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Ghadeer - Shia and Sunni

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There are two recent thread on hadith of Ghadeer: The links are given below:

A discussion has been conducted and some is in progress. But there are still points / view that need to be added / elaborated. I intend to add those points for analysis / verification. The is divided in to two sections:

Section 1: Shia View

 

Section 2: Sunni View 

 

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Section 1: Shia View:

1.       Meaning of Mawla as mentioned in hadith Ghadeer:

Meaning of Mawla is Master and Leader. The same word is used for the prophet saw and Imam Ali as in hadith Ghadeer.

…Then the Messenger of Allah continued: "Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?”People cried and answered: "Yes, O’ Messenger of God.”Then Prophet (S) held up the hand of ‘Ali and said: "Whoever I am his Mawla, ‘Ali is his Mawla. O’ God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him."

ألَسْتُ أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا بلى يارسول الله. قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه. اللهم وال من والاه و عاد من عاداه.

Meaning of Mawla:

As per the above hadith the prophet is Mawla of believers and the same is Ali Mawla of the believers. First we should look the prophet has what characteristics being Mawla of believers in order to derive its real meaning for the Imam Ali?

The Prophet is Mawla of believers;

First I make this clear that he prophet is the seal of the prophets and there is no prophet after him.

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

 

 

Ye have indeed in the Apostle of Allah a beautiful pattern of (conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day and who engages much in the praise of Allah. (33:21)

But he has declared himself Mawla  of the believers, so that we should find specific characteristics attributed to him in relation to the believers

 

 

قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ ٱللَّهَ فَٱتَّبِعُونِى يُحْبِبْكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌ ٣١}

: Say: "If ye do love Allah follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." (3:31)

قُلْ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ {٣٢}

003:032 Say, ‘Obey Allah and the Messenger.’ But if they turn away, indeed Allah does not like the faithless.

٢٠         يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَلَا تَوَلَّوْا۟ عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ

٢٤_٥٤   قُلْ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا۟ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُم مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ ۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُوا۟ ۚ وَمَا عَلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ إِلَّا ٱلْبَلَٰغُ ٱلْمُبِينُ

٤٧_٣٣   ۞ يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوٓا۟ أَعْمَٰلَكُمْ

 

008:020 O you who have faith! Obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not turn away from him while you hear [him].

024:054 Say, ‘Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger.’ But if you turn your backs, [you should know that] he is only responsible for his burden and you are responsible for your own burden, and if you obey him, you will be guided, and the Messenger’s duty is only to communicate in clear terms.

047:033 O you who have faith! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and do not render your works void.

 ٣_١٣٢   وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

 ٥_٩٢     وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَٱحْذَرُوا۟ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّمَا عَلَىٰ رَسُولِنَا ٱلْبَلَٰغُ ٱلْمُبِينُ

003:132 and obey Allah and the Messenger so that you may be granted [His] mercy.

005:092 And obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and beware; but if you turn your backs, then know that Our Messenger’s duty is only to communicate in clear terms.

٦٤_١٢   وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَىٰ رَسُولِنَا ٱلْبَلَٰغُ ٱلْمُبِينُ

064:012 Obey Allah and obey the Messenger; but if you turn away, then Our Messenger’s duty is only to communicate in clear terms.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تُقَدِّمُوا۟ بَيْنَ يَدَىِ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ ۖ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ

049:001 O you who have faith! Do not venture ahead of Allah and His Messenger, and be wary of Allah. Indeed Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing.

Similarly for imam Ali being Mawla:

“Obey Allah and messenger” / (who is also mawla). So obeying the Mawla is mandatory.

Thus confirms that the meaning of Mawala as given in Ghadeer narration is leader who is to be followed/Obeyed, like for the prophet who is also Mawla of believers.  Thus confirming that Imam Ali is Mawla of believers and he is the leader after the prophet and he should be obeyed with the same authority as that of the prophet on believers.

ألَسْتُ أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا بلى يارسول الله

لنَّبِيُّ أَوْلَىٰ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ

The Prophet has more authority over the believers than themselves.  (33:36)

Thus it confirms that Mawla has more authority over believers than themselves. This is the real meaning of Mawla who is Leader after the prophet Muhammad saw. And Imam Ali is Mawla (Leader) of believers.

 

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2.     Use of Mawla instead of any other term at Ghadeer

The Messenger did not say "‘Ali is your Ameer after me " because the Messenger did not usually use the word ameer in any matter other than military affairs or the leadership of pilgrimage. As to the administration of the affairs of the Muslims in general or in some Islamic provinces the Messenger used to use the word "wilayah" (right of management of the public or private affairs in the people's interest). He used to send administrators to some provinces and call them Wulat (plural of Wali) and he used to call himself "Waliyyu Al-Muslimeen" (Guardian of the Muslims)

The Holy Qur'an declared:

"The Prophet is Mawla (has more authority) over the believers than they have over themselves..." (Chapter 33 verse 6).

‘your Wali (Guardian) is only God His Messenger and the believers who offer the prayer and give the poor Zakat while they are bowing." The Holy Qur'an chapter 5 verse 55.

"There (on the Day of Judgment) Al-wilayat (the authority) belongs only to God the True God. He is the Best Rewarder and the Best Granter of a good fate." The Holy Qur'an chapter 18 verse 46.

The Holy Qur'an also declares:

"And you should know that God is your Mawla (Guardian). He is the Good Mawla and He is the Good Helper." The Holy Qur'an chapter 8 verse 41.

I did not see in the Holy Qur'an that God called His Messenger "Ameer " nor did I see in any hadith that the Holy Prophet called himself Ameer or "Hakim" (ruler) or governor. The reason is that the natural relationship between the administrator of the affairs of the Muslims and the Muslims is not a relation between a ruler and a ruled or a prince or a king and subjects.

As to the question of why did not the Prophet use the word caliph the answer is that a caliph should be obeyed only after the death of the Messenger. ‘Ali according to the Prophet's declaration is not only his successor but also his deputy during his life time and his successor after his death. Thus he was to be obeyed at the time of the Prophet as well as after him.

Thus ‘Ali was not only a successor of the Messenger but also his representative and deputy during his lifetime. He was (according to the Declaration of Ghadir Khum) like the Prophet in being a guardian of the believers and having more authority over them than they have over themselves.

I would say sincerely that if the Messenger had stood on the day of Ghadir Khum saying: Whoever I am his Mawla Abu Bakr is his Mawla. God love whoever loves him and be hostile to whoever is hostile to him " I would have believed without any hesitation that the Messenger had appointed Abu Bakr as his successor.

https://www.al-islam.org/brother-prophet-muhammad-imam-ali-mohamad-jawad-chirri/38-hadith-wilayah#why-did-prophet-not-say-ali-your-ameer-or-my-caliph-or-your-imam

 

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3.               Hadith of Caliph / Khalifa:

 Imam Ali is caliph (khalifa) of prophet over every believer after me. Hadith

 Hadith al-Khilafah has come in three sighahs (versions). The first sighah is documented by Imam Ibn Abi ‘Asim (d. 287 H). He records:

 ثنا محمد بن المثنى، حدثنا يحي بن حماد، عن أبي عوانة، عن يحيى بن سليم أبي بلج عن عمرو بن ميمون، عن ابن عباس قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لعلي: أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنك لست نبيا وأنت خليفتي في كل مؤمن من بعدي.

 Muhammad b. al-Muthanna – Yahya b. Hammad – Abu ‘Awanah – Yahya b. Sulaym Abu Balj – ‘Amr b. Maymun – Ibn ‘Abbas: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said to ‘Ali: “You are to me of the status of Harun to Musa, with the exception that you are not a prophet. And you are my khalifah over every believer after me.”

 Dr. al-Jawabirah says:

 اسناده حسن. رجاله رجال الشيخين غير ابي‌ بلج واسمه يحيي بن سليم بن بلج، قال الحافظ: صدوق ربما اخطأ. وله شواهد

 Its chain is hasan. Its narrators are narrators of the two Shaykhs, except Abu Balj, and his name is Yahya b. Sulaym b. Balj. Al-Hafiz said: “Saduq (very truthful), maybe he made mistakes.” There are witnesses for it (i.e. the hadith).”

 ‘Allamah al-Albani (d. 1420 H), in his annotated version of Ibn Abi Asim’s Kitab al-Sunnah surprisingly added some new words in brackets:

 ثنا محمد بن المثنى، حدثنا يحي بن حماد، عن أبي عوانة، عن يحيى بن سليم أبي بلج عن عمرو بن ميمون، عن ابن عباس قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لعلي: أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنك لست نبيا] إنه لا ينبغي أن أذهب إلا [وأنت خليفتي في كل مؤمن من بعدي.

Muhammad b. al-Muthanna – Yahya b. Hammad – Abu ‘Awanah – Yahya b. Sulaym Abu Balj – ‘Amr b. Maymun – Ibn ‘Abbas: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said to ‘Ali: “You are to me of the status of Harun to Musa, with the exception that you are not a prophet. [Verily, it is not right that I depart except] with you as my khalifah over every believer after me.”

 Nonetheless, ‘Allamah al-Albani also comments:

 إسناده حسن. ورجاله ثقات رجال الشيخين غير أبي بلج واسمه يحيى بن سليم بن بلج قال الحافظ: " صدوق ربما أخطأ ".

 Its chain is hasan. Its narrators are trustworthy, and are narrators of the two Shaykhs (i.e. al-Bukhari and Muslim) except Abu Balj. His name is Yahya b. Sulaym b. Balj. Al-Hafiz said: “Saduq (very truthful), maybe he made mistakes.”

 The second sighah is recorded by Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal (d. 241 H), in his Musnad:

 حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا يحيى بن حماد ثنا أبو عوانة ثنا أبو بلج ثنا عمرو بن ميمون ....قال بن عباس .... وخرج بالناس في غزوة تبوك قال فقال له علي أخرج معك قال فقال له نبي الله لا فبكى علي فقال له أما ترضى أن تكون منى بمنزلة هارون من موسى الا أنك لست بنبي انه لا ينبغي أن أذهب الا وأنت خليفتي

 ‘Abd Allah – my father (Ahmad b. Hanbal) – Yahya b. Hammad – Abu ‘Awanah – Abu Balj – ‘Amr b. Maymun .... Ibn ‘Abbas said:

 .... He (the Messenger of Allah) went out for the battle of Tabuk. So, ‘Ali said to him, “Let me go out with you.” Therefore, the Prophet of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “Do not weep, ‘Ali. Are you not pleased that you are to me of the status of Harun to Musa, with the exception that you are not a prophet? Verily, it is not right that I depart except with you as my khalifah.”

 Al-Arnaut strangely says:

 إسناده ضعيف بهذه السياقة . أبو بلج أعدل ما قيل فيه أنه يقبل حديثه فيما لاينفرد به.

 Its chain is dha’if with this context. Abu Balj, the fairest that has been said about him is that his hadith is accepted only when he is corroborated.7

 However, he contradicts himself elsewhere:

 حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا عفان ثنا أبو عوانة ثنا أبو بلج عن محمد بن حاطب.... إسناده حسن من أجل أبي بلج

 ‘Abd Allah – my father (Ahmad b. Hanbal) – ‘Affan – Abu ‘Awanah – Abu Balj – Muhammad b. Hatib .... Its chain is hasan due to Abu Balj.8

 Al-Araut also states:

 حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا حسن حدثنا زهير حدثنا أبو بلج ان عمرو بن ميمون حدثه قال قال أبو هريرة ....هذا إسناد حسن

 ‘Abd Allah – my father (Ahmad b. Hanbal) – Hasan – Zuhayr – Abu Balj – ‘Amr b. Maymun – Abu Hurayrah .... This chain is hasan.9

 Apparently, Hadith al-Khilafah is hasan by the standards of Shaykh al-Arnaut too! Commenting about the same hadith in Musnad Ahmad, ‘Allamah Ahmad Shakir (d. 1377 H) declares:

 إسناده صحيح، أبو بلج، بفتح الباء وسكون اللام و آخره جيم: اسمه يحيى بن سليم ويقال يحيى بن أبي الأسود الفزاري، وهو ثقة، وثقه ابن معين وابن سعد والنسائي والدارقطني وغيرهم. وفي التهذيب أن البخاري قال: فيه نظر! وما أدري أين قال هذا؟، فإنه ترجمه في الكبير 4/2/279 ـ 280 ولم يذكر فيه جرحاً، ولم يترجمه في الصغير، ولا ذكره هو والنسائي في الضعفاء، وقد روى عنه شعبة، وهو لا يروي إلا عن ثقه.

Its chain is sahih. Abu Balj: his name is Yahya b. Sulaym. He is also called Yahya b. Abi al-Aswad al-Fazari, and he is thiqah (trustworthy). Ibn Ma’in, Ibn Sa’d, al-Nasai, al-Daraqutni and others declared him thiqah. It is said in al-Tahdhib that al-Bukhari said: “There is a problem in him”! I do not know: where has he said that? This is because in his (al-Bukhari’s) biography of him in al-Kabir 4/2/279-280, he does not mention any criticism against him, and he (al-Bukhari) does not write his biography in al-Saghir, and neither he nor al-Nasai has mentioned him in (his respective) al-Dhu’afa. Moreover, Shu’bah has narrated from him, and he does not narrate except from thiqah narrators.

 Imam al-Hakim (d. 403 H) records the hadith too:

 أخبرنا أبو بكر أحمد بن جعفر بن حمدان القطيعي ببغداد من أصل كتابه ثنا عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل حدثني أبي ثنا يحيى بن حماد ثنا أبو عوانة ثنا أبو بلج ثنا عمرو بن ميمون ....قال ابن عباس :.... وقعوا في رجل له بضع عشرة فضائل ليست لأحد غيره.... وخرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في غزوة تبوك وخرج بالناس معه قال فقال له علي : أخرج معك قال : فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا فبكى علي فقال له : أما ترضى أن تكون مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنه ليس بعدي نبي إنه لا ينبغي أن أذهب إلا وأنت خليفتي

 Abu Bakr Ahmad b. Ja’far b. Hamadan al-Qati’i – ‘Abd Allah b. Ahmad b. Hanbal – my father (Ahmad b. Hanbal) – Yahya b. Hammad – Abu ‘Awanah – Abu Balj – ‘Amr b. Maymun .... Ibn ‘Abbas said:

 .... They are attacking a man who has ten EXCLUSIVE merits.... The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, went out for the battle of Tabuk, and the people went out with him. So, ‘Ali said to him, “Let me go out with you.” Therefore, the Prophet, peace be upon him, said, “Do not weep, ‘Ali. Are you not pleased that you are to me of the status of Harun to Musa, with the exception that there is no prophet after me? Verily, it is not right that I depart except with you as my khalifah.”

 Al-Hakim says:

 هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد

 This hadith has a sahih chain. Al-Dhahabi (d. 748 H) backs him:

 صحيح

 Sahih.

 Meanwhile, Imam al-Nasai (d. 303 H) has documented the third sighah, through the same hasan chain of transmission as the first:

 وخرج بالناس في غزوة تبوك فقال علي أخرج معك فقال لا فبكى فقال أما ترضى أن تكون مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنك لست بنبي ثم قال أنت خليفتي يعني في كل مؤمن من بعدي

 .... He (the Messenger of Allah) went out with the people for the battle of Tabuk. So, ‘Ali said to him, “Let me go out with you.” Therefore, he (the Prophet) said, “Do not weep, ‘Ali. Are you not pleased that you are to me of the status of Harun to Musa, with the exception that you are not a prophet? You are my khalifah, that is, over every believer after me.”

 In the end, all three sighahs actually say the same thing: ‘Ali was the khalifah of the Messenger of Allah over every believer after him.

https://www.al-islam.org/khilafah-ali-over-abu-bakr-toyib-olawuyi/1-hadith-al-khilafah

 

.........Continued.

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4.               Hadith of Wilayah:

Imam Abu Dawud al-Tayalisi (d. 204 H) records:

حدثنا أبو داود قال حدثنا جعفر بن سليمان الضبعي حدثنا يزيد الرشك عن مطرف بن عبد الله بن الشخير عن عمران بن حصين: أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بعث عليا في جيش فرأوا منه شيئا فأنكروه فاتفق نفر أربعة وتعاقدوا أن يخبروا النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم بما صنع علي قال عمران وكنا إذا قدمنا من سفر لم نأت أهلنا حتى نأتي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم وننظر إليه فجاء النفر الأربعة فقام أحدهم فقال يا رسول الله ألم تر أن عليا صنع كذا وكذا فأعرض عنه ثم قام الثاني فقال مثل ذلك فأعرض عنه ثم قام الثالث فقال مثل ذلك فأعرض عنه ثم قام الرابع فقال مثل ذلك فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما لهم ولعلي إن عليا مني وأنا منه وهو ولي كل مؤمن بعدي

Abu Dawud – Ja’far b. Sulayman al-Dhab’i – Yazid al-Rishk – Mutarrif b. ‘Abd Allah b. al-Shikhir – ‘Imran b. Hasin who said:

The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, appointed ‘Ali as part of an army expedition. They (his co-soldiers) saw something in him that they hated, and a small band of four people (among them) therefore agreed and vowed to inform the Prophet, peace be upon him, about what ‘Ali did. It was our custom back then that whenever we returned from any journey, we would not go to our families until after visiting the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and looking at him.

So, the small band of four people came (to the Prophet immediately they returned), and one of them stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Have you not seen that ‘Ali did so and so?” So, he (the Prophet) turned away from him. Then, the second stood up and said the same thing. So, he (the Prophet) turned away from him (too). Then the third stood up and said the same thing. So, he (the Prophet) turned away from him (as well). Then the fourth stood up and said the same thing. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “What is it with them and ‘Ali? Verily, ‘Ali is from me and I am from him, and he is the wali of every believer after me.”

 ‘Allamah al-Albani (d. 1420 H) says about this riwayah:

أخرجه ....الطيالسي في " مسنده " (829) .... من طريق جعفر بن سليمان الضبعي عن يزيد الرشك عن مطرف عن عمران بن حصين رضي الله عنه ....وقال الترمذي: "حديث حسن غريب، لا نعرفه إلا من حديث جعفر بن سليمان ". قلت: وهو ثقة من رجال مسلم وكذلك سائر رجاله ولذلك قال الحاكم: " صحيح على شرط مسلم "، وأقره الذهبي.

Al-Tayalisi recorded it in his Musnad (829).... from the route of Ja’far b. Sulayman al-Dhab’i, from Yazid al-Rishk, from Mutarrif, from ‘Imran b. Hasin, may Allah be pleased with him .... And al-Tirmidhi said: “A hadith that is hasan gharib (i.e. with a hasan [good] chain), we do not know it except through the hadith of Ja’far b. Sulayman”. I (al-Albani) say: and he (Ja’far b. Sulayman) is thiqah (trustworthy), from the narrators of (Sahih) Muslim, and so are the rest of its (i.e. the hadith’s) narrators. This is why al-Hakim said, “Sahih upon the standard of (Imam) Muslim. And al-Dhahabi concurred with him.

 All the narrators are thiqah (trustworthy), and are relied upon in Sahih Muslim. Imam al-Tirmidhi (d. 279 H) declares the chain to be hasan, while both al-Hakim (d. 403 H) and al-Dhahabi (d. 748 H) grade it as sahih. ‘Allamah al-Albani approvingly cites their consensus opinion, which shows that he too holds the same view about the chain.

The other version of this narration can also be seen at the given link:

https://www.al-islam.org/khilafah-ali-over-abu-bakr-toyib-olawuyi/2-hadith-al-wilayah-investigating-its-authenticity

The word wali has a range of different meanings. Hans Wehr lists its various definitions:

Helper, supporter, benefactor, sponsor; friend, close associate; relative; patron, protector; legal guardian, curator, tutor; a man close to God, holy man, saint (in the popular religion of Islam); master, proprietor, possessor, owner.

Usually, its exact definition in any given situation is dictated by its context. ‘Allamah al-Albani (d. 1420 H) records that the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alaihi wa alihi, said:

ما تريدون من علي؟ ما تريدون من علي؟ ما تريدون من علي؟ إن عليا مني وأنا منه وهو ولي كل مؤمن بعدي .(صحيح)

“What do you want from ‘Ali? What do you want from ‘Ali? Verily, ‘Ali is from me and I am from him, and he is the wali of every believer after me.” (Sahih)

Imam Ibn Jawzi (d. 597 H) submits:

قوله تعالى) :الله ولي الذين آمنوا (أي: متولي أمورهم، يهديهم، وينصرهم، ويعينهم.

Allah the Most High’s Statement: (Allah is the Wali of those who believe) [2:257] meaning: their Ruler, Who guides them, and helps them, and supports them.

Imam al-Baydhawi (d. 685 H) supports him:

)الله ولي الذين آمنوا (محبهم أو متولي أمورهم

(Allah is the Wali of those who believe) [2:257] their Lover or their Ruler.

Al-Tha’labi (d. 427 H) says something similar too:

)الله ولي الذين آمنوا (أي ناصرهم ومعينهم وقيل محبهم وقيل متولي أمرهم

(Allah is the Wali of those who believe) [257], meaning their Helper and Supporter. It is said: their Lover. And it is said: their Ruler.11

The same submission was made by al-Khazan (d. 725 H):

(والله ولي الذين آمنوا (أي ناصرهم ومعينهم وقيل محبم ومتولي أمورهم

(Allah is the Wali of those who believe), meaning: their Helper and Supporter. It is said: their Lover and Ruler.

Al-Mahalli (d. 864 H) and al-Suyuti (d. 911 H) in their Tafsir al-Jalalayn, mince no words about this:

}أنت ولينا {متولي أمورنا

(You are our Wali) our Ruler.

They also say:

{إن وليي الله} متولي أموري

{My Wali is Allah) [7:196] my Ruler.

And:

{فهو وليهم} متولي أمورهم

{he is their wali} [16:63] their ruler.

Imam al-Nasafi (d. 710 H) confirms them as well:

{الله ولي الذين آمنوا} [البقرة : 257] .... أي ناصرهم ومتولي أمورهم

{Allah is the Wali of those who believe} [Baqarah:257] .... meaning, their Helper and Ruler.16

Shaykh Ibn ‘Ashur, in turn, corroborates al-Nasafi:

)فهو وليهم اليوم....( والمعنى : فالشيطان وليّ المشركين اليوم ، أي متولّي أمرهم

(he is their wali today) [16:63].... the meaning is: “Shaytan is the wali of the pagans today”, meaning their ruler.

Allamah Rashid Ridha (d. 1354 H), a Salafi scholar, says too:

(وهو وليهم بما كانوا يعملون) .... و}وليهم { متولي أمورهم

(And He will be their Wali because of what they used to do) [6:127].... And {their Wali} is their Ruler.

He also says:

)والله وليهما (أي متولي أمورهما

(And Allah is their Wali) [3:122] meaning, their Ruler.

The Shi’i mufassir, Shaykh al-Tabarsi (d. 548 H), for instance, says:

 )والذين كفروا أولياؤهم الطاغوت (أي :متولي أمورهم وأنصارهم

 (And those who disbelieve, their awliya [plural of wali] are the evil ones) [2:257], meaning: their rulers and helpers.

 Al-Kashani (d. 1091 H) supports him:

 )الله ولي الذين آمنوا (متولي أمورهم

 (Allah is the Wali of those who believe) [2:257] their Ruler.

 ‘Allamah al-Majlisi (d. 1111 H) also says:

 والولي المتولي للأمور والناصر والمحب

 The wali is the ruler, and the helper, and the lover.

 https://www.al-islam.org/khilafah-ali-over-abu-bakr-toyib-olawuyi/4-hadith-al-wilayah-what-does-wali-mean

.....................Continued

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5.               Hadith Manzilah:

 Imam Muslim (d. 261 H) too recorded it in his Sahih in confirmation of this:

 حدثنا يحيى بن يحيى التميمي وأبو جعفر محمد بن الصباح وعبيدالله القواريري وسريج بن يونس كلهم عن يوسف بن الماجشون (واللفظ لابن الصباح) حدثنا يوسف أبو سلمة الماجشون حدثنا محمد بن المنكدر عن سعيد بن المسيب عن عامر بن سعد ابن أبي وقاص عن أبيه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لعلي أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنه لا نبي بعدي

 Yahya b. Yahya al-Tamimi, Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. al-Sabah, ‘Ubayd Allah al-Qawariri and Surayj b. Yunus – Yunus b. al-Majishun – Yusuf Abu Salamah al-Majishun – Muhammad b. al-Munkadar – Sa’id b. al-Musayyab – ‘Amir b. Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas – his father (Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas):

 The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said to ‘Ali: “You are to me of the status of Harun to Musa, except that there is no prophet after me.”

 Imam Ahmad (d. 241 H) as well documents:

 حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبى ثنا يحيى بن سعيد عن موسى الجهني قال دخلت على فاطمة بنت على فقال لها رفيقي أبو سهل كم لك قالت ستة وثمانون سنة قال ما سمعت من أبيك شيئا قالت حدثتني أسماء بنت عميس ان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال لعلي أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى الا أنه ليس بعدي نبي

 ‘Abd Allah (b. Ahmad) – my father (Ahmad b. Hanbal) – Yahya b. Sa’id – Musa al-Juhani – Fatimah bint ‘Ali – Asma bint ‘Umays:

 The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said to ‘Ali: “You are to me of the status of Harun to Musa, except that there is no prophet after me.”

 Shaykh al-Arnaut comments:

 إسناده صحيح

 Its chain is sahih

 We need not extend our research on the authenticity of the hadith, since there is no denial of it. So, we will simply cap the above with these words of Imam al-Kattani (d. 1345 H) about the hadith:

 وقد تتبع ابن عساكر طرقه في جزء فبلغ عدد الصحابة فيه نيفا عشرين وفي شرح الرسالة للشيخ جسوس رحمه الله ما نصه وحديث أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى متواتر جاء عن نيف وعشرين صحابيا

 Ibn Asakir investigated its chains in a volume, and the number of the Sahabah who narrated it (in his research) reached more than twenty. In Sharh al-Risalah of Shaykh Jasus, may Allah be merciful to him, he states: “And the hadith ‘You are to me of the status of Harun to Musa’ is mutawatir. It has been narrated by more than twenty Sahabah.”

 https://www.al-islam.org/khilafah-ali-over-abu-bakr-toyib-olawuyi/21-hadith-al-manzilah-golden-hadith

 قال رب اشرح لي صدري ويسر لي أمري واحلل عقدة من لساني يفقهوا قولي واجعل لي وزيرا من أهلي هارون أخي

 He (Musa) said, “O my Lord! Open for me my chest, and make my assignment easy for me. And make loose the knot from my tongue, that they understand my speech. And appoint for me a wazir from my family, Harun my brother.1

 Expectedly, his du’a was granted:

 ولقد آتينا موسى الكتاب وجعلنا معه أخاه هارون وزيرا

 And indeed We gave Musa the Book, and We appointed his brother Harun as a wazir.2

 Therefore, Harun was undoubtedly the wazir of Musa, by divine appointment. This obviously confirms a principle: the appointment of the wazir of each prophet was only in the Hand of Allah. If it had been otherwise, Musa would have simply handpicked his brother for the post without making any du’a. This fact, in turn, reveals that being the wazir of a prophet was an extremely high rank in the Sight of Allah, so high that He personally chose to make the appointments.

 So, who was a wazir? What were his functions? The Book of Allah has given us an example: Haman, the wazir of Fir’aun. The Qur’an states:

 إن فرعون وهامان وجنودهما كانوا خاطئين

 Verily, Fir’aun and Haman and their soldiers were people who made mistakes.3

 Imam al-Tabari (d. 310 H) starts the identifications:

 وقال فرعون … لوزيره وزير السوء هامان

 Fir’aun said … to his wazir, the evil wazir, Haman.4

 Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir (d. 774 H) follows his footsteps here:

 {وهامان} وهو: وزيره في مملكته

 {and Haman}, he was his wazir in his kingdom.5

 Shaykh al-Zuhayli also explains the names:

 فرعون ملك مصر وهامان وزير فرعون

 Fir’aun was the king of Egypt and Haman was the wazir of Fir’aun.6

 Shaykh al-Maraghi also states:

 وهامان وزير فرعون

 Haman was the wazir of Fir’aun.7

 Shaykh ‘Ali Shiri, the annotator of Tarikh Dimashq, has the same submission:

 هامان وزير فرعون

 Haman was the wazir of Fir’aun.8

 Imam al-Tha’alabi (d. 875 H) says as well:

 وهامان: هو وزير فرعون وأكبر رجاله

 Haman: he was the wazir of Fir’aun and the most senior of his men.9

 And Imam al-Alusi (d. 1270 H) solidly stands with him:

 }إلى فرعون وهامان {وزير فرعون

 {To Fir’aun and Haman} the wazir of Fir’aun.10

 The Salafi Imam, Shaykh Ibn Baz (d. 1420 H), corroborates everyone else:

 قال بعض أهل العلم في شرح هذا الحديث : إنما يحشر مضيع الصلاة مع فرعون وهامان وقارون وأبي بن خلف؛ لأنه إن ضيعها من أجل الرئاسة والملك والإمارة شابه فرعون الذي طغى وبغى بأسباب وظيفته فيحشر معه إلى النار يوم القيامة، وإن ضيعها بأسباب الوظيفة والوزارة شابه هامان وزير فرعون الذي طغى وبغى بسبب الرئاسة فيحشر معه إلى النار يوم القيامة

 Some of the people of knowledge said in the commentary of this hadith: The one who abandons Salat will be gathered with Fir’aun, Haman, Qarun and Ubayy b. Khalaf (on the Day of al-Qiyamah), because if he abandons it due to leadership, kingdom and governance, he will be similar to Fir’aun who oppressed and rebelled on account of his office. So, he (the abandoner of Salat) will be gathered with him into the Fire on the Day of al-Qiyamah. But, if he abandons it (i.e. Salat) due to position and al-wizarah, he will be similar to Haman, the wazir of Fir’aun, who oppressed and rebelled because of leadership. Therefore, he (the abandoner of Salat) will be gathered with him into the Fire on the Day of al-Qiyamah.11

 Then, another top Salafi scholar, Shaykh al-‘Uthaymin (d. 1421 H), seals the list:

 ففرعون غره الملك والسلطان فاستكبر هو وجنوده في الأرض بغير الحق وهامان غرته الوزارة لأنه وزير فرعون

 As for Fir’aun, he was deceived by kingdom and power. So, he became arrogant - he and his soldiers - without right. As for Haman, he was deceived by al-wizarah, because he was the wazir of Fir’aun.12

 In all, we know that Fir’aun was the king of Egypt, and that its armed forces owed their allegiance to him. We also know that Haman was the wazir of this Fir’aun. Interestingly, both Fir’aun and Haman were contemporaries of Musa, and his wazir, Harun. The four of them had initially lived together in the same city: Musa and his wazir, and Fir’aun and his wazir. The rank and power of the wazir are indicated in this verse:

 إن فرعون وهامان وجنودهما كانوا خاطئين

 Verily, Fir’aun and Haman and their soldiers were people who made mistakes.13

The Qur’an too leaves no one in doubt:

 ولقد مننا على موسى وهارون ونجيناهما وقومهما من الكرب العظيم ونصرناهم فكانوا هم الغالبين وآتيناهما الكتاب المستبين وهديناهما الصراط المستقيم

 And, indeed, We favoured Musa and Harun. And We saved them both and their people from the Terrible Distress. And We gave them both the Clear Book; and guided them both to the Right Path.16

 The followers of Musa were apparently also those of his wazir.

 All these take us back to Hadith al-Manzilah:

 قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لعلي أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنه لا نبي بعدي

 The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said to ‘Ali: “You are to me of the status of Harun to Musa, except that there is no prophet after me.”

 Without doubt, this hadith establishes – among others – that Imam ‘Ali, ‘alaihi al-salam, was the wazir of Prophet Muhammad, sallallahu ‘alaihi wa alihi. There was no other wazir for Musa except Harun. Therefore, there was no other wazir for Muhammad except ‘Ali. This fact too is confirmed in Hadith al-Wirathah, which – as we have proved in this book – has a sahih chain:

 أنت أخي وصاحبي ووارثي ووزيري

 You are my brother, and my companion, and my inheritor, AND MY WAZIR.

https://www.al-islam.org/khilafah-ali-over-abu-bakr-toyib-olawuyi/22-hadith-al-manzilah-ali-wazir-muhammad

 .................Continued

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6 hours ago, Muslim2010 said:

The Prophet is Awla (has more authority) over the believers than they have over themselves..." (Chapter 33 verse 6).

Correction. So the meaning of Mawla is Awla. Arabic grammar like the English, some words can have many meanings so a person has to look at the context. The context is clear since prophet quotes Sura 33:6.

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1 hour ago, THREE1THREE said:

Btw you beat me to it, I was about make an article on that. 

Brother, I have not beaten any one but just presented what i could have done. Do not think of me consider it has been presented by yourself as Our Mawla is Ali ibne Talib (عليه السلام) as per Ghadeer declaration and other verses and hadith.

You may add what  you like to add If you intend so. wasalam

 

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Section 2: Sunni View

1.        The prophet did not designate any successor after him: 

This is completely absurd statement as the prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has mentioned Imam Ali in his life as Mawla of believers, his successor, caliph and Wali after him.

The traditions explicitly indicate that the Holy Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him and his family), with the order of Allah, has introduced ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib as his successor even in his first open preach to the people:

Narrated Ibn Humayed, from Salamah, from Muhammad Ibn Is’haq, from Abd al- Ghaffar Ibn al-Qasim, from al-Minhal Ibn Amr, from abdallah Ibn al-Harith Ibn Nawfal Ibn al-Harith Ibn Abd al-Muttalib, from Abdallah Ibn Abbas, from ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib:

When the verse "And warn your close tribe (Qur’an 26:214)”was revealed to the prophet, he called me and said to me, "‘Ali, God has commanded me to warn my tribe of near kindred. I was troubled by this, since I knew that when I discuss the matter to them they would respond in a way which I would not like. I kept silent until Gabriel came to me and said "If you do not do what you are commanded, your Lord will punish you.”So prepare a measure of wheat for us, add a leg of lamb to it, fill a large bowl of milk for us, and then invite sons of Abd al- Muttalib for me so that I may speak to them what I have been commanded to tell them."………..

……..Which of you will aid me in this matter, so that he will be my brother, my executor (Wasi), my successor (Caliph) among you?”They all held back, and even though I was the youngest, I said "I will be your helper, O’ prophet of God.”He put his hand on the back of my neck and said "This is my brother, my executor (Wasi), my successor (Caliph) among you, so listen to him and obey him.”They rose up laughing and saying to Abu Talib, "He has commanded you to obey your son and to obey him!"

إنَّ هذا أخي و وصيِّي و خليفتي فيكم فاْسمًعوا لهُ و أطيعوا

References:

(1) History of al-Tabari, English version, v6, pp 88-91

(2) History of Ibn Athir, v2, p62

(3) History of Ibn Asakir, v1, p85

…..others

it was not the only time that the prophet declared ‘Ali as his successor. However, it was the first time. There are many traditions inside Sunni collections of traditions which either implicitly or explicitly indicate whom the Prophet (S) chose as his successor. The official announcement, however, was in "Ghadir Khum”as Sihah Sittah (the six Sunni collections of the traditions) testify.

The simple question that is raised here that how do sunni consider that first caliph (Abu bakr) was more knowledgeable  than the prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)? The  prophet did not appoint a successor but first caliph made his successor in his last days of life.? 

It is an indisputable fact that Abu-Bakr appointed Omar to succeed him (Sahih Muslim p.1455), and so did Omar for Othman although indirectly. Similarly, Mo’awiya appointed his vicious son; Yazid, out of his concern for the Ummah of the Prophet (P)! Then how it is possible that the Prophet of Islam (P) had no concern about the future of his Ummah?!

Edited by Muslim2010
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2.  How the companions made the choice of matter / caliphate /successor at Saqeefa?

The prophets have been appointed as per verses of quran by Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى).

If they have been appointed by Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) how the people have right to choose his successor against the verses of quran?

  The following verse of Quran is presented for its evidence:

 Surah Al-Qasas, Verse 68:
وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

And your Lord creates and chooses whom He pleases; to choose is not theirs; glory be to Allah, and exalted be He above what they associate (with Him).
(English - Shakir)

So Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) delivered the divine message and acted upon it by nominating Ali (عليه السلام) as "mowla" which only means master/guardian here. So instead of sunnis asking us the proof, we ask you about the legitimacy of Abu Bakr who was not even nominated, neither he belongs to the progeny of Ibrahim (عليه السلام), neither he was from Tahireen, neither from Sadiqeen etc. 

 

Edited by Muslim2010
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