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In the Name of God بسم الله

Various Sermons by the Holy Infallibles (a)

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Sermon of Imam Ali ibn Moosa Al-Riza (a) Regarding The Unity/Oneness of Allah (عزّ وجلّ) (Al-Tawheed)

Muhammad ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Waleed - may God be pleased with him that Muhammad ibn Umar al-Katib quoted on the authority of Muhammad ibn Ziyad al-Qolzomy, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abi Ziyad al-Jadiy, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Umar ibn Ali ibn Ali Talib (s),

“I heard Abul Hasan Al-Reza (a) say these things in the presence of Al-Ma’mun on the subject of Unity. Ibn Abi Ziyad and others such as Ahmad ibn Abdullah Al-Alawi (the Alawid) have quoted on the authority of Al-Qasim ibn Ayyoub Al-Alawi,

“When Al-Ma’mun (May Allah curse him) decided to empower Al-Reza (as his successor), he gathered the Hashemites together and told them, “Verily I have decided to empower Al-Reza to run the affairs after me.” The Hashemites envied Imam Al-Riza (a) and said, “Will you appoint an ignorant man who does not possess the necessary insight to run the affairs of the Caliphate? Send someone after him so that he is brought to us. Then you can see his ignorance as a proof against him.”

Al-Ma’mun (May Allah Curse him) sent someone after him and he came. The Hashemites told him, “O Abul Hassan! Climb up the pulpit and display for us a sign whereby we may worship God.”

So he (a) climbed up the pulpit and sat there for a long time with his head bowed down in silence. Then he trembled - a great trembling - and stood up straight, praised the Sublime God, and recited God’s praises and asked for His blessing for His Prophet and the Members of the Holy Household.

Then he (a) said, “The first element in the worship of the Sublime God is His recognition. The root of recognition of God is to profess to His Unity. The order for professing the Unity of God is to deny He has any attributes, since the powers of reasoning testify that every attribute and everything which possesses an attribute are created. Everything that is created testifies that it has a Creator which is neither an attribute nor does it possess any attributes. Every attribute and everything possessing an attribute testify to the association between the attribute and that to which it is attributed. Any association testifies to temporality. And temporality testifies that it accepts not the Beginningless which accepts not the temporal. So it is not God whose Essence is recognized through striking similitude. It is not His Unity that is professed by someone who attempts to fathom Him. It is not His reality (haqiqa) that is attained by someone who strikes a similitude for Him. It is not He who is confirmed (tasdiq) by him who professes an end for Him. If one points to Him, it is not God that is pointed to. It is not He who is meant by him who compares Him (to something). It one ascribes parts to God, he has not indeed humbled himself in the presence of God. And it is not God who is desired by one who conceives of God in his imagination. Everything that can be known in itself is fashioned. All that stands apart from Him is an effect. God is inferred from what He fashions, the recognition of Him is expedited by the powers of reasoning, and the argument for Him is established by (man's) primordial nature. God's creating of the creatures is a veil between Him and them. His separation (mubayana) from them is due to the fact that He is disengaged from their localization. That He is their origin is proof for them that He has no origin, for none that has an origin can originate others. That He has created them possessing means (of accomplishing things) is proof that He has no means (adapt) for means are witness to the poverty of those who use them. So His names are an expression, His acts are (a way) to make (Him) understood, and His Essence is Reality. His innermost center separates Him from Creation, and His otherness limits what is other than Him. Therefore ignorant of God is he who asks for Him to be described!Transgressing against Him is he who seeks to encompass Him!Mistaken is he who imagines to have fathomed Him! Whoever asks 'how?' has compared Him (to something). Whoever says 'why?' has professed for Him a cause. Whoever says 'when?' has determined Him in time. Whoever says 'in what?' has enclosed Him. Whoever says 'to what?' has professed for Him a limit. Whoever says 'until what?' has given Him an end. Whoever gives Him an end has associated an end with Him. Whoever associates an end with Him has divided Him. Whoever divides Him has described Him. Whoever describes Him has deviated from the straight path concerning Him. God does not change with the changes undergone by Creation, just as He does not become limited by delimiting that which is limited. He is One, not according to the explanation offered by number; Outward, not according to the explanation of being immediate (to the senses); Manifest, not through the appearance of a vision (of Him); Inward, not through separation; Apart, not through distance; Near, not through approach; Subtle, not through corporealness; Existent, not after nonexistence; Active, not through coercion; Determining, not through the activity of thought; Directing, not through movement; Desiring, not through resolution; Willing, not through directing attention; Grasping, not through touch; Hearing, not through means; and Seeing, not through organs.Times accompany Him not, places enclose Him not, slumber seizes Him not, attributes delimit Him not, and instruments are of no use to Him. His Being precedes time, His Existence precedes non-existence and His Beginninglessness precedes beginning. By His giving sense to the sense organs it is known that He has no sense organs. By His giving substance to substances it is known that He has no substance. By His causing opposition among things it is known that He has no opposite. By His causing affiliation among affairs it is known that He has no affiliate. He made darkness opposite to light, obscurity to clarity, moisture to dryness, and heat to cold. He joins together those things which are in total contradiction with one another and separates those which are near. They prove (the existence of) their Separator by their separation and their Joiner by their junction. That is (the meaning of) the Sublime (God’s) words, ‘And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye may receive instruction.’ So through them He separated 'before' and 'after' that it might be known that He has no before and after. They testify with their temperaments that He who gave them temperaments has no temperament. They prove by their disparity that He who made them disparate has no disparity. They announce by their subjection to time that He who subjected them to time is not subject to it Himself. He veiled some of them from others, so that it might be known that there is no veil between Him and them other than them. His is the true meaning of lordship when there was none over whom He was Lord; the reality of Godhood when there was nothing for whom He was God; the true meaning of All-Knower when there was nothing to be known; the true meaning of m Creator when there was nothing created and the interpreter of hearing when there was nothing to be heard. It is not because He created that which makes Him deserve the true meaning (of the term) 'Creator' and not because He brought the creatures into being that the true meaning of 'making' is derived. How (could it not be so)? For using such words as ‘ago’ conceals Him not, 'already' brings Him not near, ‘perhaps’ veils Him not, 'when' limits Him not in time, 'at the time of' contains Him not, and 'with' associates Him not. Instruments limit only themselves and means are only effective upon other similar means. Their activities are found only in things. The word ‘ago’ keeps things from being eternal; the word 'already' shields them from beginninglessness; and the words 'if only' wards off perfection. Things become separate and thus they prove (the existence of) their Separator. They become distinguished and thus they prove their Distinguisher Through them their Maker manifests Himself to the powers of reasoning, and He becomes veiled to the sight through these powers. To these powers of reasoning imaginations appeal for a decision. And in them is substantiated (only) other than Him. From them is suspended the proof and through them He has revealed to them the acknowledgement of His Unity. Confirmation of God is made fast by the powers of reasoning, and faith in Him attains perfection through acknowledgment. There is no religiousness except after recognition, no knowledge except through sincerity and no sincerity along with striking similitude. If one ascribes attributes for God, then he has indeed drawn a similitude. So nothing in Creation is found in its Creator. All that is possible in it is impossible in its Maker. Movement and stillness do not affect Him. How should that which He affects (in others) have any effect upon Him, or that which He has originated recur for Him?Then His Essence would be disparate, His innermost center would be divided and His being Eternal would become an impossibility. How would then the Creator have a meaning different from the created? If something from behind limited Him, then something in front would limit Him. If perfection were seeking Him, imperfection would be upon Him. How should that which does not transcend temporality be worthy of (the Name) 'Beginningless'? How should that which does not transcend being produced, produce the things (of the world)?There they would have arisen in Him a sign of having been made and He would become a proof after having been the proven. There is no argument in absurd opinions; there is no answer when it (absurdity) is asked about; and there is no glorification of Him in its meaning. Nor is there any absurdity in distinguishing Him from Creation, unless it be that the Independent accepts not to be made into two, nor does the Beginningless accepts to have a beginning. There is no god but God, the All-High, and the Tremendous. They have cried lies that ascribe equals to God! They have gone astray into farreaching error and suffered a manifest loss! May God’s Blessings be upon Muhammad and his Pure Household.

 

Ref:- Uyoon Akhbaar Imam Al Riza (a) vol.1 p.142

 

PDF Link of the book Uyoon Akhbaar Imam Al-Riza (a),

https://shiapdfresources.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/uyun-akhbar-al-reza-vol1.pdf (Vol-1)

https://shiapdfresources.files.wordpress.com/2015/03/uyun-akhbar-al-reza-vol-2.pdf (Vol-2)

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Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) Refutes The Dualists

 

A dualist came to Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a). Among the things Imam Ja'far Al Saadiq (a) said to him was: If you claim that “there are two (gods)” there can only be three possibilities. One: that both gods are eternal and all-powerful. Two: that both gods are weak. Or three: that on of them is all-powerful, and the other one is weak. Now, if both of them are powerful, then why doesn’t one of them overthrow the other, and mange all affairs single-handedly? If you believe that one of them is powerful, and the other one weak, then you have proved that He is One, and to the apparent inability of the second. And if you say that “they are two,” then only two things are possible: one, that they are both united in all aspects; or two, that they are separate in all aspects. However, when we contemplate the organization in creation, the orbits of the planets in the celestial sphere, the variation of day and night, the sun and the moon, and how everything operate in harmony, everything points that he Manager is One. Furthermore, if you claim that there are two gods, there must be a division between them both which has always existed, and that division would have to be a third god. However, if your claim that there are three gods, then there must be two divisions between them, leaving us with five gods, and so on add aeterum. 

 

Hisham (the Narrator) said: The dualist then questioned him until he asked, “What is the proof of His Existence?

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) replied, “The existence of great wonders is proof that they were created by the creator. When you see the imposing structure of building, you know instinctively that it was built by someone, even though you did not see him build it. 

 

He enquired, “What is He?”

 

The Imam (a) explained, He is a thing unlike other things. Consider the word “a thing” in order to understand its implication. Since He is Real, and He Exists, He is indeed a Thing. However, He is devoid of both body and image. He is neither sensed nor felt, nor is He perceived by the five senses. The imagination perceives Him not. He is not subject to time. Time has no effect upon Him.

 

The questioner asked, “Therefore, you are saying that `Verily, He is All-Hearing, and All-Seeing?” 

 

The Imam (a) responded, He is All-Hearing, and All-Seeing. He is All-Hearing without tools, and All-Seeing, without instruments. In fact, He hears by means of His entire being and He hears by His entire being. My statement does not mean that “He hears by means of His Entire Being” in the sense that He is something, and His Being is something else. I am simply using this example in order to answer your question. I say: “He hears by means of His Entire Being” and not in the sense that He has parts. Rather, I am attempting to make myself understood. My only other option would be to say that He is All-Hearing, All-Seeing, All-Knowing, and All-Informed, in His Very Essence. 

 

The questioner questioned, “Than what is He?”

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) answered, He is the Lord. He is the Worshipped One, He is Allah. When I use the word “Allah,” I am not referring to the combination of the letters “A,” “L,” and “H”. Rather, I am pointing to its meaning. He is a thing that is the Creator of all Things, and their Manufacturer who is described by means of these letters. He is the one who is referred to by the names Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful, the Honorable, among other names. He is the Worshipped One, the High and mighty. 

 

The questioner enquired, “So anything we can conceive of it created?” 

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) replied: If things were as you claimed, then recognizing Divine Unity would be beyond our reach. We are not obliged to believe in what cannot be imagined. However, we say: everything we can conceive with our senses is perceived. Therefore, whatever the sense can discover and demonstrate is created. In order to prove the existence of the Creator of All Things, we must do so without recurring to two erroneous approaches: the first of which is negation, i.e. abolition [ibtal], and non-existence [`adam]; and the second is anthropomorphism, i.e. description, composition [tarkib], and formation [ta’lif]. We cannot prove the existence of the Creator on the basis of these two approaches as they are created, The Creator is not like the created. If He resembles the created, then whatever applies to the created would also apply to Him: such as coming into existence after non-existence, growth, change of color, change of strength, and so forth.

 

The questioner said: “In attempting to prove His Existence, you have limited Him.” 

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) responded, “I have not limited Him. ON the contrary, I have demonstrated His Existence through the only means possible: assertion and negation.” 

 

The questioner said: “Is His Existence real and actual?” 

 

The Imam (a) replied, “Yes, His Existence is Real as nothing can be prove without being real and actual.” 

 

The questioner asked, “Does He have a shape?”

 

The Imam (a) explained, No, because shape is description that delineates. We must move away from negation and anthropomorphism Whoever negates Him, denies Him, eliminates His Lordship, and abolished Him. Whoever compares Him with other things describes Him on the basis of created attributes which are not worthy of Him. Nevertheless, we must prove His Essence without referring to shape. None is worthy of His Essence besides Him. And no one shares His Essence, encompasses it, or knows it but Him. 

 

The questioner said: “Does He sustain all things by Himself?” 

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) answered, “He is far Greater than sustaining things directly as only created beings bring things forth directly. Exalted is He! His Intent and His Will are effective. He is the Mighty Doer of whatever He wills.” 

 

The questioner enquired, “Does He feel pleasure or anger?”

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) said: Yes. However, His Pleasure and His Anger differ from the pleasure and anger fund among created beings. Among created beings, pleasure and anger cause a change of state which is an attribute of the created, the incapable, and the needy. He (Allah) is the Blessed and Exalted, the Honorable, and the Most Merciful. He is not in need of His Creation, while all His Creation is in need of Him. Verily, He created all things by means of invention and innovation, without any need or cause.

 

The questioner uttered, “Then what about His Word: The Most Compassionate is firm on the Empyrean.” 

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) replied, He described Himself as such in order to convey that He is the Possessor of the Empyrean, not in the sense that the Empyrean carries the Empyrean and restrains it. And we say this because His has said: His Throne extends over the heavens and the earth. Therefore, we say of the Empyrean and the Throne what He has said: and we refute the notion that the Empyrean or the Throne contains Him as He is not in need of space or anything which He has created. On the contrary, He has created them and they are in need of Him. 

 

The questioner said: “Then what is the difference between raising your hands to heaven and lowering them towards the earth?”

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) answered, That makes no difference in His Knowledge, Encompassment, and Omnipotence, but He, the Mighty and High, commanded His Beloved Ones and His Servants to raise their hands to heaven towards the Empyrean because He made it a source of sustenance. This is proved from the Qur’an. It is also proved from the tradition of the RasoolAllah ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) which says: “Raise your hands to Allah the Mighty and High.” And this is agreed upon between all the schools of thought in the Ummah. 

 

The questioner asked, “How can you prove that Allah sent Prophets and messengers?” 

 

Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq (a) explained, Verily, we have proved that we have a Creator and a Producer who is Exalted from His Creation, and that he Producer is the Most Wise. It is impossible for His Creation to see Him or touch Him. He does not contact His Creation directly nor does His Creation contact Him directly. He does not reason with them, and they do not reason with Him. Thus, this proves that He has Representatives and Servants in His Creations who guide humanity towards what is best for them. They shall be granted eternitiy if they accept guidance. And they shall face destruction if they reject guidance. Evidently, those who promote the good and forbid the evil in His Creation must have been sent by the Most Wise, the All-Knowing. This demonstrates that He has Interpreters, and they are the Prophets, the Cream of His Creation, who are men of wisdom whom He has sent to guide and educate humankind. They are human in shape, but not in nature. They are endorsed by Allah, the Most Wise, the Omniscient, with wisdom, signs, proofs, and evidence, like giving life to the dead, healing lepers, and restoring sight to the blind. Verily, Allah’s earth is never without a Proof [hujjat] (of Allah) who brings the teachings of RasoolAllah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and who embodies justice.

 

Ref:- Kitaab Al Tawheed, Shaykh Sadooq, P. 358-363

 

Kitaab Al Tawheed PDF link,

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://jaffaribooks.com/books/Tawhid sadooq english final.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjsjrHnmajtAhVbfH0KHZjEB7MQFjAAegQIARAB&usg=AOvVaw1kI8WFHY2gmHaknv_lrpav

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A sermon by the Commander of the believers Imam Ali ibn Abi Taalib (ع) that does not contain any Arabic letter Alif.

 

                      بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِII

One day, a heated discussion went on among the Arabs and Muslims during which it was said that there is no alphabet that recurs in speech more often than the "aleef" ("A"). All attendants agreed. It was then that the magnificent lantern of language, its deep ocean and precise philosopher, namely Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (ع), stood up and delivered a lengthy sermon which included praise of Allah Almighty, prayers and salutations unto His Prophet, Muhammed ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib (peace and blessings of Allah be with him and his progeny). The statements of the entire sermon, from beginning to end, did not contain a single word having the "aleef" (mamdooda, elongated alpha) the humble translation (by Yasin T. al-Jibouri) of it is as follows:

 

I praise the One Whose boon is great, whose blessing overwhelms, whose mercy is faster than His anger, the One whose word is perfect, whose will is affected, whose argument (issue) is wise, whose case is just. I praise Him like one recognizing His Godhead, submissive while adoring Him, dissociating himself from his sin, recognizing His Unity, seeking refuge with Him against His warning, hopeful for the mercy (forgiveness) of his Lord that saves him [from the Fire] on a Day when everyone will be distracted even from his offspring and tribe. We seek His help, guidance and directions. We believe in Him and depend on Him. I have testified to Him as a sincere and convinced servant/slave; I recognize His Uniqueness as a pious believer, and I have recognized His Unity like a submissive servant/slave.

 

He has no partner in His domain; He relies on none in doing whatever He does. He is exalted above having an adviser or a vizier. He is above using a model or an assistant or a helper or a peer. He knows, so He covers; He is acquainted with the innermost, so He is most familiar [with our intentions]. He cast a look, so He assisted; He owns everything, so He subdues. He is disobeyed, yet He forgives; He is adored, so He thanks. He rules, so He affects justice, and He is generous and grants favors.

 

He shall never come to an end, and He has always been as He is; there is nothing like Him. He, first and foremost, is a unique Lord in His exaltation, able through His might, holy through His sublimity, proud of His Majesty; no (mental) vision can realize Him, nor can anyone ever see Him. He is strong, invincible, seeing, hearing, clement, wise, affectionate and kind. One who attempts to describe Him can never do so; one who attempts to describe His attributes can never do so [either]. His blessing reaches those who get to know Him: He is near, so He is far [above mental or physical vision]; He is far yet He is near [closer to us than anything else].

 

He responds to the call of those who call on Him; He sustains His servant and surrounds him with His love; His niceties are hidden [from our comprehension]; His power is mighty; His mercy is wide; His penalty is painful; His mercy is a broad and a Garden of grandeur (Paradise); His punishment is Hell filled with horrors and chains.

 

I have testified that He sent Muhammed (ص) as His servant and messenger, prophet, chosen one, loved one, friend, a link [with the Almighty] that grants him [Muhammed] fortune, bringing him closer to Him, elevating him, granting him nearness and closeness [to the Almighty]. He sent him during a good (opportune) period of time, when there was disbelief, as mercy for His servants and a boon for more.

 

Through him He sealed His prophetic messages, strengthened (explained) His argument. So he admonished, advised, conveyed the message and worked hard [for people. He was, affectionate towards every believer, merciful, easy to please, the friend of anyone who is generous and pure: mercy, salutation, blessing and honor be with him from a forgiving, affectionate, kind, near, responsive and wise Lord.

 

I have admonished you, O folks who are present here with me, to be pious (as your Lord has admonished) towards your Lord, and I have reminded you of the Sunna of your Prophet; so, take to awe that calms your hearts, fear that draws your tears, piety that saves you on a Day which will puzzle your minds and put you to the test, a day in which one shall win if the weight of his good deeds is heavy while that of his sins is light. Let your plea be in humility and surrender, appreciation and submission, repentance and dissociation [from sin], regret and return [to righteousness].

 

Let everyone of you seize the opportunity when he is healthy before the time when he is sick, when he is young before he is aged, old and sick, [the opportunity] of his ease before he is poor, of having free time before he is busy, of being wealthy before being impoverished, of being present at home before he is away traveling, of being alive before his death. He shall grow old, become weak, aged, sick, ailing, so much so that even his doctor is fed-up with him, even those who love him turn away from him. His lifespan will have come to an end. His color of complexion is changed. His mental power is decreased, so it is said that he is ailing and his body is failing. He is having a hard time as he finds himself suffering from the throes of death: He is attended by those who are close and who are distant.

 

He gazes his looks, yearns as he turns his eyes, his forehead sweating, his [physical] senses being snatched away from him [one by one]. His sighs are now silent, his soul has departed, so he is mourned by his wife. His grave is dug, his children are now orphans, those who were around him (his friends or foes) are now dispersed from around him. What he had accumulated (legacy) has now been divided [among heirs]. Gone now are his faculty of seeing and hearing; so he receives Talqeen; he is stretched [on the ground] and directed [towards the Qibla]. He is stripped of his clothes, bathed, in the nude, dried then directed [towards the Qibla].

 

Something has been spread on the floor for him as his shrouds are being prepared. His chin has been tied, his soul has already departed from his body and he has been bidden farewell by all. He is now shrouded, his head wrapped, so is his body, and he has been handed over [for burial]. He is carried in a wooden box (coffin); his funeral prayers have been performed with Takbir but without prostration or the rubbing of the forehead. He is taken away from a decorated abode [this life], from well-built mansions and chambers topping each other, so he is now in an enclosure of a grave which is very narrow and separated from others; it is built with baked clay on top of each other and is sealed with a rock.

 

Dust has been healed on him, so he now is sure about that of which he was warned; his chest is now heavy; he is now a thing of the past. His friends, chosen ones, companions, in-laws and close friends have all left him behind. His company and loved ones are now changed, for he is now nothing but the filling of a grave and the pawn of a waste: Worms crawl all over his body, his pus drips from his nostrils on his neck and chest. Soil crushes his flesh as his blood dries and bone decays. He remains in his grave till the Day when he is herded with others and is given a new life; so, he is taken out of his grave. His trumpet is blown, he is called on to gather with others and stand trial. Graves are scattered around, the innermost in the hearts are recorded and calculated.

 

Every prophet, Siddiq, martyr, anyone who speaks is brought and made to stand for the final judgment of an Able God Who is fully knowledgeable of His servants, seeing [all what they do]. Countless exhalations engulf him, sighs fade him (distance him), in a horrific position and an awesome scene before a Great King,

 

Who knows about everything small and big. He is reined by his sweat, his worry crushing him, yet his tear has none to feel sorry for, his scream (defense) is not accepted. His record of deeds is brought, his innermost becomes visible, and every part of his body now speaks of his wrongdoings:

 

His eyes testify about what he had seen, his hands about whom he beat, his legs about where he had gone, his skin about what he had contacted, his private parts about with whom he had had intercourse. He is threatened by Munkir and Nakir; and it is unveiled for him where he is heading; so his neck now is tied with chains and his hands are cuffed. He is taken alone, dragged and brought to Hell as he is in a great distress and hardship. He remains in the torment of hell given to drink of very hot pus that grills his face and separates his skin from his body. He is beaten by the torture angels of hell with iron clubs. His skin returns again and again anew after having been baked. He cries for help, yet even the angels in Hell turn away from him. He pleads for mercy, so he stays for a while regretful, yet he finds none to care about his regret. His regret will then be in vain.

 

We seek refuge with an Able Lord from the evil of any final end such as this,

 

and we plead for forgiveness similar to that of one with whom He is pleased and for an overlooking similar to that of one whose good deeds He has accepted; for He is my Master, ultimate pursuit and the one Who grants success to what I seek. Surely one who is pushed away from the torment of his Lord shall reside in Paradise near to Him and remain forever in well-built mansions, having huris with large lovely eyes and servants. He is given to drink of fresh cool water mixed with ginger and sealed with musk and fragrance that perpetuates happiness and provides the sense of pleasure.

He drinks of wines in an orchard filled with all types of pleasures, wine that does not cause any headache to one who drinks it, and it never runs out; such is the ultimate end of one who fears his Lord, who is on guard about his sin, about the insinuations of his nafs (self), and that was the penalty of one who opposes the [sinless] way [in which] he was created, the one whose evil self-decorates for him to do what is against his nature. Such is the final judgment and the ruling of One Who is just: He narrated parables, admonished through texts, revealed revelations from a Praiseworthy Wise One, revelations which He descended with a clear (able) Holy Spirit [arch-angel Gabriel] from a Glorious Lord unto a Prophet who is rightly guided and who guides others, one who shows others the right way, a mercy to the believers, clearly from a Great Lord, a master frequented by messengers (angels) who are honored and obedient [of their Lord].

 

I have sought refuge with a Lord Who is knowing, wise, able, merciful, from the evil of an enemy who is cursed and stoned; so, let everyone who pleads plead, and let everyone who seeks [favors of his Lord] seek and ask forgiveness of the Lord of lords for myself and for you all.

 

Having finished his miraculous sermon, the Imam (ع) recited this following verse of the Holy Qur'an:

 

"We shall grant that (eternal) abode of the hereafter to those who intend neither high-handedness nor mischief on earth, and such end is (the best reward) for the righteous" (Qur'an, 28:83).

 

Sources: 

[1] بحار الانوار- العلامة المجلسي، ج74، ص342، رواية28، باب14.

Bihaar ul Anwaar – Allama Majlisi - Ch. 74. Part13, page 342. Hadeeth 28.

 

[2] مصباح الكفعمي- الشيخ تقي الدين ابراهيم العاملي الكفعمي، ج2، ص849- 852.

Misbah al-Kaf’ami – Sheikh Taqi Ad-deen Ibrahim Al-Aamili al-Kaf’ami – Ch. 2. Verse 849-842

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The Commander of the believers Imam Ali ibn Abi Taalib (asws) delivered a sermon regarding the Creation of the universe, angels and Adam (a):

Praise is due to Allah whose worth cannot be described by speakers, whose bounties cannot be counted by calculators and whose claim (to obedience) cannot be satisfied by those who attempt to do so, whom the height of intellectual courage cannot appreciate, and the divings of understanding cannot reach; He for whose description no limit has been laid down, no eulogy exists, no time is ordained and no duration is fixed. He brought forth creation through His Omnipotence, dispersed winds through His Compassion, and made firm the shaking earth with rocks.

The foremost in religion is the acknowledgement of Him, the perfection of acknowledging Him is to testify Him, the perfection of testifying Him is to believe in His Oneness, the perfection of believing in His Oneness is to regard Him Pure, and the perfection of His purity is to deny Him attributes, because every attribute is a proof that it is different from that to which it is attributed and everything to which something is attributed is different from the attribute. Thus whoever attaches attributes to Allah recognises His like, and who recognises His like regards Him two; and who regards Him two recognises parts for Him; and who recognises parts for Him mistook Him; and who mistook Him pointed at Him; and who pointed at Him admitted limitations for Him; and who admitted limitations for Him numbered Him.

Whoever said in what is He, held that He is contained; and whoever said on what is He held He is not on something else. He is a Being but not through phenomenon of coming into being. He exists but not from non-existence. He is with everything but not in physical nearness. He is different from everything but not in physical separation. He acts but without connotation of movements and instruments. He sees even when there is none to be looked at from among His creation. He is only One, such that there is none with whom He may keep company or whom He may miss in his absence.

He initiated creation most initially and commenced it originally, without undergoing reflection, without making use of any experiment, without innovating any movement, and without experiencing any aspiration of mind. He allotted all things their times, put together their variations gave them their properties, and determined their features knowing them before creating them, realising fully their limits and confines and appreciating their propensities and intricacies.

When Almighty created the openings of atmosphere, expanse of firmament and strata of winds, He flowed into it water whose waves were stormy and whose surges leapt one over the other. He loaded it on dashing wind and breaking typhoons, ordered them to shed it back (as rain), gave the wind control over the vigour of the rain, and acquainted it with its limitations. The wind blew under it while water flowed furiously over it.

Then Almighty created forth wind and made its movement sterile, perpetuated its position, intensified its motion and spread it far and wide. Then He ordered the wind to raise up deep waters and to intensify the waves of the oceans. So the wind churned it like the churning of curd and pushed it fiercely into the firmament throwing its front position on the rear and the stationary on the flowing till its level was raised and the surface was full of foam. Then Almighty raised the foam on to the open wind and vast firmament and made therefrom the seven skies and made the lower one as a stationary surge and the upper one as protective ceiling and a high edifice without any pole to support it or nail to hold it together. Then He decorated them with stars and the light of meteors and hung in it the shining sun and effulgent moon under the revolving sky, moving ceiling and rotating firmament.

Then He created the openings between high skies and filled them with all classes of His angels. Some of them are in prostration and do not kneel up. Others in kneeling position and do not stand up. Some of them are in array and do not leave their position. Others are extolling Allah and do not get tired. The sleep of the eye or the slip of wit, or languor of the body or the effect of forgetfulness does not effect them.

Among them are those who work as trusted bearers of His message, those who serve as speaking tongues for His prophets and those who carry to and fro His orders and injunctions. Among them are the protectors of His creatures and guards of the doors of the gardens of Paradise. Among them are those also whose steps are fixed on earth but their necks are protruding into the skies, their limbs are getting out on all sides, their shoulders are in accord with the columns of the Divine Throne, their eyes are downcast before it, they have spread down their wings under it and they have rendered between themselves and all else curtains of honour and screens of power. They do not think of their Creator through image, do not impute to Him attributes of the created, do not confine Him within abodes and do not point at Him through illustrations.

Allah collected from hard, soft, sweet and sour earth, clay which He dripped in water till it got pure, and kneaded it with moisture till it became gluey. From it He carved an image with curves, joints, limbs and segments. He solidified it till it dried up for a fixed time and a known duration. Then He blew into it out of His Spirit whereupon it took the pattern of a human being with mind that governs him, intelligence which he makes use of, limbs that serve him, organs that change his position, sagacity that differentiates between truth and untruth, tastes and smells, colours and species. He is a mixture of clays of different colours, cohesive materials, divergent contradictories and differing properties like heat, cold, softness and hardness.

Then Allah asked the angels to fulfil His promise with them and to accomplish the pledge of His injunction to them by acknowledging Him through prostration to Him and submission to His honoured position. So Allah said: 

"Be prostrate towards Adam and they prostrated except Iblis (Satan)." (Qur'an, 2:34; 7:11; 17:61; 18:50; 20:116)

Self-importance withheld him and vice overcame him. So that he took pride in his own creation with fire and treated contemptuously the creation of clay. So Allah allowed him time in order to let him fully deserve His wrath, and to complete (man's) test and to fulfil the promise (He had made to Satan). Thus, He said:

"Verily you have been allowed time till the known Day." (Qur'an, 15:38; 38:81)

Thereafter, Allah inhabited Adam (a) in a house where He made his life pleasant and his stay safe, and He cautioned him of Iblis and his enmity. Then his enemy (Iblis) envied his abiding in Paradise and his contacts with the virtuous. So he changed his conviction into wavering and determination into weakness. He thus converted his happiness into fear and his prestige into shame. Then Allah offered to Adam (a) the chance to repent, taught him words of His Mercy, promised him return to His Paradise and sent him down to the place of trial and procreation of progeny.

From his (Adam's) progeny Allah chose prophets and took their pledge for his revelation and for carrying His message as their trust. In course of time many people perverted Allah's trust with them and ignored His position and took compeers along with Him. Satan turned them away from knowing Him and kept them aloof from His worship. Then Allah sent His Messengers and series of His prophets towards them to get them to fulfil the pledges of His creation, to recall to them His bounties, to exhort them by preaching, to unveil before them the hidden virtues of wisdom and show them the signs of His Omnipotence namely the sky which is raised over them, the earth that is placed beneath them, means of living that sustain them, deaths that make them die, ailments that turn them old and incidents that successively betake them.

Allah never allowed His creation to remain without a Prophet deputised by Him, or a book sent down from Him or a binding argument or a standing plea. These Messengers were such that they did not feel little because of smallness of their number or of largeness of the number of their falsifiers. Among them was either a predecessor who would name the one to follow or the follower who had been introduced by the predecessor.

In this way ages passed by and times rolled on, fathers passed away while sons took their places till Allah deputised Muhammmad (peace be upon him and his progeny) as His Prophet, in fulfilment of His promise and in completion of His Prophethood. His pledge had been taken from the Prophets, his traits of character were well reputed and his birth was honourable. The people of the earth at this time were divided in different parties, their aims were separate and ways were diverse. They either likened Allah with His creation or twisted His Names or turned to else than Him. Through Muhammmad (saws) Allah guided them out of wrong and with his efforts took them out of ignorance.

Then Allah chose for Muhammmad, peace be upon him and on his progeny, to meet Him, selected him for His own nearness, regarded him too dignified to remain in this world and decided to remove him from this place of trial. So He drew him towards Himself with honour. Allah may shower His blessing on him, and his progeny.

But the Prophet left among you the same which other Prophets left among their peoples, because Prophets do not leave them untended (in dark) without a clear path and a standing ensign, namely the Book of your Creator clarifying its permission and prohibitions, its obligations and discretion, its repealing injunctions and the repealed ones, its permissible matters and compulsory ones, its particulars and the general ones, its lessons and illustrations, its long and the short ones, its clear and obscure ones, detailing its abbreviations and clarifying its obscurities.

In it there are some verses whose knowledge is obligatory and others whose ignorance by the people is permissible. It also contains what appears to be obligatory according to the Book but its repeal is signified by the Prophet's action (sunnah) or that which appears compulsory according to the Prophet's action but the Book allows not following it. Or there are those which are obligatory in a given time but not so after that time. Its prohibitions also differ. Some are major regarding which there exists the threat of fire (Hell), and others are minor for which there are prospects of forgiveness. There are also those of which a small portion is also acceptable (to Allah) but they are capable of being expanded.

Allah has made obligatory upon you the pilgrimage (hajj) to His sacred House which is the turning point for the people who go to it as beasts or pigeons go towards spring water. Allah the glorified made it a sign of their supplication before His Greatness and their acknowledgement of His Dignity. He selected from among His creation those who on listening to His call responded to it and testified His word. They stood in the position of His Prophets and resembled His angels who surround the Divine Throne securing all the benefits of performing His worship and hastening towards His promised forgiveness. Allah the glorified made it (His sacred House) an emblem for Islam and an object of respect for those who turn to it. He made obligatory its pilgrimage and laid down its claim for which He held you responsible to discharge it. Thus, Allah the glorified said:

". . . And (purely) for Allah, is incumbent upon mankind, the pilgrimage to the House, for those who can afford to journey thither. And whoever denieth then verily, Allah is Selfsufficiently independent of the worlds" (Qur'an, 3:96).

 

Reference:- Nahj Al Balagha

 

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