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Why twelver shias consider ‘Praying is better than sleep’ (al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm) a biddah?

 

وما رواه هو أيضا عن أحمد بن الحسن عن الحسين عن فضالة عن العلا عن محمد بن مسلم عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: كان أبي ينادي في بيته بالصلاة خير من النوم”

Imam Abu Jaafar (Al-Baqir) said: ‘My father (Ali Ibn Al-Hussein, Al-Sajjad/Zayn Al-Abideen) used to call out from his house in prayer: ”Praying is better than sleep’ (al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm)’.

[Tahdhib vol.7, p.63 no. 15, Wasa’el Al-Shia v.22 S.651, Number 4. Hadith grading: Muwathaq/authentic]

Note: Narration say from his house, so it can not be considered as taqqiyah, common shia excuse.

 

 فأما ما رواه محمد بن علي بن محبوب عن أحمد بن الحسن عن الحسين عن حماد بن عيسى عن شعيب بن يعقوب عن أبي بصير عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: النداء والتثويب في الاقامة من السنة”

Imam Abu Abdallah (Al-Sadiq) said: ‘The calling and the Tathweeb in Iqamah is from the Sunnah.’

[Wasa’el Al-Shia vol.22, p.65 no.3 and in Tahtheeb Al-Ahkaam]

 

Tathweeb stands for ‘al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm'.  Scholar Al-Hilli says Tathweeb is biddah Link. Which is contradiction to narrations above.

والتثويب مكروه وهو قول: ” الصلاة خير من النوم ”

‘Al-Tathweeb is disliked (Makrooh) and it’s the saying: “as-salaatu khayrun min al-nawn”.’

 

 

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1 minute ago, Fahad Sani said:

Note: Narration say from his house, so it can not be considered as taqqiyah, common shia excuse.

 

Imam Abu Jaafar A.S is the one who is saying this narration, therefore it is still possible that he said it out of Taqqiyah. That argument would have worked if it was Imam Sajjad A.S who would have narrated this himself and said "I call from my house...".

 

Also, these two contradicts the other mutawattir hadiths who don't mention Tathweeb in Shia sources. Even in Sunni sources, we'll find this:

 

 

Let us read the testimony of none other than the son of Umar regarding Tathweeb:

 

Mujahid said: 'I was with Ibn Umar and then he heard a man reciting Tathweeb in the mosque, thus he (Ibn Umar) said: 'Let us go away from this innovator (mubtadie)'

Musanaf Abdulrazaq, Volume 1 page 475 Tradition 1832

 

All the narrators are reliable:

 

Mujahid bin Jabir: Ibn Hajar said: 'Thiqah' (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p159). 

 

Laith bin Abi Salim: Ibn Hajar said: 'Seduq' (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p48). 

 

Sufyan bin Auyyana: Ibn Hajar said: 'Thiqah' (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v2 p611). 

 

Abdulrazaq bin Humam: Ibn Hajar said: 'Thiqah' (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p599).

 

 

We read in Musnaf Abdulrazaq:

 

Umar bin Hafs said: 'Saad was the first one who said 'Prayer is better than sleep' during the reign of Umar... he (Umar) said: 'It is an innovation (bidda)' and then he abandoned it and Bilal never performed Adhan for Umar'.

 Musanaf Abdulrazaq, Volume 1 page 474 Tradition 1829

 

Muwatta of Malik, Book 3, Hadeeth Number 318:

 

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the muadhdhin came to Umar ibn al-Khattab to call him to the subh prayer and found him sleeping, so he said, "Prayer is better than sleep," and Umar ordered him to put that in the adhan for subh.

 

 

Imam Shafi’i (one of the four Imams of Ahlul Sunnah) says:

 

"I dislike Tathweeb in morning (Adhan) and so the other (Adhan) because Aba Mahdhura didn’t narrate from the Prophet (s) that He (s) ordered to recite Tathweeb, thus I dislike adding it to Adhan and dislike Tathweeb after it". 

Al-Um (by Imam Shafi’i), Vol. 1, p. 104

Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Vol. 6, p. 228

 

 

Ibn Hazm also narrates this statement from a prominent Salaf, Al-Hasan ibn Hassan:

 

"It is said at dawn “Asalat khayr mina nawm! Asalat khayr mina nawm!”. We do not practice this, because it has no trace from the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)!!!”

Muhalla, Vol. 3, p. 161

 

 

Al-Khawarizmi narrates from Imam Abu Hanifah:

 

"It is one of the innovations of the people!"

Jami al-Masanid, Vol. 1, p. 296

 

Salafi Imam, al-Shawkani, in his Nayl al-Awtar, Vol. 2, p. 28 records the opinions of two prominent Companions:

 

Ibn Umar said: “It is a bid’ah!!” When Ali heard it, he said, “Do not add to the adhan that which is not part of it!”

 

http://www.wilayat.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2966:wudhu-adhan-salat-dua-use-of-subhah-tasbeeh-etc&catid=195&lang=en&Itemid=115

 

 

Now regarding the specific narrations you've mentioned:

 

Imam Abu Jaafar (Al-Baqir) said: ‘My father (Ali Ibn Al-Hussein, Al-Sajjad/Zayn Al-Abideen) used to call outfrom his house in prayer: ”Praying is better than sleep’ (al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm)’.

 

The correct translation is:

 

Hussain bin Ubaidullah from Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Yahya al-Attar from his father from Muhammad bin Ali bin Mahbub from Ahmad bin Hassan from Hussain bin Saeed from Fudhalah from al-Alaa from Muhammad bin Muslim from Abi Jaffar [as] who said: ‘My father used to call in his house: ‘Prayer is better than sleep’. If you repeat that, there will be no problem’.

Al-Istibsar, Volume 1 page 308

Also in Al-Tahdeeb, Volume 2 page 63 Hadeeth Number 15

 

Of course, the word “Adhan” does not feature in the hadith. The Imam is referring to situations other than during Adhan! This is why Muhammad al-Hasoon has written in the margin of al-Bahai al-Amili’s book Al-Athna Ashria, page 52:

 

“Some of our companions didn’t consider it as Taqiyyah, but they deemed it an announcement other than in the Adhan

 

 

Regarding the second one:

 

 

Imam Abu Abdallah (Al-Sadiq) said: ‘The calling and the Tathweeb in Iqamah is from the Sunnah.’

 

 

We should point out that Allamah Mirza Qumi declared this tradition weak in Minhaj al-Ahkam, page 179.

 

 

http://www.wilayat.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2966:wudhu-adhan-salat-dua-use-of-subhah-tasbeeh-etc&catid=195&lang=en&Itemid=115

 

Wsalam

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3 minutes ago, Ozzy said:

Masha Allah @The Straight Path, excellent work.
To add, @Fahad Sani, you quoted Sheikh al-Tusi, but if only you had also read his al-Istibsaar you would have got a clearer picture: 

الإستبصار: فأما ما رواه محمد بن علي بن محبوب عن أحمد بن الحسن عن الحسين عن حماد ابن عيسى عن شعيب بن يعقوب عن أبي بصير عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال النداء والتثويب في الاذان من السنة.
الحسين بن سعيد عن فضالة عن العلا عن محمد بن مسلم عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: كان أبي ينادي في بيته بالصلاة خير من النوم ولو رددت ذلك لم يكن به بأس.

وما أشبه هذين الخبرين مما يتضمن ذكر هذه الألفاظ فإنها محمولة على التقية لاجماع الطايفة على ترك العمل بها، ويدل على ذلك أيضا ما رواه الحسين بن سعيد عن فضالة عن حماد بن عيسى عن معاوية بن وهب قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن التثويب الذي يكون بين الأذان فقال: ما نعرفه

Can you provide translation of this bro ?

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Salam,

Did you ever used the methodology of comparing Shia sects like Ibadi's, Zaidi's and Twelvers.

The commonalities and the diffirences. They have diffirences and developed seperately but still there are commonalities.

I believe these commonalities are the fundaments of the Shia's of Imam Ali a.s.

One of these commonalties is sadl and not saying 'Amin' in Salah. All groups that I mentioned are the same in these.

I don't know about 'prayer is better than sleep' when it comes to Ibadi's but I will try to find out.

Edited by Talut
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It is not biddah as per authentic ahadith of ahlul sunnah. 

 

It was narrated that Abu Mahdhoorah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I said: “O Messenger of Allaah, teach me the Sunnah of adhaan.” He wiped the front of my head and said: “Say Allaah akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaah akbar, Allaahu akbar (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is Most Great)… And if it is Fajr prayer, then say: Al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm, al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (Prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep).

 

According to another, similar report, it says: “Al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm, al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (Prayer is better than sleep, prayer is better than sleep) in the first adhaan of dawn.”

 

[Narrated by Abu Dawood, 501; al-Nasaa’i, 633; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.]

 

According to another report narrated by Abu Dawood (504) from Abu Mahdhoorah (may Allaah be pleased with him): He used to say in Fajr: “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (Prayer is better than sleep). Classed as Saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

 

It was narrated that Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: It is Sunnah for the muezzin, after saying Hayya ‘ala al-falaah (come to prosperity), to say: “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (prayer is better than sleep)” twice.

 

Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

 

[This was narrated by al-Daaraqutni (90), Ibn Khuzaymah in his Saheeh and al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan (1/423), and he said: its isnaad is Saheeh.]

 

It was also narrated by al-Daraaqutni and al-Tahhaawi (1/82) via Hushaym from Ibn ‘Awn with the wording: In the adhaan for Fajr prayer, when the muezzin said: Hayya ‘ala al-falaah (come to prosperity), he said: “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm (prayer is better than sleep),” twice. This version was narrated by Ibn al-Sakan who classed it as saheeh, as it says in al-Talkhees, 3/148

https://sunnah.com/abudawud/2/111

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Is salah better than sleep?

I have tried to find out the answer of this question & got this tradition:

"Imam Ali was told of a Kharijite that he got up in the night to pray and recite the Holy Book. Imam Ali said, “To sleep with having sincere faith in religion and Allah is better than to pray with wavering faith”.

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1 hour ago, Talut said:

Salam,

Did you ever used the methodology of comparing Shia sects like Ibadi's, Zaidi's and Twelvers.
I don't know about 'prayer is better than sleep' when it comes to Ibadi's but I will try to find out.

Salam

Ibadi is not a Shia sect, is it !

Edited by maes
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11 minutes ago, maes said:

Salam

Ibadi is not a Shia sect, is it !

They are not a Shia sect anymore but definitely not a Sunni sect. They actually were fierce opponents of the Umayyads as well.

The point I was trying to make is that in origins they belonged to the camp of Imam Ali a.s. and therefore they have lot in common with other Shia sects. They still share the same prayer customs like praying with hands down (sadl), not saying 'Amin' in prayer and they do not raise the finger like Sunni's do during the Tashahhud.

Ofcourse they became opponents of Imam Ali a.s. as well but their roots are in the Shia camp. Not in the camp of Muawiyya and his successorsl

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4 minutes ago, Sindbad05 said:

Ohhh yes, I remember that we say after Surah Fatiha, Alhamdolilah e Rabul Alimeen at the end.

But I do not think so that there is problem in saying Ameen. Has any Marja stopped from it ?

Which Marja do you follow? I don't know one who allows it except a strange bird maybe.

Alhamdulillah Rabbi'l-Alamin is allowed so that in the end you can say the amin of Alamin outloud so it sounds if you say Amin as well in congregational prayers with sunni's.

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14 minutes ago, Sindbad05 said:

I follow sistani. 

1139. There is no harm if a person places one hand on another forgetfully, or due to helplessness, or taqayyah , or for some other purposes, like, scratching.
Fourth: The fourth thing which invalidates prayers is to say 'Amin' after Surah al-Hamd. This rule, when applied to one praying individually, is based on Ihtiyat, but if someone utters it believing that it has been ordained by Shariah, it is haraam. There is no harm if someone utters it erroneously or under taqayya.
Fifth: The fifth thing which invalidates prayers is to turn away from Qibla without any excuse. But if there is an excuse, like, forgetting or an external force, like a strong wind blowing, which turns him away from Qibla, his namaz will be valid if he has not deviated towards his right or his left. But it is necessary that he returns to the direction of Qibla as soon as the excuse disappears. And if he turned away towards right or left side - regardless of whether his back is towards Qibla or not - due to forgetting, he should pray again towards Qibla as soon as he remembers, if there is time left even for one Rak'at. But if there is no time for even one Rak'at at his disposal, then he should continue with the same namaz towards Qibla, and he will not have to give any qadha for that. Similar rule applies to the one who has deviated because of the external force.

http://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2233/

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7 minutes ago, Talut said:

1139. There is no harm if a person places one hand on another forgetfully, or due to helplessness, or taqayyah , or for some other purposes, like, scratching.
Fourth: The fourth thing which invalidates prayers is to say 'Amin' after Surah al-Hamd. This rule, when applied to one praying individually, is based on Ihtiyat, but if someone utters it believing that it has been ordained by Shariah, it is haraam. There is no harm if someone utters it erroneously or under taqayya.
Fifth: The fifth thing which invalidates prayers is to turn away from Qibla without any excuse. But if there is an excuse, like, forgetting or an external force, like a strong wind blowing, which turns him away from Qibla, his namaz will be valid if he has not deviated towards his right or his left. But it is necessary that he returns to the direction of Qibla as soon as the excuse disappears. And if he turned away towards right or left side - regardless of whether his back is towards Qibla or not - due to forgetting, he should pray again towards Qibla as soon as he remembers, if there is time left even for one Rak'at. But if there is no time for even one Rak'at at his disposal, then he should continue with the same namaz towards Qibla, and he will not have to give any qadha for that. Similar rule applies to the one who has deviated because of the external force.

http://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2233/

Thank you brother, it really helped, I really have to read ethics of Salah again specially mubtilat e Nimaz. It is shame for me I did not know it before. Thanks :)

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Imam Malik says, in Al-Muwatta’:

“It has been narrated to us that the caller to the Prayer came to Umar for the Morning Prayer and found him asleep; he said, “Prayer is preferred to sleep. (Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm)” Umar therefore ordered to include this phrase in the Adhan for the Morning Prayer.”

As is seen, it is explicitly mentioned in this tradition that Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm is an addition to the Adhan made by Umar and has nothing to do with the original Adhan of Islam. Thus Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani, in Al-Muwatta’, stipulates that Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm is not related to the Adhan. His exact viewpoint is that “Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm is said after the Adhan and since it is not a part of it, it is not obligatory to add.”

Suyuti, in Tanwir Al-Hawalik, explaining the document of this tradition, says:

What Malik has narrated from Umar is also narrated by Al-Darqutni in his Sunan with two documents; one is narrated by Waki’, in his Musannaf, from Muhammad Ibn Ajlan from Nafi’ from Umar’s son from Umar who instructed his Muezzin (caller to Adhan), “When you reach Hayya Ala al-Falah in the Morning Adhan, you should say Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm twice.” 59

Zurqani narrates the same issue in Ta’liqah.60 Master Sunni biographists have validated the narrators in both document chains and in general, there is no fallacy in the documents cited by the Sunni jurisprudents.61 Shawkani, about Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm, quotes the following from Al-Bahr Al-Zukhar:

When Umar invented this phrase, his son told him, “This is heresy.” When hearing this phrase, Ali is narrated as saying, “Do not add anything to the Adhan.” The author of Al-Bahr Al-Zukhar, after citing the tradition of Abu Mahdhurah and Bilal says, “If tathwib were religiously allowed, Ali, Ibn Umar and Tawus would not deny it.” As a conclusion from the traditions, we accept this issue (tathwib), not religiously, but if said as an additional part of Adhan.62

It is narrated from Abu Hanifah from Hammad from Ibrahim in Jami’ Al-Masanid…

I asked him about tathwib and he replied, “People have made tathwib and it is a good thing they have made. Tathwib includes saying Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm twice, after Adhan.” Imam Muhammad Ibn Hasan Shaybani has cited this tradition in Athar from Abu Hanifah saying, “This is Abu Hanifah’s statement and we follow it.”63

It is narrated from Ibn Uyaynah from Al-Layth that Mujahid said:

“I was with Ibn Umar when we heard someone saying tathwib in the mosque. Ibn Umar said, ‘Let us get away from this heretic.’”64

Abu Dawud narrates this occurrence from Mujahid about the Noon or Evening Prayer.65

Ibn Jurayj says:

Amr Ibn Hafs informed me that Sa’d, a muezzin, was the first to say Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm. That was during Umar’s reign. At first, Umar told him that it was a heresy, but left it to himself later. Balabil did not say Adhan for Umar.66

Ibn Jurayj says:

Hasan Ibn Muslim informed me that someone asked Tawus, “When was Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm first called out?” He replied, “That was not called during the Prophet’s reign. After his demise, in the reign of Abu Bakr, Balabil heard this phrase from a man who was not a caller to Adhan. So, he learnt it and called out Adhan with it from then on. Abu Bakr was a little while alive after this happening. Then in his reign, Umar said, “It would be better if we prohibit Balabil from what he has invented.” But he apparently forgot this issue and people called out Adhan with this phrase up to the present time.67

Though a little difference is noticed between the first and second traditions, they share the same concept; that is tathwib and Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm was established after the Messenger of Allah (a.s). Anyway, the tradition of Malik with the document of Al-Darqutni and the testimony of famous and master Sunni jurisprudents suffice for proving it.

(al-islam.org)

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18 minutes ago, Engineer73 said:

Imam Malik says, in Al-Muwatta’:

“It has been narrated to us that the caller to the Prayer came to Umar for the Morning Prayer and found him asleep; he said, “Prayer is preferred to sleep. (Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm)” Umar therefore ordered to include this phrase in the Adhan for the Morning Prayer.”

As is seen, it is explicitly mentioned in this tradition that Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm is an addition to the Adhan made by Umar and has nothing to do with the original Adhan of Islam. Thus Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani, in Al-Muwatta’, stipulates that Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm is not related to the Adhan. His exact viewpoint is that “Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm is said after the Adhan and since it is not a part of it, it is not obligatory to add.”

Suyuti, in Tanwir Al-Hawalik, explaining the document of this tradition, says:

What Malik has narrated from Umar is also narrated by Al-Darqutni in his Sunan with two documents; one is narrated by Waki’, in his Musannaf, from Muhammad Ibn Ajlan from Nafi’ from Umar’s son from Umar who instructed his Muezzin (caller to Adhan), “When you reach Hayya Ala al-Falah in the Morning Adhan, you should say Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm twice.” 59

Zurqani narrates the same issue in Ta’liqah.60 Master Sunni biographists have validated the narrators in both document chains and in general, there is no fallacy in the documents cited by the Sunni jurisprudents.61 Shawkani, about Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm, quotes the following from Al-Bahr Al-Zukhar:

When Umar invented this phrase, his son told him, “This is heresy.” When hearing this phrase, Ali is narrated as saying, “Do not add anything to the Adhan.” The author of Al-Bahr Al-Zukhar, after citing the tradition of Abu Mahdhurah and Bilal says, “If tathwib were religiously allowed, Ali, Ibn Umar and Tawus would not deny it.” As a conclusion from the traditions, we accept this issue (tathwib), not religiously, but if said as an additional part of Adhan.62

It is narrated from Abu Hanifah from Hammad from Ibrahim in Jami’ Al-Masanid…

I asked him about tathwib and he replied, “People have made tathwib and it is a good thing they have made. Tathwib includes saying Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm twice, after Adhan.” Imam Muhammad Ibn Hasan Shaybani has cited this tradition in Athar from Abu Hanifah saying, “This is Abu Hanifah’s statement and we follow it.”63

It is narrated from Ibn Uyaynah from Al-Layth that Mujahid said:

“I was with Ibn Umar when we heard someone saying tathwib in the mosque. Ibn Umar said, ‘Let us get away from this heretic.’”64

Abu Dawud narrates this occurrence from Mujahid about the Noon or Evening Prayer.65

Ibn Jurayj says:

Amr Ibn Hafs informed me that Sa’d, a muezzin, was the first to say Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm. That was during Umar’s reign. At first, Umar told him that it was a heresy, but left it to himself later. Balabil did not say Adhan for Umar.66

Ibn Jurayj says:

Hasan Ibn Muslim informed me that someone asked Tawus, “When was Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm first called out?” He replied, “That was not called during the Prophet’s reign. After his demise, in the reign of Abu Bakr, Balabil heard this phrase from a man who was not a caller to Adhan. So, he learnt it and called out Adhan with it from then on. Abu Bakr was a little while alive after this happening. Then in his reign, Umar said, “It would be better if we prohibit Balabil from what he has invented.” But he apparently forgot this issue and people called out Adhan with this phrase up to the present time.67

Though a little difference is noticed between the first and second traditions, they share the same concept; that is tathwib and Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm was established after the Messenger of Allah (a.s). Anyway, the tradition of Malik with the document of Al-Darqutni and the testimony of famous and master Sunni jurisprudents suffice for proving it.

(al-islam.org)

Is there a connection between the addition of Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm and the deletion of Hayya Khayrul Amal?

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7 hours ago, Talut said:

Is there a connection between the addition of Al-Salat Khayrun Min al-Nawm and the deletion of Hayya Khayrul Amal?

There is an important lesson for the students of fiqh, i guess. It shows when ignorant do ijtihad, what happen.

Khairil Amal (best of deed) limited to Khayrun min al-nawn (better than sleep).

Prophet has declared Prayers as "Mairaaj of momin", this makes it "khairil amal".

There are traditions which shows that someone's strike is better than the ibadat of thaqalain, there are conditions where someone's sleep is equals to as he prayed the whole night etc. 

The pharase "prayer is better than sleep" indicates that whoever had included it in adhan, was ignorant of Islam & teachings/sayings of Prophet (pbuh).

Edited by Engineer73
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On 12/02/2017 at 11:54 AM, Talut said:

Salam,

Did you ever used the methodology of comparing Shia sects like Ibadi's, Zaidi's and Twelvers.

The commonalities and the diffirences. They have diffirences and developed seperately but still there are commonalities.

I believe these commonalities are the fundaments of the Shia's of Imam Ali a.s.

One of these commonalties is sadl and not saying 'Amin' in Salah. All groups that I mentioned are the same in these.

I don't know about 'prayer is better than sleep' when it comes to Ibadi's but I will try to find out.

Ibadi is Sunni, not Shia.

Ibn Battuta remarked that the Omanis would praise Abu Bakr and Umar after salah, but not Uthman or Imam Ali (as).

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On ‎22‎-‎2‎-‎2017 at 9:06 PM, Mansur Bakhtiari said:

Ibadi is Sunni, not Shia.

Ibn Battuta remarked that the Omanis would praise Abu Bakr and Umar after salah, but not Uthman or Imam Ali (as).

That's your definition.

There were no Shia or Sunni 'till the definitive split at Karbala.

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