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In the Name of God بسم الله

Punishment

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"The death penalty is recognized for the seven hudud crimes which include adultery, defamation, drinking alcohol, theft, highway robbery, apostasy, and corruption of Islam. These are the most severe crimes as these acts are seen as a threat to society."  However, you might need a book to describe the reasoning behind the death penalty to be applied knowledgeably. Some of the listed reasons for execution are somewhat subjective and would require intense scrutiny so as not to be misused.

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From my limited understanding as a recent revert from a very liberal Western background, the list given in the reply by Forte above is correct. And to my Christan mind set it is quite horrific. 

However ... It is important however to take into account the many other factors which might apply in practice to each individual case. Such as Sharia and Civil law, and evidence or confession.

Sharia law may dictate the death penalty for certain crimes, but then four reputable male witnesses are needed typically. So say its adultery, what would four withesses be doing actually watching this act? In a brothel, all four of them perhaps, plus the couple? You would never get them to say they had before a court. Also, If they said it and were shown to be disreputable or incorrect then its the witnesses that could face dire punishment.

In the case of confessions, these should be made repeatedly and totally without duress. (Theft also - four witnesses and if the person were starving the punishment may be mitigated.)

So if a couple are reported to the police for having sexual relations in a hotel or the like, they may well get away with it. Or be sentenced to lesser punishments. Civil law, you see, may - or may not - apply the death penalty according to National and even regional law and social attitudes.

Most Islamic societys leave private life and sin totally out of the legal system. Its fragrant displays of sin in public that causes the greatest threat to order, morality affront to the law. 

All this is complicated by modern times. If people are caught on CCTV attacking someone then does this count as four whitnesses? Would used condoms in a hotel wastebin provide DNA to prove adultery? Love messages on a mobile phone? 

To conclude - Islamic societys rely on dire measures applied to perpitrators in order to protect the vast majority of people that either live according to the rules or are at least are very discreet about breaking them. The fear of being caught prevents the crime. That is the reasoning behind it. 

Most nation-states only apply a fraction of Sharia and are loath to use the desth penalty.  Iran is a notable exception, in excess if 800 executions each year, many by public by slow-hanging.

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6 hours ago, Ibrahim van Soest said:

Most nation-states only apply a fraction of Sharia and are loath to use the desth penalty.  Iran is a notable exception, in excess if 800 executions each year, many by public by slow-hanging.

Most of it is about crime of murder & in second hand Adultry but 800 hanging is very exaggerated news by western media &I don’t see in news about other the hudud for drinking Alcohol is just lashing in Iran & about apostasy & corruption in Islam is very rare & rest of it don’t cause death penalty .

9 hours ago, forte said:

"The death penalty is recognized for the seven hudud crimes which include adultery, defamation, drinking alcohol, theft, highway robbery, apostasy, and corruption of Islam. These are the most severe crimes as these acts are seen as a threat to society."  However, you might need a book to describe the reasoning behind the death penalty to be applied knowledgeably. Some of the listed reasons for execution are somewhat subjective and would require intense scrutiny so as not to be misused.

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3 hours ago, forte said:

"The death penalty is recognized for the seven hudud crimes which include adultery, defamation, drinking alcohol, theft, highway robbery, apostasy, and corruption of Islam. These are the most severe crimes as these acts are seen as a threat to society."  However, you might need a book to describe the reasoning behind the death penalty to be applied knowledgeably. Some of the listed reasons for execution are somewhat subjective and would require intense scrutiny so as not to be misused.

Not sure where you got this list from  it does not look right. 

Might be a country's law

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1.killing  innocent person

2.Mohrebeh & corruption on earth  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirabah

3.Apostacy 

In addition to the aforementioned offenses, the death penalty has been considered for other offenses, including the claim of prophethood, [44] insulting the prophet of Allah and the infallibles (Ali), [45] [46] sorcery, [47] [48] forced adultry, [49] [50] incest, [51] [52] adultry with married woman https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adultery , [53] [54] sodomy [55], [56], and repeating some of the crimes, including sodomy of two women with each other  https://fa.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/مساحقه, [57]  Drinking Alcohol  [ 58] and robbery. [59] In some sources, the death penalty has been set at 25 crimes. [60

http://wikifeqh.ir/اعدام_در_اسلام

https://www.welayatnet.com/fa/news/44014

 

1) Death penalty:This execution is carried out in cases of intentional murder and has certain conditions. The presence of a private plaintiff in it is so high that it removes it from the realm of customary rules. The permission of the Wali Faqih and other factors is also effective.

2) Execution by limitation:According to the definitions of the jurists, the extreme death penalty can be defined as: "The punishment is a death determined by the Holy Scripture and can not be reduced to less than death." The limited execution is divided as follows:(A) Sexual crimes, including adultery (adultery or incest or rape or a non-Muslim woman with a Muslim woman) and sodomy.(B) Crimes against religion and social security, including moharebeh and apostasy.(C) Repetitive crimes, such as the execution of the three adulteries and the repeat for the fourth time, which is executed in the fourth quarter.

Enhancement penalty:"The punishment of death determined by the ruler". Most Shi'a jurisprudents believe that the principle of our ta'zir is limited, but to abandon this principle and to enforce the above punishment, one of the following three reasons can be invoked, and it is permissible to punish execution. These causes are: the expediency of the individual and society; the uprising against corruption on earth and forbidding evil. There are also differences among the Sunni jurisprudents, but in some cases they have accepted the  Enhancement penalty.

https://www.yjc.ir/fa/news/5437863/اجرای-حکم-اعدام-در-چه-مواردی-ملغی-می-شود

http://kayhan.ir/fa/news/124533/مجازات-اعدام-در-قانون-کیفری-اسلام

Edited by Ashvazdanghe
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28 minutes ago, ShiaMan14 said:

Not sure where you got this list from  it does not look right. 

Might be a country's law

It is a summary from an international review.  http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1057567705283954   It is hard to get a "list" from other sources.

Islamic law is the only religious law that is recognized by a ruling government in a Muslim majority country, but common law is also used or modelled.   Muslim countries agree on the use of the death penalty but differ widely in how and why and how often they impose it as there is often disagreement on the level of accepted proofs and how these proofs were obtained (see post of Ibrahim van Soest above for a detailed explanation) and scholar interpretations and, of course, the specific situation of the offence can influence it.    For example, drinking alcohol could vary from, drinking it, repeatedly drinking it, being drunk and in public, selling it, encouraging others to drink it, and could be complicated by other factors, such as drinking it openly during Ramadan (worst I could think of!), etc.  

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4 minutes ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

1.killing  innocent person

2.Mohrebeh & corruption on earth  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirabah

3.Apostacy 

In addition to the aforementioned offenses, the death penalty has been considered for other offenses, including the claim of prophethood, [44] insulting the prophet of Allah and the infallibles (Ali), [45] [46] sorcery, [47] [48] forced adultry, [49] [50] incest, [51] [52] adultry with married woman https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adultery , [53] [54] sodomy [55], [56], and repeating some of the crimes, including sodomy of two women with each other  https://fa.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/مساحقه, [57]  Drinking Alcohol  [ 58] and robbery. [59] In some sources, the death penalty has been set at 25 crimes. [60

http://wikifeqh.ir/اعدام_در_اسلام

https://www.welayatnet.com/fa/news/44014

 

https://www.yjc.ir/fa/news/5437863/اجرای-حکم-اعدام-در-چه-مواردی-ملغی-می-شود

http://kayhan.ir/fa/news/124533/مجازات-اعدام-در-قانون-کیفری-اسلام

Just the "corruption on earth" can cover a lot of offences depending on the intent and how it is interpreted.  I think it is probably impossible to get a definitive black and white list.

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Just now, forte said:

Just the "corruption on earth" can cover a lot of offences depending on the intent and how it is interpreted.  I think it is probably impossible to get a definitive black and white list.

It is divided in different categories, and this "corruption on Earth" is mainly related to highway or armed robbery and the different scenarios in which this crime is carried out.

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4 hours ago, forte said:

"The death penalty is recognized for the seven hudud crimes which include adultery, defamation, drinking alcohol, theft, highway robbery, apostasy, and corruption of Islam. These are the most severe crimes as these acts are seen as a threat to society."  However, you might need a book to describe the reasoning behind the death penalty to be applied knowledgeably. Some of the listed reasons for execution are somewhat subjective and would require intense scrutiny so as not to be misused.

There are more than these. And also, the problem with that list is that not everything there is punishable by death on first offence, such as drinking alcohol which is punishable by lashing on first offence, but rather repeated offenses will result in the death penalty.

Edited by Sumerian
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4 hours ago, forte said:

Just the "corruption on earth" can cover a lot of offences depending on the intent and how it is interpreted.  I think it is probably impossible to get a definitive black and white list.

Execution is for the mohareb and the corruptor who murdered, and execution and  is for someone who has done a moratorium in addition to the murder, and is cutting off the hands and feet for someone who has only stolen and if he only steps in and creates fear His punishment is exile. [17] [18] If it is arrested for the Mohareb and the corruptor on earth and his crime  verifies by the Islamic ruler or judge, the execution of these punishments is absolutely obligatory; whether or not the offender will repent; but if he repents before arrest, his punishment  cancels 

http://wikifeqh.ir/اعدام_در_اسلام

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4 minutes ago, Sumerian said:

It is divided in different categories, and this "corruption on Earth" is mainly related to highway or armed robbery and the different scenarios in which this crime is carried out.

It has also been used in Iran for quite a varied number of offences.  

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1 minute ago, forte said:

It has also been used in Iran for quite a varied number of offences.  

In recent years it’s mainly about robbery with using guns & shooting & murdering .

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Just now, forte said:

It has also been used in Iran for quite a varied number of offences.  

I haven't seen proof in our books for other than that, which is, al-muharaba. The Iranians seem to have expanded the definition to include other crimes that would encompass the "corruption on Earth" label, but it is not the specific orthodox defintion which seemed to only focus on muharaba.

That doesn't mean they are wrong though.

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3 minutes ago, Rashīd al-Hanafī said:

People seem eager to kill other people. According to Hanafī usūl, only murder and hirābah are punishable by death.

So why KSA killed sheikh Nimr

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36 minutes ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

So why KSA killed sheikh Nimr

They aren't Hanafī, are they... just a bunch of corrupt sheep thieves idolizing an unintelligent heretic (Ibn Taymiyyah).

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5 minutes ago, Rashīd al-Hanafī said:

They aren't Hanafī, are they... just a bunch of corrupt sheep thieves idolizing an unintelligent heretic (Ibn Taymiyyah).

Anyway they claim that they follow Hanbali school of thought but they follow Ibn Taymiyyah any way Abu Hanifa was student of Imam Sadiq (as) 

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12 minutes ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

Anyway they claim that they follow Hanbali school of thought but they follow Ibn Taymiyyah any way Abu Hanifa was student of Imam Sadiq (as) 

...and Imams Bāqir and Zayd `alayhimā salām.

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@Rashīd al-Hanafī thank you Zandi Ibn Ali (ra) is more famous for his revolt also Abuhanifa supports his revolt at first but remained silent in supporting of him in advance that lead to his martyrdom ,maybe Zayd (ra) narrated hadiths & teached but most of Zaydis rullings promoted by his followers not himself btw he & his followers praised by all Imams (as) for standing against tyrants in favor of them & they verify them as a branch of Shias & brothers of Ithna Ashari shias.

Edited by Ashvazdanghe
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4 hours ago, forte said:

Just the "corruption on earth" can cover a lot of offences depending on the intent and how it is interpreted.  I think it is probably impossible to get a definitive black and white list.

 Not a definitive list but the orinciples are quite clear. (And executed criminals never repeat their crimes).

One other point is that the emphasis lies with the victims rather than the perpetrators and on the rights of the society as a whole rather than the individual - in sharp contrast to Western moral/legal systems. Victims can influence whether a death sentence is carried out or not - retribution or showing mercy is their prerogative.  

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6 hours ago, Ashvazdanghe said:

1.killing  innocent person

2.Mohrebeh & corruption on earth  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirabah

3.Apostacy 

In addition to the aforementioned offenses, the death penalty has been considered for other offenses, including the claim of prophethood, [44] insulting the prophet of Allah and the infallibles (Ali), [45] [46] sorcery, [47] [48] forced adultry, [49] [50] incest, [51] [52] adultry with married woman https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adultery , [53] [54] sodomy [55], [56], and repeating some of the crimes, including sodomy of two women with each other  https://fa.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/مساحقه, [57]  Drinking Alcohol  [ 58] and robbery. [59] In some sources, the death penalty has been set at 25 crimes. [60

http://wikifeqh.ir/اعدام_در_اسلام

https://www.welayatnet.com/fa/news/44014

 

1) Death penalty:This execution is carried out in cases of intentional murder and has certain conditions. The presence of a private plaintiff in it is so high that it removes it from the realm of customary rules. The permission of the Wali Faqih and other factors is also effective.

2) Execution by limitation:According to the definitions of the jurists, the extreme death penalty can be defined as: "The punishment is a death determined by the Holy Scripture and can not be reduced to less than death." The limited execution is divided as follows:(A) Sexual crimes, including adultery (adultery or incest or rape or a non-Muslim woman with a Muslim woman) and sodomy.(B) Crimes against religion and social security, including moharebeh and apostasy.(C) Repetitive crimes, such as the execution of the three adulteries and the repeat for the fourth time, which is executed in the fourth quarter.

Enhancement penalty:"The punishment of death determined by the ruler". Most Shi'a jurisprudents believe that the principle of our ta'zir is limited, but to abandon this principle and to enforce the above punishment, one of the following three reasons can be invoked, and it is permissible to punish execution. These causes are: the expediency of the individual and society; the uprising against corruption on earth and forbidding evil. There are also differences among the Sunni jurisprudents, but in some cases they have accepted the  Enhancement penalty.

https://www.yjc.ir/fa/news/5437863/اجرای-حکم-اعدام-در-چه-مواردی-ملغی-می-شود

http://kayhan.ir/fa/news/124533/مجازات-اعدام-در-قانون-کیفری-اسلام

I have checked this answer and as far as I can see this the best summary you will get.

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