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In the Name of God بسم الله
Barış

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and Wine

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Hi,

I read that there is chapter of "Manners of Drinking Wine" in Shia scholar Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's book of Akhlaq-i Nasiri/The Nasirean Ethics. This chapter includes adab/manners/way of drinking, so Tusi expresses harms of alcoholic wine and he suggests moderation of drinking. In this book, this chapter is remarkable because of moderation of drinking. I wonder that, what is view of Tusi about alcoholic beverages? Also, is there any allowence of Shia sources about drinking alcoholic beverages in moderation? 

I know that there is allowence of moderate drinking of nabidh/drinks without wine in early Hanafi sources, also I read some of Mutazilah allows drinking alcoholic beverages includes wine in al-Mabsut by Imam Sarakhsi, however Sarakhsi as Hanafi scholar doesn't express their arguments about wine (Sarakhsi's view is Hanafi view, he allows moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages without wine).

Do you know any allowence about drinking wine in Shia sources? And what is Tusi's view about this topic? Also, is this chapter about nabidh or wine?

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17 minutes ago, Barış said:

Do you know any allowence about drinking wine in Shia sources? 

Salam. According to Shias drinking wine is haram  and in some hadith it is a major sin.

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2642. Drinking wine is unlawful and in some traditions (Ahadith), it has been declared to be a major sin. If a person considers it to be lawful he is not a Muslim. Imam Ja'far Sadiq (P) says: "Wine is the root of all evils and sins. A person who drinks wine loses his senses. At that time he forgets Allah, does not refrain from any sin, respects no one, and does not desist from committing evil openly. The spirit of faith and piety departs from him and only the impure and malicious spirit, which is far off from the blessings of Allah, remains in his body. Allah, His angels, His prophets and the true believers curse such a man and his prayers are not accepted for forty days... 

Drinking wine is unlawful and a major sin.

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However I wonder that what is this chapter of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's book? I know that he is Shia scholar. Is there any non-mainstream view in Shia sources? And also, what is another Shia scholar's view about Tusi?

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On 11/21/2017 at 2:44 AM, Barış said:

Hi,

I read that there is chapter of "Manners of Drinking Wine" in Shia scholar Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's book of Akhlaq-i Nasiri/The Nasirean Ethics. This chapter includes adab/manners/way of drinking, so Tusi expresses harms of alcoholic wine and he suggests moderation of drinking. In this book, this chapter is remarkable because of moderation of drinking. I wonder that, what is view of Tusi about alcoholic beverages? Also, is there any allowence of Shia sources about drinking alcoholic beverages in moderation? 

Can your bring the evidence / text of the said book for discussion in this thread, please?

However it is quite obvious that alcoholic drinks are haram (not permissible)  in shia scholars view.

Edited by skyweb1987

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يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِنْ نَفْعِهِمَا ۗ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنْفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ {219}

[Shakir 2:219] They ask you about intoxicants and games of chance. Say: In both of them there is a great sin and means of profit for men, and their sin is greater than their profit. And they ask you as to what they should spend. Say: What you can spare. Thus does Allah make clear to you the communications, that you may ponder
[Pickthal 2:219] They question thee about strong drink and games of chance. Say: In both is great sin, and (some) utility for men; but the sin of them is greater than their usefulness. And they ask thee what they ought to spend. Say: that which is superfluous. Thus Allah maketh plain to you (His) revelations, that haply ye may reflect.
[Yusufali 2:219] They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." They ask thee how much they are to spend; Say: "What is beyond your needs." Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs: In order that ye may consider-
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 2:219]

Actions such as taking intoxicants, or seeking quick and easy wealth through gambling, draw us away from reality and dull our sense of comprehending and distinguishing things. Man's reason for existence is to grasp reality. All intoxicating substances have been defined by the Holy Prophet and the holy Imams of his Ahl ul Bayt.

Abu Hanifah, the founder of the Hanafi school, says that any liquor, not prepared by grapes, is not prohibited.

Mawlvi Muhammad Ali, a Sunni scholar, in his translation of the Quran says:

"Those who think that the verse under discussion does not contain a prohibition have failed to understand the language of the Quran. When the harm of a thing is stated to be greater than its advantage, it is sufficient indication of its prohibition, for no sensible person would take a course which is sure to bring him a much greater loss than an advantage."

Even after the revelation of this verse some of the companions of the Holy Prophet used to drink non-grape wines and come to pray salat in the masjid, on account of which verse 43 of al Nisa and verses 90 and 91 of al Ma-idah were revealed to prohibit intoxicants and gambling.

The Holy Prophet said:

"Curse of Allah be on liquor, its maker and he who assists him, bearer, loader, distributor, seller, purchaser, consumer and whoever uses its sale proceeds and profit."

Imam Ali ibna abi Talib said:

If a drop of liquor falls into a well and a minaret is built on its nearby land I will not recite azan from it; and if it falls into a river and in its dry bed grows grass, I will not let my horse graze on it.

Liquor is ummul khaba-ith, the mother of all vices. An intoxicated person ceases to be a human being, becomes a brute and loses the ability to distinguish between good and evil, right and wrong.

The effect of these verses worked wonders with the Arab Muslims. In the opinion of the social reformers who labour day and night to put an end to the drinking habits of non-Muslim communities it is a miracle. Drinking was second nature to the heathen Arabs. The Jews and the Christians were also sunk deep into this wicked addiction.

Yasara, the root of maysir, means to divide a thing into parts or portions. Maysir means a game of chance to seek quick and easy wealth, an unearned profit. Gain or loss is a matter of chance. This verse prohibits all games of chance and gambling.

For al afwa see commentary of verse 215 of this surah.

http://quran.al-islam.org/

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