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In the Name of God بسم الله

Questions about the opinion that all sahabas became apostate except 3

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Ibn Murtuz

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Where does this opinion come from? and who holds these opinions from Shias?

and what do they say about this verse?

Quran 9:100 - And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.

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7 hours ago, Warilla said:

This verse does not include Muawiya right ?

Muawiya wasn't among the "sabiqoon al awwaloon" mentioned in the start of this verse i.e. he wasn't among the early converts, immigrants, and helpers.

For that matter, it also doesn't include some others. For example, read Quran 49:2:

"O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet or be loud to him in speech like the loudness of some of you to others, lest your deeds become worthless while you perceive not."

I think you and I might know an event where some esteemed companions argued with raised voices in front of the Prophet, drowning his voice. Something that instantly nullifies all previous deeds.

When there are apparently all-encompassing verses like these (9:100), quite often there is another verse somewhere that adds an exception clause.

Edited by Sabrejet
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Quote

 

 

On 12/13/2020 at 3:09 PM, Rauf Murtuzov said:

Where does this opinion come from? and who holds these opinions from Shias?

There is a hadith in our books which says that.

On 12/13/2020 at 3:09 PM, Rauf Murtuzov said:

Quran 9:100 - And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen (1) and the Ansar (2) and those who followed them with good conduct (3)- Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.

So if the former ones have a preference over those who came after them, similarly for Imam Ali (عليه السلام), there is a preference over the former ones for being before the former ones. 

See Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) began with Emigrants, the first ones, upon a level of their preceding, then secondly with Helpers, then thirdly with the followers of theirs with goodness. 

To understand this verse, I would like to refer you verses 19-22 of the same chapter.

أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ لَا يَسْتَوُونَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ

يُبَشِّرُهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ بِرَحْمَةٍ مِنْهُ وَرِضْوَانٍ وَجَنَّاتٍ لَهُمْ فِيهَا نَعِيمٌ مُقِيمٌ

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ

Edited by Mahdavist
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On 12/13/2020 at 7:39 PM, Rauf Murtuzov said:

Quran 9:100 - And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.

Who were the first of Muhajireen and Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct??  

Hazrat Khadija (عليه السلام) and Imam Ali (عليه السلام). 

A commentary on the verse:

https://www.al-islam.org/enlightening-commentary-light-holy-quran-vol-6/section-13-hypocrites-among-bedouins#surah-tawbah-verse-100

 

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Answer from Imam Rassi society as follows :


Thank you for your question! First, I would like to translate the verse in question as: {The first forerunners from the Emigrants and Helpers as well as those who followed them in goodness--Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. And He has readied for them gardens under which rivers flow therein to abide forever and ever. That is a great victory} (Q. 9:100). The reason why is because it will help us to understand to whom does the verse refer.

The verse indicates that it is not all the Emigrants and Helpers that are referred to because the verse begins with the {first forerunners} and includes the preposition {from (min)} which means that not all of the Emigrants and Helpers are included in this. This indicates to us that not all of the Companions are destined for Jennah nor is Allah pleased with all of them.

Second, it is noteworthy that the phrase the {first forerunners} does not imply all of the forerunners but rather the first of them. According to texts such as Al-Masaabeeh and Al-Manaaqib, this verse refers to Ali, upon him be peace, since he was among the earliest of the forerunners who believed and maintained belief. [Ref. At-Tayseer at-Tafseer]

It is also said that the verse does not refer to 'forerunners' in terms of the earliest converts but rather 'forerunners' in the sense of level of belief and good deeds. This means that it is not restricted to the earliest Companions only but also includes those Muslims who have attained a high level of imaan and amaal as-saalih. This view is supported by the fact that the verse continues to say {as well as those who followed them in goodness}. This second clause implies that those forerunners are considered 'forerunners' due to the high level off their belief and good deeds not simply because they believed first. And {those who followed them} follow them in this high level of belief and good deeds. Therefore precedence (sabaqa) and primacy (awlawiya) are metaphorical and not literal (Ref. Tahreer al-Ifkaar).

I am more inclined to ascribe to both views. This is because not only were those such as Ali forerunners in the literal sense due to their chronological primacy but they were also forerunners in the metaphorical sense also due to their unwavering faith and righteous deeds until they died.

As to whether the verse refers to Abu Bakr and Umar, we have no proof to suggest that it refers to them. Although Abu Bakr was an early convert, there were those who converted before him. Some sources such as Taarikh at-Tabarigives the number of converts before Abu Bakr as fifty. That withstanding, they would actually have more precedence (sabaqa) and primacy (awlawiya) than him. It is also well known that Umar was not an early convert and many Muslims preceded him, one of which was his own sister. So, there is really no justifiable reason to say that this verse refers to either of them or both. In fact, in one of his sermons, Imam Ali (عليه السلام) rightfully boasted that he was among the first to believe in the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny.

And Allah knows best

 

http://www.salvationark.com/salvationark1/index.php/forum/quran-questions-exegesis-commentaries-recitations/279-zaydi-tafsir-of-9-100

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6 hours ago, Sabrejet said:

 Quran 49:2:

"O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet or be loud to him in speech like the loudness of some of you to others, lest your deeds become worthless while you perceive not."

When there are apparently all-encompassing verses like these (9:100), quite often there is another verse somewhere that adds an exception clause.

Very good point. The Qur'an is its own best tafsir.

"According to the Zaydi understanding, any good deed that merits Paradise can equally be nullified if a person commits a major sin or violate the trust that was given to them. One could look at the verse {Allah's Pleasure was on the Believers when they pledged allegiance to thee under the Tree...} (Q. 48:18). We know of the great status and reward that exists for those Companions who swore allegiance; yet, Allah also says regarding the same group {Whosoever breaks his pledge breaks it to his own detriment. However, he who remains true to what he pledged to Allah, He will bestow upon him a great reward} (Q. 48:10)." Salvation bark forumn.

Edited by Warilla
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On 12/13/2020 at 9:09 AM, Rauf Murtuzov said:

Where does this opinion come from? and who holds these opinions from Shias?

and what do they say about this verse?

Quran 9:100 - And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.

This verse doesn't need much tafsir, nor is it complicated to understand. Let's look at the context. 

The section starts out talking about the 'A'rab'. These are not Arab (the people who lived in the Jazirat Arabiyya, or Arabian Peninsula), but a subgroub amoung the Arab, the A'rab or called in English Bedouin Arabs. This was a group who did not live in cities or villages like most of the Arabs, but were nomads and moved around the desert and settled in certain places at certain times of the year. The section starts with. 

اَلۡاَعۡرَابُ اَشَدُّ كُفۡرًا وَّ نِفَاقًا وَّاَجۡدَرُ اَلَّا يَعۡلَمُوۡا حُدُوۡدَ مَاۤ اَنۡزَلَ اللّٰهُ عَلٰى رَسُوۡلِهٖؕ وَاللّٰهُ عَلِيۡمٌ حَكِيۡمٌ‏ 

[9:97] The bedouin Arabs surpass all in unbelief and hypocrisy and are most likely to be unaware of the limits prescribed by Allah in what He has revealed to His Messenger. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.

The A'rab were known to be ignorant and not value reading or education, and they were very tribal (not trusting anyone not from their tribe). So this was their general characteristic, which is described by Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى). Because they did not trust anyone from outside their tribe, they would take positions (regarding Islam) which they would support the muslims one day, and the next day fight against them with the Kufar. This ayat was telling the muslims to be careful of them. 

وَمِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مَنۡ يَّتَّخِذُ مَا يُنۡفِقُ مَغۡرَمًا وَّيَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمُ الدَّوَآئِرَؕ عَلَيۡهِمۡ دَآئِرَةُ السَّوۡءِؕ وَاللّٰهُ سَمِيۡعٌ عَلِيۡمٌ‏

[9:98] And among the bedouin Arabs there are such as regard whatever they spend (in the Way of Allah) as a fine and wait for some misfortune to befall you. May ill fortune befall them! Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.

More negative description of this group. Again, warning muslims to be careful of them. 

وَمِنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مَنۡ يُّؤۡمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَالۡيَوۡمِ الۡاٰخِرِ وَيَتَّخِذُ مَا يُنۡفِقُ قُرُبٰتٍ عِنۡدَ اللّٰهِ وَصَلَوٰتِ الرَّسُوۡلِؕ اَلَاۤ اِنَّهَا قُرۡبَةٌ لَّهُمۡؕ سَيُدۡخِلُهُمُ اللّٰهُ فِىۡ رَحۡمَتِهٖ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِيۡم

[9:99] And among the bedouin Arabs are those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and regard their spending (in the Way of Allah) as a means of drawing near to Allah and of deserving the prayers of the Messenger. Indeed, this shall be a means of drawing near to Allah. Allah will surely admit them to His mercy. Allah is All-Forgiving, Ever Merciful.

Then the Quran goes on to say that not all of them are like this, and there is a group from amoung them who are mu'min, true believers in Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى), Islam, and Rasoulallah(p.b.u.h). Notice the use of the term 'وَمِنَ (and from) in the beginning of all these ayats, starting with 9:97 to 9:99.  This is saying that there is some from amoung them, meaning they are not all the same. There are many who are like this, but also there are some who are like this, i.e. mumin and also some who are Mushrik (hypocrites) and Unbelievers (Kufar). 

وَالسّٰبِقُوۡنَ الۡاَوَّلُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُهٰجِرِيۡنَ وَالۡاَنۡصَارِ وَالَّذِيۡنَ اتَّبَعُوۡهُمۡ بِاِحۡسَانٍ ۙ رَّضِىَ اللّٰهُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَرَضُوۡا عَنۡهُ وَاَعَدَّ لَهُمۡ جَنّٰتٍ تَجۡرِىۡ تَحۡتَهَا الۡاَنۡهٰرُ خٰلِدِيۡنَ فِيۡهَاۤ اَبَدًا ؕ ذٰ لِكَ الۡـفَوۡزُ الۡعَظِيۡمُ‏ 

[9:100]

The use of وَ, the conjunctive article in Arabic, is used to tie the description in 9:99 to apply to another group. The group is 

وَالسّٰبِقُوۡنَ الۡاَوَّلُوۡنَ مِنَ الۡمُهٰجِرِيۡنَ وَالۡاَنۡصَارِ وَالَّذِيۡنَ اتَّبَعُوۡهُمۡ بِاِحۡسَانٍ

The foremost and the first, the foremost and first in the qualities described in 9:99 who are not from amoung the A'rab, but amoung the Muhajireen and Ansar. So this ayat is saying these qualities exist amoung SOME of the A'rab and Also amoung SOME of the Muhajireen and Ansar. These qualities do not apply to all the Muhajireen and Ansar, because of the use of مِنَ (from) the Muhajireen and Ansar. If this applies to ALL the Muhajireen and Ansar, the ayat would not have used the 'min'. Because min is used, it means that the description only applies to a subgroup within the Muhajireen and Ansar just as these qualities (9:99) only applies to a subgroup WITHIN the A'rab and not all of them. 

So 9:100 is saying those who have these qualities in 9:99, whether they are from the Muhajireen and Ansar or from amoung those who came after the Muhajireen and Ansar and followed them by imitating them in these qualities, Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) is pleased with those people. 

If you read this ayat in context, the logical implication is that just as there are Hypocrites, disbelievers, and also Believers (mumin) within the A'rab, there are also these same groups within the Muhajireen and Ansar. 

This is strengthened and explained by the Ayat that comes DIRECTLY after this 9:101

وَمِمَّنۡ حَوۡلَـكُمۡ مِّنَ الۡاَعۡرَابِ مُنٰفِقُوۡنَ ۛؕ وَمِنۡ اَهۡلِ الۡمَدِيۡنَةِ ۛمَرَدُوۡا عَلَى النِّفَاقِلَا تَعۡلَمُهُمۡ ؕ نَحۡنُ نَـعۡلَمُهُمۡ ؕ سَنُعَذِّبُهُمۡ مَّرَّتَيۡنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّوۡنَ اِلٰى عَذَابٍ عَظِيۡمٍ

9:101

As for the bedouin Arabs around you, some are hypocrites; and so are some of the people of Madinah have become enamoured with hypocrisy. You do not know them, but We know them. We will inflict double chastisement on them, and then they shall be returned to an awesome suffering.

This is showing that lest you think that all the people who lived in Medina at that time the ayat was revealed are good, and you didn't catch the use of 'min' in the previous ayat, some who live near Rasoulallah(p.b.u.h) some of these are also hypocrites. Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) is telling Rasoulallah(p.b.u.h) that he doesn't know who they are, but Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) knows who they are. This is show that those people who were identified as hypocrites during the time of Rasoulallah(p.b.u.h) (before this ayat was revealed) are not the ones talked about in the verse, otherwise Rasoulallah(p.b.u.h) would have known who they were. This ayat is saying that there are additional hypocrites in Medina who were not known about at that time.

Edited by Abu Hadi
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That verse was revealed before they renenged on the allegiance to Imam 'Ali. When they say "all companions" it means those actively involved in the usurption. Most of the companions were not involved in this and others were deceived by the claims the Sheikhayn made. They deceived the people by saying that Allah has decided not to gather the imamate and the prophethood in one family. Yet, Abu Bakr had argued that he was from the Quraysh and therefore the closest to the holy prophet. Remember for all Shia guardianship (al-Wilaya) is a fundamental (usul) of din - so those who rejected it technically did kufr...

It is like Imam 'Ali has stated in Nahj al-Balagha: "They argued with the tree but spoilt the fruits". Besides, what was Abu Bakr doing in Medina when he was supposed to be under the leadership of Usama ibn Zayd? You will notice that many of the early companions stood with Imam 'Ali.

Non-Shia will quote the statements like this, but they have to be understood within the context of the princples of Islam. All people will be judged by their intentions. A great post on this topic is here:

https://www.iqraonline.net/did-the-sahaba-become-kafir-pt-i/

 

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