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AbdusSibtayn

Vow, oath and covenant- difference.

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:bismillah:

Assalamun alaykum dear brothers and sisters,

To be honest, the difference between the three always evades me. All that I have been able to gather by beavering away at the risalah is that you promise Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى that you'll do some good job or refrain from a bad one, and usually there's a wish involved, and if you fail, you pay kaffarah.

So what actually is the difference between an Oath (Qasm), a Covenant (Ahd) and a Vow (Nazr) ?

PS- I am a Sistani(ha) muqallid.

Barakallahu feekum. 

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The vow is that man is obliged for God to do good or to leave something better than not doing it.
 
What is the difference between the Treaty and the Law?
The question
What is the difference between the Treaty and the Law?
Short answer

Nazr is a vow and covenant with Allah, which is a requirement of the vow and the covenant of Allah, which is to be followed for each of them.

That's why they look like this one. The following is a description of each of the first, and then the differences.

  1. Obligation in the terminology of fiqh; that is, man's self-denial, or self-denial, to abandon a work that is not good for God.[1]

One of the conditions for the righteousness of the nafs is that: A person who has been given a job should be able to fulfill it, and must be approved by the view of the Islamic Sharī'ah. For example, performing the obligatory and pre-eminent or leaving the haram and makrooh or performing the deed done by the one who is the one who is good and the one who commits it. [3]

  1. The covenant is that a person should signify to abstain from doing something with God.[4]For a person who has a commitment to do a job, it does not have to be better in Sharia. It is enough for him to be exemplary and do not do it.[5]
  2. Yamin (oath): The one who intends to perform or abandon in the future, insists on insisting on one of the names of Allah Almighty and insists on doing it. Although it is permissible to do so, it is not permissible to perform it and it is haram and makrûh. It is not obligatory and mustahabb to do it and to drink it. If he or she does not have a job, or if he does not want to do something, he must do the right thing or even if he has a mundane, intelligent advice.[7]
  3. When we look at the definition of each one, we understand that there is only a difference between the vow and the covenant. For example, if a person says, "I will make a covenant with Allah every night, whether night prayers or sickness, if I give my alms." If they say, "Every night, night prayer, or return to my destination, I will do good deeds," they say. There are all the issues and conditions mentioned in Nazr, as well as the covenant.

There are all the issues and conditions mentioned in Nazr, and there is only the difference that it should be racehirma in the covenant and covenant, but it must not be superior to the one that is obligatory or execute. But there should not be a march (useless and meaningless). That is, it is not necessary to abandon the obligatory or mustahabb or to perform the haram or mekrûhu.

We must note that the atrocity of the treaty is like the fate of the church. That is to feed sixty poor people, or to fast two consecutive months, or to release a slave. [8] But the expiation that you do not follow is that a slave must be freed, or he should feed the ten poor, or feed them, and fast for three days if he can not do them. [9]

  1. Regarding the Nazr, the covenant, and the timing of the action, see the following:

"Do not obey the command, question 661

"Andin 's break," question 6846

 


[1] - Imam Khomeini, Expository Rulings, Researcher and Regulator: Qulupur Gilani, Muslim 560, m 2510, Imam Khomeini (rh), publishing and editing of the works, Sand, diagram first, 1426.

[2] - See: Indicators: "The best sign," Question 873 ; "Change the Nazi", question 1956; "Do not be negligent and unable to do the deed," question 12565ş

[3] - That, p. 561, m 2517, 2518, 1426.

[4] - Mushkini, Mirza Ali, Mustafatul-fiqh, p. 381- 382, Bica, Building, Bita.

[5] - Allamah Hilli, Hasan bin Yusuf, Qawaid al-Qamar al-fiqh al-sadaq al-vol, vol 3, p 295, Islamic edition center, Sand, diagram first, 1413 q; Safi Gulpayqani, Lutfullah, Hidayatul-ibad, Volume 2, p 255, Darul-Quran, Qum, diagram first, 1416.

[6] - Iravani, Baqir, Durus's philosophical philosophy, Jafari, Volume 2, pp. 498, Sand, Second Edition, 1427.

[7] - Mousavi Gülpayqani, Seyed Mohammad Reza, Hidayatul-ibad, Researcher and Regulator; Sabiti Hamadani, Ali, Neya Hamadani, Ali, Volume 2, p. 190, Darul-Quran, Qum, first edition, 1413.

[8] - Imam Khomeini, Explicit Judgments (Mahdi), Collecting: Bani Hashimi Humei, Seyed Mohammed Hussein, Vol. 2, p. 662, Islamic Publishing Center, Sand, Eighth Edition, 1424

Edited by Ashvazdanghe

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12 minutes ago, Sumerian said:

Thanks brother!
So does it mean that apart from the seegha and the kaffarah, there's no other difference? Or do they also have different purposes/intentions behind them?
Suppose if I want to quit a bad act, do I make a covenant, or swear an oath? 

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7 minutes ago, AbdusSibtayn said:

Suppose if I want to quit a bad act, do I make a covenant, or swear an oath? 

You can use any of them for the sake of doing a good deed or refraining from a bad deed, just be mindful of the differences in seegha and the kaffarah.

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1 hour ago, Sumerian said:

You can use any of them for the sake of doing a good deed or refraining from a bad deed, just be mindful of the differences in seegha and the kaffarah.

Thanks brother!

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