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AbdusSibtayn

Resolving Contradiction b/w verses 15:40 & 7:20

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:bismillah:
Assalamun alaykum wa Rahmatullahi Ta'ala wa Barkatuh,

Dear brothers and sisters,
While reading the Holy Qur'an I have come across certain verse whose apparent contradictions have been bothering me for some time now. 
Ismah (immunity from sins and ignoble acts) of the Anbiya [as] and A'immah [as] is a well-established pillar of our madhab. Traditionally, there are many verses from the Qur'an towards which the ulama point as being the basis of this concept, chief among them being - 

“So I swear by Your Might (O Lord) that I will surely mislead them all together except the devoted servants of Yours from among them.” (38:82-3; 15:39-40) , 
 

and


“…As for my servants, you have no power over them except those who follow you from among the misled people…” (15:41) .

These verses clearly state that the prophets(as) are safe from Shaytan's deception. They have also been reproduced as proof for ismah in many writings,such as here , here and here.

However, we see that despite this fact, the Shaytan was able to trick Hazrat Adam[as] into eating the fruit from the forbidden tree -
 Then began Satan to whisper suggestions to them, bringing openly before their minds all their shame that was hidden from them (before): he said: "Your Lord only forbade you this tree, lest ye should become angels or such beings as live for ever." (7:20)
And he swore to them both, that he was their sincere adviser. (7:21)
So by deceit he brought about their fall: when they tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them, and they began to sew together the leaves of the garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: "Did I not forbid you that tree, and tell you that Satan was an avowed enemy unto you?" (7:22) 

An important note : Dear brothers and sisters, whether or not Hazrat Adam [as] committed a sin/mistake is irrelevant to my question, for I am myself a firm believer in the concept of ismah. My question is about something more fundamental - given that the prophets are ma'soom and out of bounds/ off-limits for the Shaytan, how was he able to trick Adam [as] into eating the forbidden fruit? How do we resolve the apparent contradiction between these verses?

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4 hours ago, AfricanShia said:

Adam committed no sin. You cant commit sin in Paradise. Surely, Adams desires overcame him. Once Adam ate the fruit, he obtained the status of a Prophet, thus obtaining infallibility. 

 

4 hours ago, Jafar moh said:

Al-Islam.org has a book that very much scrutinizes this exact case and I personally found it helpful, read here https://www.al-islam.org/ismat-infallibiity-of-prophets-in-the-quran-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi

 

Salaams

Salam brothers @AfricanShia and @Jafar moh,
I have already stated that I believe that Adam [as] committed no sin. My question is something else - how was Shaytan able to trick Adam into eating the fruit when he himself says that he will not mislead the prophets in verses 38:82-3; 15:39-40

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4 minutes ago, AbdusSibtayn said:

 

Salam brothers @AfricanShia and @Jafar moh,
I have already stated that I believe that Adam [as] committed no sin. My question is something else - how was Shaytan able to trick Adam into eating the fruit when he himself says that he will not mislead the prophets in verses 38:82-3; 15:39-40

Verily Adam was fallible but attained later on infallibility after eating the fruit. This fruit he ate was like none other. 

Edited by AfricanShia

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3 hours ago, AbdusSibtayn said:

I have already stated that I believe that Adam [as] committed no sin. My question is something else - how was Shaytan able to trick Adam into eating the fruit when he himself says that he will not mislead the prophets in verses 38:82-3; 15:39-40

Walaikum as Salaam,

My personal take on this, is that Shaytan was apart of Allah's SWT plan to complete freewill in his servants.    Adam AS I don't believe was a servant/prophet/human until he was baptized with free will, this fruit was the means of doing that.

Humans are incomplete without free will and the power to know what is bad,   Good and Evil must exist together, never one alone.  They contrast each other and thus define each other.

Adam AS was not a Prophet, until he had knowledge/Revelation in other words, wisdom of his mistake.  He was ignorant of the other side, therefore sinless.  But now he learned.  The Qu'ran says He taught man that which they did not know.  And defines humans apart from Jinn/Angels as beings who know the names of things.

Just my personal take.

Edited by wmehar2

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Allama Tabatabaei wrote some good point about Adam and his eating (pbuh) in his book(Almizan):

1.In that paradise there was no law which we call it Sharia, thus that order was as a practice for Adam (pbuh)

2.Adam (pbuh) was the first human and he had never seen someone swear to God to deceive other and Satan actually did that and said i swear that i want the best for you and then they relied on what he said.

3.Satan never can enter paradise then surely that place was not the paradise we know.

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16 hours ago, AfricanShia said:

Verily Adam was fallible but attained later on infallibility after eating the fruit. This fruit he ate was like none other. 

Thanks bro, but don't we believe that the masumeen are ma'sum from the very beginning? And Jibrail[as] would visit Adam [as], he was also given a wahi [the 'names']; does all this not indicate prophethood, and thus infallibility at this stage as well? Sheikh Hadavi Tehrani [ha] has also argued in a similar vein.

 

13 hours ago, wmehar2 said:

Walaikum as Salaam,

My personal take on this, is that Shaytan was apart of Allah's SWT plan to complete freewill in his servants.    Adam AS I don't believe was a servant/prophet/human until he was baptized with free will, this fruit was the means of doing that.

Humans are incomplete without free will and the power to know what is bad,   Good and Evil must exist together, never one alone.  They contrast each other and thus define each other.

Adam AS was not a Prophet, until he had knowledge/Revelation in other words, wisdom of his mistake.  He was ignorant of the other side, therefore sinless.  But now he learned.  The Qu'ran says He taught man that which they did not know.  And defines humans apart from Jinn/Angels as beings who know the names of things.

Just my personal take.

Thank you for your valuable contribution bro. As regarding his prophet hood and revelation, see my previous comment

 

11 hours ago, hadi313 said:

Allama Tabatabaei wrote some good point about Adam and his eating (pbuh) in his book(Almizan):

1.In that paradise there was no law which we call it Sharia, thus that order was as a practice for Adam (pbuh)

2.Adam (pbuh) was the first human and he had never seen someone swear to God to deceive other and Satan actually did that and said i swear that i want the best for you and then they relied on what he said.

3.Satan never can enter paradise then surely that place was not the paradise we know.

Thank you bro. I have already read those arguments. But my question is something else.
I guess i'll have to rephrase my question -
1. Irrespective of whether Adam committed a sin or not, his being tricked into eating the fruit was an act of deception and misleading by the Satan.
2. In verses 15:39 and 40, Satan declares that he will mislead everyone , except the most devoted servants of Allah swt, that is, the prophets and imams (alayhim assalam ajama'in). Allah confirms this in 15:41

3.Than in 7:22, he does a u-turn, contradicts himself, and misleads/tricks/deceives Adam [notice that the word 'deceit' has been used].
Don't these verses seem contradictory? How do we resolve these contradictions?

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5 minutes ago, AbdusSibtayn said:

Thanks bro, but don't we believe that the masumeen are ma'sum from the very beginning? And Jibrail[as] would visit Adam [as], he was also given a wahi [the 'names']; does all this not indicate prophethood, and thus infallibility at this stage as well? Sheikh Hadavi Tehrani [ha] has also argued in a similar vein.

 

Thank you for your valuable contribution bro. As regarding his prophet hood and revelation, see my previous comment

 

Thank you bro. I have already read those arguments. But my question is something else.
I guess i'll have to rephrase my question -
1. Irrespective of whether Adam committed a sin or not, his being tricked into eating the fruit was an act of deception and misleading by the Satan.
2. In verses 15:39 and 40, Satan declares that he will mislead everyone , except the most devoted servants of Allah swt, that is, the prophets and imams (alayhim assalam ajama'in). Allah confirms this in 15:41

3.Than in 7:22, he does a u-turn, contradicts himself, and misleads/tricks/deceives Adam [notice that the word 'deceit' has been used].
Don't these verses seem contradictory? How do we resolve these contradictions?

Well you see brother All Prophets are Masoom from the beginning. But the thing is, Adam wasnt a Masoom from the beginning but later obtained Masoom. 

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3 minutes ago, AfricanShia said:

Well you see brother All Prophets are Masoom from the beginning. But the thing is, Adam wasnt a Masoom from the beginning but later obtained Masoom. 

hmmm....that seems plausible...but wouldn't that be rather out of place, brother, given that he was already a prophet before this incident and had already been given a revelation i.e. the 'names'?

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1 minute ago, AbdusSibtayn said:

hmmm....that seems plausible...but wouldn't that be rather out of place, brother, given that he was already a prophet before this incident and had already been given a revelation i.e. the 'names'?

The thing is that if he was Masoom when created than basically the Shaytan wouldnt have been able to decieve him. That Tree contained very powerful fruit, what the Shaytan told Adam was true, that if he ate the fruit his status would be raised basically. Out of all the Prophets, none have been decieved by the Shaytan. I think that the belief of Adam being infallible from creation really diminishes and decreases the value of infallibility. 

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1 minute ago, AfricanShia said:

The thing is that if he was Masoom when created than basically the Shaytan wouldnt have been able to decieve him. That Tree contained very powerful fruit, what the Shaytan told Adam was true, that if he ate the fruit his status would be raised basically. Out of all the Prophets, none have been decieved by the Shaytan. I think that the belief of Adam being infallible from creation really diminishes and decreases the value of infallibility. 

Yes brother. That might be an explanation.

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On 7/11/2017 at 0:20 PM, AbdusSibtayn said:

:bismillah:
Assalamun alaykum wa Rahmatullahi Ta'ala wa Barkatuh,

Dear brothers and sisters,
While reading the Holy Qur'an I have come across certain verse whose apparent contradictions have been bothering me for some time now. 
Ismah (immunity from sins and ignoble acts) of the Anbiya [as] and A'immah [as] is a well-established pillar of our madhab. Traditionally, there are many verses from the Qur'an towards which the ulama point as being the basis of this concept, chief among them being - 

“So I swear by Your Might (O Lord) that I will surely mislead them all together except the devoted servants of Yours from among them.” (38:82-3; 15:39-40) , 
 

and


“…As for my servants, you have no power over them except those who follow you from among the misled people…” (15:41) .

These verses clearly state that the prophets(as) are safe from Shaytan's deception. They have also been reproduced as proof for ismah in many writings,such as here , here and here.

However, we see that despite this fact, the Shaytan was able to trick Hazrat Adam[as] into eating the fruit from the forbidden tree -
 Then began Satan to whisper suggestions to them, bringing openly before their minds all their shame that was hidden from them (before): he said: "Your Lord only forbade you this tree, lest ye should become angels or such beings as live for ever." (7:20)
And he swore to them both, that he was their sincere adviser. (7:21)
So by deceit he brought about their fall: when they tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them, and they began to sew together the leaves of the garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: "Did I not forbid you that tree, and tell you that Satan was an avowed enemy unto you?" (7:22) 

An important note : Dear brothers and sisters, whether or not Hazrat Adam [as] committed a sin/mistake is irrelevant to my question, for I am myself a firm believer in the concept of ismah. My question is about something more fundamental - given that the prophets are ma'soom and out of bounds/ off-limits for the Shaytan, how was he able to trick Adam [as] into eating the forbidden fruit? How do we resolve the apparent contradiction between these verses?

Assalaamuleykum,

Brother this hadeeth may answers all your doubts.

15-1 Tamim ibn Abdullah ibn Tamim al-Qurashi - may God be pleased with him - narrated that his father quoted on the authority of Hamdan ibn Soleiman al-Neishaboori, on the authority of Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Jahm that he entered a session held by Al-Ma’mun. Ali ibn Musa Al- Reza (s) was also there.


 Al-Ma’mun asked him, “O Son of the Prophet! Don’t you say that the Prophets (s) are innocent?” Imam Al-Reza (s) replied, “Yes.” Al-Ma’mun asked, “Then what is meant by the following Quranic verse, ‘… Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allow himself to be seduced.’ “ Imam Al-Reza (s) said,“The Almighty God told Adam, ‘Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden. And eat of the beautiful things therein as (where and when) ye will, but approach not this tree.’ He pointed to the wheat tree. God added, ‘Or ye run into harm and transgression.’  God did not tell them, ‘Do not eat of this tree and other trees of the same type.’ The two of them did not approach that tree, nor did they eat from it. However, after being tempted by Satan they ate from another tree. Satan told them, ‘… Your Lord only forbade you this tree, lest you should become angels or such beings as live forever.’ Satan swore to them that he was their sincere advisor.

Adam and Eve had never seen anyone falsely swear to God before. ‘So by deceit he brought about their fall… ’ Thus trusting his oath they ate from the tree. This happened before Adam's Prophethood. It was not a major sin to make him deserve 181 to enter the Fire. But it was a minor sin which God forgives.Such sins are also permitted for the Prophets before their appointment. Once God appointed Muhammad (s) to Prophethood, he became innocent and did not commit any minor or major sins. God says, ‘… Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allowed himself to be seduced. But his Lord chose him (for His Grace): He turned to him, and gave him guidance.’ God also says, ‘God did choose Adam and Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of Imran above all people.’”

Al-Ma’mun asked, “What is then meant by the saying of the Almighty God, ‘But when He giveth them a goodly child, they ascribe to others a share in the gift they have received… ’” Then Imam Al-Reza (s) said, “Then Eve delivered five hundred times for Adam - each time a boy and a girl. Adam (s) and Eve made a covenant with the Almighty God that they would be grateful if God gave them a healthy child. ‘… If Thou givest us a goodly child, we vow we shall (ever) be grateful.’ But when God granted them a healthy generation lacking any illnesses, that generation set up others that God had given them as partners to God. They did not thank God the Almighty as their parents had. The Almighty God said, ‘… But God is Exalted High above the partners they ascribe to Him.’”


Source: Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā by Shaykh Saduq, Vol 2, Pg 174, H 1.

Wa aleykumsalaam.

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19 hours ago, Aquib Rizvi said:

Assalaamuleykum,

Brother this hadeeth may answers all your doubts.

15-1 Tamim ibn Abdullah ibn Tamim al-Qurashi - may God be pleased with him - narrated that his father quoted on the authority of Hamdan ibn Soleiman al-Neishaboori, on the authority of Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Jahm that he entered a session held by Al-Ma’mun. Ali ibn Musa Al- Reza (s) was also there.


 Al-Ma’mun asked him, “O Son of the Prophet! Don’t you say that the Prophets (s) are innocent?” Imam Al-Reza (s) replied, “Yes.” Al-Ma’mun asked, “Then what is meant by the following Quranic verse, ‘… Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allow himself to be seduced.’ “ Imam Al-Reza (s) said,“The Almighty God told Adam, ‘Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden. And eat of the beautiful things therein as (where and when) ye will, but approach not this tree.’ He pointed to the wheat tree. God added, ‘Or ye run into harm and transgression.’  God did not tell them, ‘Do not eat of this tree and other trees of the same type.’ The two of them did not approach that tree, nor did they eat from it. However, after being tempted by Satan they ate from another tree. Satan told them, ‘… Your Lord only forbade you this tree, lest you should become angels or such beings as live forever.’ Satan swore to them that he was their sincere advisor.

Adam and Eve had never seen anyone falsely swear to God before. ‘So by deceit he brought about their fall… ’ Thus trusting his oath they ate from the tree. This happened before Adam's Prophethood. It was not a major sin to make him deserve 181 to enter the Fire. But it was a minor sin which God forgives.Such sins are also permitted for the Prophets before their appointment. Once God appointed Muhammad (s) to Prophethood, he became innocent and did not commit any minor or major sins. God says, ‘… Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, and allowed himself to be seduced. But his Lord chose him (for His Grace): He turned to him, and gave him guidance.’ God also says, ‘God did choose Adam and Noah, the family of Abraham, and the family of Imran above all people.’”

Al-Ma’mun asked, “What is then meant by the saying of the Almighty God, ‘But when He giveth them a goodly child, they ascribe to others a share in the gift they have received… ’” Then Imam Al-Reza (s) said, “Then Eve delivered five hundred times for Adam - each time a boy and a girl. Adam (s) and Eve made a covenant with the Almighty God that they would be grateful if God gave them a healthy child. ‘… If Thou givest us a goodly child, we vow we shall (ever) be grateful.’ But when God granted them a healthy generation lacking any illnesses, that generation set up others that God had given them as partners to God. They did not thank God the Almighty as their parents had. The Almighty God said, ‘… But God is Exalted High above the partners they ascribe to Him.’”


Source: Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā by Shaykh Saduq, Vol 2, Pg 174, H 1.

Wa aleykumsalaam.

Many, many thanks brother!

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