclopedia/major-difference-between-shia-and-sunni

https://www.al-islam.org/shiite-encyclopedia/outline-differences-between-shiite-and-sunni-schools-thought

wasalam

Edited by Muslim2010
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(Twelver Usuli Shi'a)

In Ilahiyyat (Theology)

Shi'a believe in Divine Simplicity, whilst Sunni believe that Allah has attributes that are neither the same nor separate from His essence.

(I.e. Allah is the all-knowing, He has knowledge but He is not knowledge. His attributes are meanings inherent in his essence.)

Shi'a disagree with Sunni Athari on view against Ilm Al-Kalam, agreeing with Sunni Ash'ari and Maturidi.

Shi'a disagree with occasionalist understanding of Qadar/ free will of Sunnis.

Shia disagree with Sunni belief that Quran Kalamullah Ghayr Makhluq (Qur'an uncreated divine speech). Most Twelvers hold position of Tawaqquf - it is divine speech but neither is it created nor uncreated.

Shia disagree with Sunni Athari and some Ash'ari that letters and words are uncreated.

Shia disagee with Sunni Maturidi on Takwin.

(I think) Shi'a disagree with Sunni Ash'ari on answering Euthyphro's dilemma with "Allah defines Good and Evil", rather agreeing with Mu'tazila that "Allah does what is Good".

Shia believe we cannot see Allah with our eyes, Sunnis affirm we can.

Shia disagree with Sunni position of Tafweed and Ithbat with Sifat Al Khabariyyah. Like Sunni Ash'ari, Maturidi they do Tawil, but unlike them they do it always and take certainty upon the meaning.

In Nubuwwat (Prophetology)

Shi'a believe Imams superior to Anbiya AS and they come after Anbiya AS. Sunnis believe no prophets or superior to prophet after Muhammad SAWS.

Shia believe in 12 of these Imams after Prophet SAWS. Sunnis do not agree with concept but view 11 of these as Sunnis who they love and respect. 1 of these 11, Imam Ali KW is also fourth Sunni Imam.

Sh'a believe Prophet SAWS designated Imam Ali KW as successor. Majority Sunni believe he AS did not appoint successor, minority of Sunnis believe he appointed Abu Bakr RA as successor.

Shi'a believe these Imams are Masum like Anbiya AS. Sunnis believe only Anbiya AS are Masum.

In Sam'iyyat (Revelationology)

There are some stories to do with Angels that Shi'a affirm that Sunnis are unaware of.

Shi'a believe non-Shi'a will enter Jahannam (I am not sure if this is temporary or forever for non-Shi'a Muslims). Sunnis believe Allah will either forgive sinful Muslims or punish them in hell temporarily as He so wants. Most Sunnis believe all Monotheists will eventually enter Jannah, some Sunnis believe only all Muslims will be saved from eternal damnation.

(Practically this means Shi'a are safe from eternal damnation according to Sunnis, but there is a question mark on if the same applies for Sunnis according to Shi'a.)

Shi'a believe Abu Talib died a Muslim. Vast majority of Sunnis believe he died Kafir. Small minority of latter Sunnis e.g. Shaykh Zayni Dahlan agree with Shi'a on this.

Shi'a do not believe Sahabah are all necessarily honest/sincere. Sunnis believe all of them are.

Shi'a believe in Ghaybah and believe Imam Mahdi is in Ghaybah and will re-appear in the future. Sunnis do not accept this but believe Imam Mahdi will be a future Imam from Ahlul Bayt.

 

 

I think that about summarises creedal differences. insha'Allah you will forgive me if I made any mistakes, forgot to mention something. Typing it out makes me feel our differences are comparatively minor. Love to all brothers and sisters, whether Sunni or Shi'a.

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Posted (edited)

Most aqeeda is the same just different points emphasised during different periods of islam

Most of the difference regarding tawheed and Qur'an "createdness" are semantics.

The main difference lies in Imamat.

And Imamt from a orthodox Shia including all Shia sects is the succession of Imam Ali.

3 books to start

Are

 creed by Imam Tahawee (Sunni)

Creed by sheikh Sadooq (12er shia)

Creed by Imam Hadi(Zaidi)

All available online.

Edited by Ali bin Hussein
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On 6/23/2021 at 10:59 AM, Ali bin Hussein said:

Most aqeeda is the same just different points emphasised during different periods of islam

Most of the difference regarding tawheed and Qur'an "createdness" are semantics.

The main difference lies in Imamat.

And Imamt from a orthodox Shia including all Shia sects is the succession of Imam Ali.

3 books to start

Are

 creed by Imam Tahawee (Sunni)

Creed by sheikh Sadooq (12er shia)

Creed by Imam Hadi(Zaidi)

All available online.

Thank you for this. I just read through the first book and noted the aspects which I found questionable: 

- We do not permit rebellion against our leaders or those in charge of our public affairs even if they do injustice. We also do not pray for evil to befall them, nor do we withdraw allegiance from their obedience.
We hold that our civic duty to them is a part of our obedience to Allah the Exalted and therefore legally binding on us, as long as they do not order us to commit misdeed. We pray for their righteousness and ask Allah for their pardon.

- The “Arsh and the Kursi”, the Throne and the Chair are true. “Kursi” is an immense creation of Allah that is smaller to the “Arsh”(Throne) and encircles the universe, and “Arsh”(Throne) is the most immense creation of Allah that encircles the entire creation including the Kursi. Wallahu A’lam.

-  And we do not go contrary to the majority of the Muslims. 

-  We love the people of justice and trustworthiness, and loathe those who are tyrant and treacherous. (contradicts the first point) 

- We assert that we love the Companions of Allah’s Messenger ه. We do not however go to extreme in our love for anyone among them; nor do we disclaim from any of them. We loathe those who despise them. We only speak well of them. We behold loving them as a part of religion, faith and spiritual excellence. Likewise we hold hating them as blasphemy, damnation, hypocrisy and transgression.

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55 minutes ago, seekingthebeloved said:

Thank you for this. I just read through the first book and noted the aspects which I found questionable: 

- We do not permit rebellion against our leaders or those in charge of our public affairs even if they do injustice. We also do not pray for evil to befall them, nor do we withdraw allegiance from their obedience.
We hold that our civic duty to them is a part of our obedience to Allah the Exalted and therefore legally binding on us, as long as they do not order us to commit misdeed. We pray for their righteousness and ask Allah for their pardon.

- The “Arsh and the Kursi”, the Throne and the Chair are true. “Kursi” is an immense creation of Allah that is smaller to the “Arsh”(Throne) and encircles the universe, and “Arsh”(Throne) is the most immense creation of Allah that encircles the entire creation including the Kursi. Wallahu A’lam.

-  And we do not go contrary to the majority of the Muslims. 

-  We love the people of justice and trustworthiness, and loathe those who are tyrant and treacherous. (contradicts the first point) 

- We assert that we love the Companions of Allah’s Messenger ه. We do not however go to extreme in our love for anyone among them; nor do we disclaim from any of them. We loathe those who despise them. We only speak well of them. We behold loving them as a part of religion, faith and spiritual excellence. Likewise we hold hating them as blasphemy, damnation, hypocrisy and transgression.

Best thing would be to go ask a Sunni scholar about these issues.

 

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7 minutes ago, seekingthebeloved said:

I also want to read the Shia books and see what they suggest. The journey to reach what feels closest to the truth is quite mentally exhausting 

It is, took me years to settle on Zaidi after reading alot of books and asking alit of questions.

But do dua and inshallah you will be guided.

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23 minutes ago, Ali bin Hussein said:

It is, took me years to settle on Zaidi after reading alot of books and asking alit of questions.

But do dua and inshallah you will be guided.

Thank you. Can I ask what it was that drew to Zaidi’ism as opposed to Sunni’ism?

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10 minutes ago, seekingthebeloved said:

Thank you. Can I ask what it was that drew to Zaidi’ism as opposed to Sunni’ism?

The succession of Imam Ali. Mutawatir hadith regarding his characteristics and position. As well as hadith linking him specifically to Quranic ayat.

Any group of scholars that deny his succession by implicit /explicit appointment by the Prophet , in my opinion are not balanced or honest to themselves. Therefore their school are not the best guide me.

 

 

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Posted (edited)
On 8/2/2021 at 5:16 AM, Ali bin Hussein said:

The succession of Imam Ali. Mutawatir hadith regarding his characteristics and position. As well as hadith linking him specifically to Quranic ayat.

Any group of scholars that deny his succession by implicit /explicit appointment by the Prophet , in my opinion are not balanced or honest to themselves. Therefore their school are not the best guide me.

Thank you. But then what drew you to Zaidi’ism as opposed to continuing with Shia’ism?

Edited by ShiaChat Mod
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Posted (edited)
3 hours ago, seekingthebeloved said:

Thank you. But then what drew you to Zaidi’ism as opposed to continuing with Shia’ism?

It's all.about fundamentals.

They should be understood by all Muslims even with minimal knowledge.

The succession of Ali can be found by hadith quoted by all schools and the level of mutawatir exceeds most other hadith. Eg number of chains of ghadeer.

Schools differ on interpretation not authenticity.

As for 12er I found very little to convince me the beleif in 12 infallible Imams as a matter of fundamentals. To find any convincing evidence you would need to look to 12er exclusive hadith which defeats the point of a layman finding fundamentals from an unbiased perspective.

On the other hand the Zaidi aqeeda books only mentioned the succession of Imam Ali as an obligatory fundamental.

The general concept of Imamat was perfectly in line with the general concept  presented in the Quran plus hadith thaqlain (also well known to all sects)  limiting it to Ahlulbayt.

They were basically the middle path stopping at evidence and not leaning to one extreme or another in my opinion.

 

Edited by Ali bin Hussein
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On 6/23/2021 at 2:29 PM, Ali bin Hussein said:

Creed by Imam Hadi(Zaidi)

All available online.

Salam this is a false information  which has been mentioned  multiple  times by  you because  It is crystal clear that Imam  Hadi (عليه السلام) is 10th infallible  Imam of 12ers . Therefore Imam Hadi (عليه السلام) as descendant  of Imam Hussain  (عليه السلام) is not an Imam of Zaidi  creed but on the other hand if you have meant Hadi ila al-haqq so he has not been from  Ahlulbayt  (عليه السلام) but on the othe hand He has been a Sayed & founder of Hadavi(a) branch of Zaydi creed in Yemen so your claim  might has been accepted .

Quote

Yemen

Zaydi rule in Yemen was first established by Yahya b. al-Husayn b. Qasim al-Rassi, a descendant of Imam al-Hasan (a), also called al-Hadi ila al-haqq, in 284/897. He made Sa'dah his capital and Zaydism the state religion in Yemen.

Zaydi rule in Yemen witnessed four periods of great power:

  • From the time of al-Hadi ila al-haqq in 284/897 until the second half of the 4th/10th century at the time of al-Mansur bi Allah, al-Qasim b. Ali al-'Iyani, a descendant of al-Qasim al-Rassi. This period came to an end by the beginning of the 5th/11th century when Isma'ili Sulayhids repeatedly defeated Zaydi Imams, resulting in a period of decline which lasted until the end of the 6th/11th century.
  •  

https://en.wikishia.net/view/Zaydiyya

Quote

He was the first Zaydi imam who ruled portions of Yemen from 897 to 911. He is also the ancestor of the Rassid Dynasty which ruled Yemen intermittently until the North Yemen Civil War in 1962.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Hadi_ila'l-Haqq_Yahya

http://www.shiastudy.ir/en/shia-history/imam-al-hadi

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38 minutes ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

Salam this is a false information  which has been mentioned  multiple  times by  you because  It is crystal clear that Imam  Hadi (عليه السلام) is 10th infallible  Imam of 12ers . Therefore Imam Hadi (عليه السلام) as descendant  of Imam Hussain  (عليه السلام) is not an Imam of Zaidi  creed but on the other hand if you have meant Hadi ila al-haqq so he has not been from  Ahlulbayt  (عليه السلام) but on the othe hand He has been a Sayed & founder of Hadavi(a) branch of Zaydi creed in Yemen so your claim  

Brother please stop making accusations.

You first write it's false information. Then you say It might mean Hadi Ila Al-haqq.

1)Read the book to get your answer

2) Or ask me without accusations

3) Or look for previous post where I have explained who he is.

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