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Islamic Salvation

A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

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The following are the sources which al-Muhsini made use of in Mu'jam al-Ahadith al-Mu'tabara.

Primary Sources

1. al-Kafi (Usul, Furu and Rawdha) of al-Kulayni

2. al-Faqih of al-Saduq

3. al-Tahdhib of al-Tusi

4. al-Istibsar of al-Tusi

5. Masail Ali b. Ja’far

6. Kitab al-Mu’min of al-Husayn b. Said

7. Kitab al-Zuhd of al-Husayn b. Said

8. Nawadir Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa

9. Mahasin al-Barqi

10. Basair al-Darajat of al-Saffar

11. Qurb al-Isnad of al-Himyari

12. Tafsir al-Qummi

13. Rijal al-Kashshi

14. Kamil al-Ziyarat of Ibn Qulawayh

15. Ghayba of al-Nu’mani

16. al-Tawhid of al-Saduq

17. al-Khisal of al-Saduq

18. Uyun Akhbar al-Ridha of al-Saduq

19. Thawab al-A’mal wa Iqab al-A’mal of al-Saduq

20. Illal al-Sharai of al-Saduq

21. Ma’ani al-Akhbar of al-Saduq

22. al-Amali of al-Saduq

23. Ikmal al-Diin of al-Saduq

24. al-Irshad of al-Mufid

25. al-Amali of al-Mufid

26. al-Amali of al-Tusi

27. Ghayba of al-Tusi

28. Misbah al-Mutahhajid of al-Tusi

29. al-Amali of Ibn al-Shaykh (Abu Ali al-Tusi)

30. Qasas al-Anbiya of al-Rawandi

Note that these were the sources that al-Muhsini made use of initially, until as pointed out above (see: the First Problem) he realized that there were questions about the back-history of a number of these books which put into doubt their attribution to supposed authors. He decided to discard some of them based on what he saw as their faulty transmission. For a full elaboration of which book he considers solid and which not together with his argumentation on this refer to the 52nd Bahth in Buhuth Fi Ilm al-Rijal (5th Ed.).

Secondary Sources

Al-Muhsini makes use of two latter day encyclopedias:

1. Bihar al-Anwar of al-Majlisi (110 vols), whose author was able to collect together most of the extant narrations having to do with diverse subjects such as beliefs, morals, history, jurisprudence and more.

2. Jami Ahadith al-Shia (30+ vols) (compiled by a panel of scholars under the guidance of Sayyid Burujerdi, most of the work being done by Shaykh Ismail al-Muizzi) which deals with narrations to do with jurisprudence however indirectly. It is better than any other work of a similar nature such as al-Wafi, Wasail al-Shia, Mustadrak al-Wasail or Safinat al-Bihar. This is because it is innovative in more than one way, such as gathering together all narrative strands that may seem different but actually go back to the same narration etc.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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The first book is 1. The Book of Intellect and Knowledge

First chapter in this book is 1.1. Submission of Intellect and its Excellence

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/submission-of-intellect-and-its-excellence

 

[1/1] اصول الكافي: عن عدة من أصحابنا منهم محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن العلاء بن رزين، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: لما خلق الله العقل استنطقه ثم قال له: أقبل فأقبل ثم قال له: أدبر فأدبر ثم قال: وعزتي وجلالي ما خلقت خلقا هو أحب إلي منك  ولا أكملتك إلا فيمن احب، أما إني إياك آمر، وإياك أنهى وإياك اعاقب، وإياك اثيب

[1/1] Usul al-Kafi: From a number of our companions among them Muhammad b. Yahya al-Attar from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from al-Ala b. Razin from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja'far عليه السلام who said: When Allah created the intellect He gave it the power to speak, then He said to it: draw near, so it drew near, then He said to it: turn back, so it turned back, then He said: by my Power and Majesty I have not created a creature more beloved to me than you, and I have not perfected you except in the one I love, as for me you do I command, and you do I prohibit, and you do I punish and you do I reward.

 

[2/2] اصول الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن فضال، عن الحسن بن الجهم قال: سمعت الرضا عليه السلام يقول: صديق كل امرء عقله، وعدوه جهله

[2/2] Usul al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Fadhal from al-Hasan b. Jahm who said: I heard al-Ridha عليه السلام saying: the friend of every man is his intellect, and his enemy is his ignorance.

 

 [3/3] اصول الكافي: وعنه، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال، عن الحسن بن الجهم قال: قلت لابي الحسن عليه السلام: إن عندنا قوما لهم محبة، وليست لهم تلك العزيمة يقولون بهذا القول؟ فقال: ليس اولئك ممن عاتب الله إنما قال الله: فاعتبروا يا أولي الابصار

[3/3] Usul al-Kafi: From him (Muhammad b. Yahya) from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Fadhal from al-Hasan b. Jahm who said: I said to Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام: we have a group who have love (towards you) but they are not firm in resolve though they profess this belief (Tashayyu), so he عليه السلام said: these are not those who were admonished by Allah, when Allah said: <<So give heed O possessors of insight>> (59:2).      

 

[4/4] رجال الكشي: عن حمدويه بن نصيرعن أيوب بن نوح، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن داود بن فرقد، قال : سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول إن أصحابي أولو النهى و التقى فمن لم يكن من أهل النهى و التقى فليس من أصحابي

[4/4] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr who said: narrated to us Ayyub b. Nuh from Safwan b. Yahya from Dawud b. Farqad who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: my companions are the people of discernment and god-consciousness, whoever is not from the people of discernment and god-consciousness then he is not from my companions.

 

[5/5] اصول الكافي: علي، عن أبيه، عن أبي هاشم الجعفري قال: كنا عند الرضا عليه السلام فتذاكرنا العقل والادب فقال: يا أبا هاشم العقل حباء من الله والادب كلفة، فمن تكلف الادب قدر عليه، ومن تكلف العقل لم يزدد بذلك إلا جهلا 

[5/5] Usul al-Kafi: Ali from his father (Ibrahim b. Hashim) from Abi Hashim al-Ja'fari who said: We were with al-Ridha عليه السلام when we began discussing intellect and moral virtues, so he said: O Abu Hashim, intellect is a free gift from Allah while virtues are an effortful acquisition, whoever strives to acquire virtues possesses it but whoever strives to acquire intellect he achieves naught by that except further ignorance. 

 

[6/6] اصول الكافي: أبوعبدالله العاصمي، عن علي بن الحسن، عن علي بن أسباط، عن الحسن ابن الجهم، عن أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام قال: ذكر عنده أصحابنا وذكر العقل قال: فقال عليه السلام: لا يعبأ بأهل الدين ممن لا عقل له، قلت: جعلت فداك إن ممن يصف هذا الامر قوما لا بأس بهم عندنا وليست لهم تلك العقول فقال: ليس هؤلاء ممن خاطب الله إن الله خلق العقل فقال له: اقبل فاقبل وقال له: أدبر فأدبر، فقال: وعزتي وجلالي ما خلقت شيئا أحسن منك أو احب إلي منك، بك آخذ وبك اعطي

[6/6] Usul al-Kafi: Abu Abdillah al-Asimi from Ali b. al-Hasan from Ali b. Asbat from al-Hasan b. al-Jahm from Abi al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام. He (al-Asimi) said: Our companions (the Shias) and intellect were mentioned in his presence, so he عليه السلام said: consideration is not given to a man of religion who has no intellect. I said: may I be made your ransom, from those who claim this affair (Wilaya) there are some who do mean well but do not have that level of intellect, so he said: such people are not the ones addressed by Allah, verily Allah created the intellect and said to it: draw near, so it drew near, and said to it: turn back, so it turned back, then He said: by my power and majesty I have not created a thing better than you or more beloved to me than you, by you do I take and by you do I give.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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Second chapter in the book is 1.2Sign of Perfection of Intellect

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/sign-of-perfection-of-intellect

 

[1/7] اصول الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن محبوب، عن عبدالله بن سنان قال: ذكرت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام رجلا مبتلى بالوضوء والصلاة وقلت: هو رجل عاقل، فقال: أبوعبدالله وأي عقل له وهو يطيع الشيطان؟ فقلت له: وكيف يطيع الشيطان؟ فقال سله هذا الذي ياتيه من أي شئ هو؟ فإنه يقول لك من عمل الشيطان

[1/7] Usul al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Mahbub from Abdallah b. Sinan who said: I mentioned a person who was afflicted with forgetfulness in Wudhu and Salat to Abu Abdillah عليه السلام and added: he is a person with intellect. Abu Abdillah عليه السلام  said: and what kind of intellect does he have whilst he is obeying Satan? I said to him: how is he obeying Satan? he said: ask him - this that comes over him what is its cause? he will tell you it is from the handiwork of Satan. 

 

[2/8] الخصال: عن أبيه عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد أبي عبد الله البرقي، عن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن ثعلبة بن ميمون، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال : قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام : الرجال ثلاثة : عاقل وأحمق وفاجر، فالعاقل الدين شريعته، والحلم طبيعته، والرأي سجيته، إن سئل أجاب ، وإن تكلم أصاب، وإن سمع وعى، وإن حدث صدق، وإن اطمأن إليه أحد وفى، والاحمق إن استنبه بجميل غفل، وإن استنزل عن حسن نزل، وإن حمل على جهل جهل، وإن حدث كذب، لا يفقه وإن فقه لا يتفقه، والفاجر إن ائتمنته خانك، وإن صاحبته شانك وإن وثقت به لم ينصحك

[2/8] al-Khisal: From his father (i.e. Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babawayh) from Sa'd b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Abi Abdillah al-Barqi from al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal from Tha'laba b. Maymun from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the commander of the faithful عليه السلام said: men are of three kinds: intelligent, foolish and corrupt sinner, as for the intelligent one the religion is his path, and forbearance is his habit, and giving counsel is his disposition, when he is asked he answers, and when he speaks he is to the point, and when he hears he comprehends, and when he reports he is truthful, and when one confides in him he is loyal, as for the fool if someone alerts him to a beautiful thing he overlooks it, and if he is dissuaded from good he acquiesces to forsake it, and if he is driven to ignorance he becomes ignorant, and if he reports he lies, he does not understand and if perchance he is able to understand he does not learn from it, and as for the corrupt sinner if you rely on him he betrays you, and if you befriend him he hates you, and if you trust him he is not sincere with you.

 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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14 hours ago, Islamic Salvation said:

[3/11] الكافي: عن علي، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن جميل، عن أبي عبد الله عليه ‌السلام قال: سمعته يقول: يغدو الناس على ثلاثة أصناف عالم ومتعلم وغثاء فنحن العلماء وشيعتنا المتعلمون وسائر الناس غثاء

[3/11] al-Kafi: from Ali from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Jamil from Abi Abdillah عليه ‌السلام who said: I heard him saying: The people rise up (every morning) being in one of three categories: knowledgeable scholar, student seeking knowledge or scum. So we are the scholars and our Shia are the students and the rest of the people are scum.      

I love this one. Thanks bro.

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Fourth chapter in the book is 1.4Reward of the Scholar and the Seeker of Knowledge

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/reward-of-the-scholar-and-the-seeker-of-knowledge

 

[1/18] الكافي: محمد بن الحسن وعلي بن محمد، عن سهل بن زياد، ومحمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد جميعا، عن جعفر بن محمد الاشعري، عن عبدالله بن ميمون القداح، وعلي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن القداح، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: من سلك طريقا يطلب فيه علما سلك الله به طريقا إلى الجنة وإن الملائكة لتضع أجنحتها لطالب العلم رضا به وإنه يستغفر لطالب العلم من في السماء ومن في الارض حتى الحوت في البحر، وفضل العالم على العابد كفضل القمر على سائر النجوم ليلة البدر، وإن العلماء ورثة الانبياء إن الانبياء لم يورثوا دينارا ولا درهما ولكن ورثوا العلم فمن أخذ منه أخذ بحظ وافر

[1/18] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. al-Hasan and Ali b. Muhammad from Sahl b. Ziyad; Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad - all together from Ja’far b. Muhammad al-Ash’ari from Abdallah b. Maymun al-Qaddah; Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Hammad b. Isa from al-Qaddah from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: whoever treads a path seeking knowledge Allah makes him tread a path to heaven. The angels lay down their wings for the seeker of knowledge being pleased with him. They do seek forgiveness for the seeker of knowledge whatsoever is in heaven and whatsoever is on earth even the fish in the sea. The merit of the scholar over the worshiper is like the excellence of the moon over the rest of the stars on a full-moon night. The scholars are the inheritors of the prophets, the prophets do not leave behind silver or gold coins rather they leave behind knowledge so whomsoever partakes of it then he has obtained a fortunate share.   

 

[2/19] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن جميل بن صالح عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: إن الذي يعلم العلم منكم له أجر مثل أجر المتعلم وله الفضل عليه، فتعلموا العلم من حملة العلم وعلموه إخوانكم كما علمكموه العلماء

[2/19] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Jamil b. Salih from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: the one who teaches the knowledge from among you has an equivalent reward with the student who seeks knowledge except that he (the teacher) has a degree over him (the student), so seek knowledge from the bearers of knowledge and teach it to your brothers in the same way as the scholars had taught it to you.

 

[3/20] عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله: من حفظ احاديثنا أربعين حديثا بعثه الله يوم القيامة عالما فقيها 

[3/20] From the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله who said: whoever preserves forty of our narrations Allah will raise him on the day of judgment as a scholar possessing understanding.

 

[4/21] العيون: بالاسانيد الثلاثة عن الرضاء عن ابائه عليهم السلام:  قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله: اللهم ارحم خلفائي- ثلاث مرات - قيل له ومن خلفائك قال الذين يأتون من بعدي ويروون أحاديثي وسنتي فيعلمونها الناس من بعدي

[4/21] al-Uyun: Via the three chains from al-Ridha from his forefathers عليهم السلام: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله said: O Allah have mercy on my successors – thrice – it was said to him: and who are your successors? He said: those who come after me and transmit my narrations and my Sunna teaching it to the people after me.

 

[5/22] رجال النجاشي: عن شيخنا المفيد في كتابه مصابيح النور: أخبرني ابن قولويه، عن علي بن الحسين بن بابويه، عن عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري، عن داود بن القاسم الجعفري، قال: عرضت على أبي محمد صاحب العسكر عليه السلام كتاب يوم وليلة ليونس فقال لي تصنيف من هذا؟ فقلت: تصنيف يونس مولى آل يقطين فقال: أعطاه الله بكل حرف نورا يوم القيامة

[5/22] Rijal al-Najashi: from our Shaykh al-Mufid in his book “Masabih al-Nur”: reported to me Ibn Qulawayh from Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babawayh from Abdallah b. Ja’far al-Himyari from Dawud b. al-Qasim al-Ja’fari who said: I presented the book “Yawm wa Layla” of Yunus to Abi Muhammad al-Askari عليه السلام, so he said to me: who authored this? I said: it has been authored by Yunus the client of the family of Yaqtin, he said: may Allah give him for every letter a light on the day of judgment.

 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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Fifth chapter in the book is 1.5Attributes of the Scholar

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/attributes-of-the-scholar

 

[1/23] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن محبوب عن معاوية بن وهب قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: اطلبوا العلم وتزينوا معه بالحلم والوقار، وتواضعوا لمن تعلمونه العلم، وتواضعوا لمن طلبتم منه العلم، ولا تكونوا علماء جبارين فيذهب باطلكم بحقكم

[1/23] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya al-Attar from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Muawiya b. Wahb who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: seek knowledge and adorn yourself with forbearance and dignity together with it (knowledge), and humble yourself to the one you teach knowledge, and humble yourself to the one from whom you seek knowledge, and do not be tyrannical scholars so that your falsehood drives away your truth. 

 

[2/24] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن حماد بن عثمان، عن الحارث بن المغيرة النصري، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام في قول الله عزوجل: " إنما يخشى الله من عباده العلماء " قال: يعني بالعلماء من صدق فعله قوله، ومن لم يصدق فعله قوله فليس بعالم

[2/24] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Hammad b. Uthman from al-Harith b. al-Mughira al-Nasri from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام in regards the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “Verily they truly fear Allah from among his slaves - the scholars” (35:28) he said: He means by the scholars the one whose deeds conform with his words, as for the one whose deeds are contrary to his words then he is not a scholar. 

 

[3/25] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن إسماعيل بن مهران، عن أبي سعيد القماط وصالح بن سعيد، عن أبان بن تغلب، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام أنه سئل عن مسألة فأجاب فيها، قال: فقال الرجل: إن الفقهاء لا يقولون هذا، فقال: يا ويحك وهل رأيت فقيها قط؟! إن الفقيه حق الفقيه الزاهد في الدنيا، الراغب في الآخرة، المتمسك بسنة النبي صلى الله عليه وآله 

[3/25] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from Ismail b. Mihran from Abi Said al-Qammat and Salih b. Said from Aban b. Taghlib from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام, that he (the Imam) was asked a question about a matter and he answered it, so the man (who asked the question) said: the Fuqaha do not say this, he said: woe be upon you - and have you ever seen a Faqih?! A true Faqih is one who renounces the Dunya and covets the Akhera and holds onto the Sunna of the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله
 

[4/26] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان جميعا، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام قال: إن من علامات الفقه الحلم والصمت

[4/26] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Safwan b. Yahya from Abi al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام who said: From among the signs of understanding are forbearance and silence.

 

[5/27] العيون: بالاسانيد الثلاثة عن الرضا عن ابائه عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قال: من حسن فقهه فله حسنة 

[5/27] al-Uyun: Via the three chains from al-Ridha from his forefathers from the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله who said: whomsoever’s understanding is good then for him will be good.

 

 [6/28] الخصال: ابن مسرور، عن ابن عامر، عن عمه عبد الله، عن ابن محبوب، عن ابن صهيب قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: لا يجمع الله لمنافق ولا فاسق حسن السمت والفقه وحسن الخلق أبدا

[6/28] al-Khisal: Ibn Masrur from Ibn A’mir from his uncle Abdallah from Ibn Mahbub from Ibn Suhayb who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: Allah never grants the hypocrite or the corrupt sinner the following (attributes) together: goodness of conduct, understanding and goodness of character.

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Sixth chapter in the book is 1.6Asking the Scholar and Discussing with Him

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/asking-the-scholar-and-discussing-with-him

 

[1/29] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس بن عبدالرحمن عن أبي جعفر الاحول، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: لا يسع الناس حتى يسألوا ويتفقهوا ويعرفوا إمامهم ويسعهم أن يأخذوا بما يقول وإن كان تقية 

[1/29] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman from Abi Ja’far al-Ahwal from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the people are not absolved (freed of responsibility) unless they ask and comprehend and recognize their Imam and it absolves them to take what he (the Imam) says even if it is in Taqiyya (said in dissimulation). 

 

[-/2] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن حريز عن زرارة ومحمد بن مسلم وبريد العجلي قالوا: قال أبوعبدالله عليه السلام لحمران بن أعين في شئ سأله: إنما يهلك الناس لانهم لا يسألون

[2/-] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Hammad b. Isa from Hariz from Zurara and Muhammad b. Muslim and Burayd al-Ijli they said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to Humran b. A’yan in regards a matter he had asked him about: the people are destroyed because they do not ask questions.

 

[3/30] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عبدالله بن سنان، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: إن الله عزوجل يقول: تذاكر العلم بين عبادي مما تحيى القلوب الميتة إذا هم انتهوا فيه إلى أمري 

[3/30] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Abdallah b. Sinan from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: Allah Mighty and Majestic says: discussion of knowledge between my slaves is among that which enlivens the dead hearts if it leads them (to submit) to my command.
 

[4/31] العيون: القطان والنقاش والطالقاني جميعا عن أحمد الهمداني، عن على بن الحسن بن على بن فضال، عن أبيه قال: قال الرضا عليه السلام: من تذكر مصابنا فبكى وابكى لم تبك عينه يوم تبكى العيون ومن جلس مجلسا يحيى فيه امرنا لم يمت قلبه يوم تموت القلب

[4/31] al-Uyun: al-Qattan and al-Naqqash and al-Taliqani all together from Ahmad al-Hamdani from Ali b. al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal from his father who said: al-Ridha عليه السلام said: whoever recalls our trials and weeps and makes others weep his eye will not weep on the day when the eyes will weep, and whoever organizes a gathering enlivening in it our affair his heart will not die on the day when the hearts will die.
 

[5/32] علل الشرائع: عن ابيه عن سعد عن ابن يزيد عن حماد عن حريزعن زرارة ومحمد بن مسلم وبريد قالوا: قال رجل لابي عبد الله عليه السلام: ان لي إبنا قد أحب ان يسألك عن حلال وحرام لا يسألك عما لا يعينه قال: فقال، وهل يسأل الناس عن شئ أفضل من الحلال والحرام

[5/32] Ilal al-Sharai: From my father (Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babawayh) from Sa’d from Ibn Yazid from Hammad from Hariz from Zurara and Muhammad b. Muslim and Burayd all of whom said: a man said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: I have a son - I do wish for him to ask you about the Halal and the Haram and not about that which does not concern him, so he said: and do the people ask about a subject better than the Halal and the Haram?! 
 

[6/33] الكافي: محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن منصور بن حازم، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: مجالسة أهل الدين شرف الدنيا والآخرة

[6/33] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Ibn Abi Umayr from Mansur b. Hazm from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: sitting with the people of religion is an honour in the world and the hereafter.

 

[7/34] الخصال: ابن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن البرقي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن جميل، عن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: قوام الدين بأربعة: بعالم ناطق مستعمل له، وبغني لا يبخل بفضله على أهل دين الله، وبفقير لا يبيع آخرته بدنياه، و بجاهل لا يتكبر عن طلب العلم، فإذا كتم العالم علمه، وبخل الغني بماله، وباع الفقير آخرته بدنياه، واستكبر الجاهل عن طلب العلم، رجعت الدنيا إلى ورائها القهقرى، فلا تغرنكم كثرة المساجد وأجساد قوم مختلفة، قيل: يا أمير المؤمنين كيف العيش في ذلك الزمان ؟ فقال: خالطوهم بالبرانية وخالفوهم في الباطن، للمرء ما اكتسب، وهو مع من أحب، وانتظروا مع ذلك الفرج من الله

[7/34] al-Khisal: Ibn al-Walid from al-Saffar from al-Barqi from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Jamil from Zurara from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: the commander of the faithful عليه السلام said: the religion is supported by four: by the knowledgeable person who speaks out and uses it (his knowledge), and by the rich person who is not miserly with his bounty (spending it) on the people of the religion of Allah, and by the poor person who does not sell off his hereafter for his world, and by the ignorant person who is not too arrogant to seek knowledge, so when it happens that the knowledgeable hides his knowledge, and the rich is miserly with his wealth, and the poor sells off his hereafter for his world, and the ignorant is too arrogant to seek knowledge - the world will recede backwards retracing its steps, so the great number of mosques (at that time) and the multitudes of different nations (who pray in them) should not deceive you, it was said: O commander of the faithful - how should one live in that age? He said: mingle with them outwardly and oppose them inwardly, it will be for a man what he has earned, and he will be with the one he loves, and wait with that for the relief from Allah. 

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Seventh chapter in the book is 1.7Prohibition on Speaking without Knowledge and Ruling based on Opinion

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/prohibition-on-speaking-without-knowledge-and-ruling-based-on-opinion

 

[1/35] الكافي: علي، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن عبدالرحمن بن الحجاج قال: قال لي أبوعبدالله عليه السلام إياك وخصلتين ففيهما هلك من هلك: إياك أن تفتي الناس برأيك أو تدين بما لا تعلم

[1/35] al-Kafi: Ali from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: beware of two qualities - due to them have been destroyed those who have been destroyed: beware of giving Fatwa to the people based on your own opinion or to take as part of your Diin that which you you do not know (are not certain of).

 

[2/36] الكافي: وعن محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن علي ابن رئاب، عن أبي عبيدة الحذاء، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: من أفتى الناس بغير علم ولا هدى لعنته ملائكة الرحمة وملائكة العذاب، ولحقه وزر من عمل بفتياه

[2/36] al-Kafi: And from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Ali b. Riab from Abi Ubayda al-Hadhdha from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: whoever gives Fatwa to the people without knowledge or true guidance the angels of mercy do curse him and so do too the angels of punishment and the burden of the one who acts by his Fatwa attaches itself to him.

 

[3/37] الكافي: وعن العدة، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن الحسن بن علي الوشاء، عن أبان الاحمر، عن زياد بن أبي رجاء، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: ما علمتم فقولوا، و ما لم تعلموا فقولوا: الله أعلم، إن الرجل لينتزع الآية من القرآن يخر فيها أبعد ما بين السماء والارض

[3/37] al-Kafi: And from a number from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Washsha from Aban al-Ahmar from Ziyad b. Abi Raja from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: say what you know and if you do not know then say: “Allah is more knowing ”, a man selectively picks out a verse from the Qur’an and falls in it (misinterpreting it) a farther distance than what is between the earth and the sky.
 

[4/38] الكافي: محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن ربعي بن عبدالله، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: للعالم إذا سئل عن شئ وهو لا يعلمه أن يقول: الله أعلم، وليس لغير العالم أن يقول ذلك

[4/38] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Hammad b. Isa from Rib’i b. Abdallah from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: it is for the scholar - if he is asked something of which he does not know - to say: “Allah is more knowing” and it is not for other than the scholar to say that.
 

[5/39] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن حريز بن عبدالله، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: إذا سئل الرجل منكم عما لا يعلم فليقل: لا أدري ولا يقل: الله أعلم، فيوقع في قلب صاحبه شكا و إذا قال المسؤول: لا أدري فلا يتهمه السائل

[5/39] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from Hammad b. Isa from Hariz b. Abdallah from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: if a man from among you is asked about that which he does not know - he should say: “I do not know” and should not say: “Allah is more knowing”, because that will cast doubt in the heart of the questioner, and if the questioned says: “I do not know” then the questioner should not blame him.
 

[6/40] الكافي: علي بن ابراهيم، عن ابيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: ما حق الله على خلقه؟ فقال: أن يقولوا ما يعلمون، ويكفوا عما لا يعلمون، فإذا فعلوا ذلك فقد أدوا إلى الله حقه

[6/40] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. Salim who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: what is the right of Allah over his creation? he said: that they should only say that which they know and should remain silent over that which they do not know - so if they were to do that then they have fulfilled the right of Allah.
 

[7/41] الكافي: علي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عبدالرحمن بن الحجاج قال: كان أبوعبدالله عليه السلام قاعدا في حلقة ربيعة الرأي، فجاء أعرابي فسأل ربيعة الرأي عن مسألة فأجابه فلما سكت قال له الاعرابي: أهو في عنقك؟ فسكت عنه ربيعة ولم يرد عليه شيئا فأعاد عليه المسألة فأجابه بمثل ذلك، فقال له الاعرابي: أهو في عنقك؟ فسكت ربيعة فقال له أبوعبدالله عليه السلام: هو في عنقه، قال أو لم يقل، وكل مفت ضامن 

[7/41] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام was seated in a study-circle of Rabia al-Rayy when a bedouin came and asked Rabia al-Rayy about a matter and he (Rabia) proceeded to answer him, so when he was done (answering) the bedouin asked: is it upon your neck (do you accept responsibility for me following your answer)? Rabia remained silent and did not say anything, so he (the bedouin) repeated the question again and he (Rabia) answered in the same way, so the bedouin said to him again: is it upon your neck? but Rabia remained silent, then Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to him: it is upon his neck whether he declares it to be so or not, and every giver of Fatwa is liable.

 

[8/42] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، غن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن العباس بن عامر و جعفر بن محمد بن حكيم، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن أبي بصير قال : سألت أبا جعفر عليه السلام عن شهادة ولد الزنا أ تجوز؟ قال: لا، فقلت: إن الحكم بن عتيبة يزعم أنها تجوز، فقال: اللهم لا تغفر ذنبه، ما قال الله للحكم إِنَّهُ لَذِكْرٌ لَكَ وَ لِقَوْمِكَ، فليذهب الحكم يمينا و شمالا فوالله لا يوجد العلم إلا في أهل بيت نزل عليهم جبريل عليه السلام 

[8/42] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan b. Fadhal from al-Abbas b. A’mir and Ja’far b. Muhammad b. Hukaym from Aban b. Uthman from Abi Basir who said: I asked Aba Ja’far عليه السلام about the Shahada (giving witness) of a Walad Zina (child born out of Nikah) - is it permissible? he عليه السلام said: No. I said: al-Hakam bin Utayba holds it to be permissible, so he عليه السلام said: O Allah - do not forgive his sin! Allah was not addressing al-Hakam when He said: “it is a reminder unto you and your Qawm (relations)” (43:44) - let al-Hakam go to the right and to the left for by Allah he will not find true knowledge except with the Ahl al-Bayt upon whom Jibrail عليه السلام descended.

 

[9/43] العيون: بالاسانيد الثلاثة عن الرضا، عن ابائه، عن اميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: من افتى الناس بغير علم لعنته ملائكة السموات و الارض

[9/43] al-Uyun: Via the three chains from al-Ridha from his forefathers from the commander of the faithful عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: whoever gives Fatwa to the people without knowledge the angels of the heavens and the earth do curse him.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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Eighth chapter in the book is 1.8Accountability of the Scholar and its Severity

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/accountability-of-the-scholar-and-its-severity

[1/44] الكافي: علي بن ابراهيم، عن أبيه، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان جميعا، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن جميل بن دراج قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: إذا بلغت النفس ههنا - وأشار بيده إلى حلقه - لم يكن للعالم توبة، ثم قرأ: "إنما التوبة على الله للذين يعملون السوء بجهالة" 

[1/44] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Ibn Abi Umayr from Jamil b. Darraj who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: when the soul will reach here - and he pointed with his hand to his throat - there will be no repentance for the scholar - then he recited: “Verily repentance is upon Allah only for those who work evil in ignorance” (4:17). 

 

[-/2] الخصال: عن أبيه، عن الحميري، عن هارون، عن ابن زياد، عن جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه، عن آبائه عليهم السلام أن عليا عليه السلام قال: إن في جهنم رحى تطحن أفلا تسألون ما طحنها؟ فقيل له: فما طحنها يا أمير المؤمنين؟ قال: العلماء الفجرة، والقراء الفسقة، والجبابرة الظلمة، والوزراء الخونة، والعرفاء الكذبة وإن في النار لمدينة يقال لها: الحصينة أفلا تسألوني ما فيها؟ فقيل: وما فيها يا أمير المؤمنين؟ فقال: فيها أيدي الناكثين 

[2/-] al-Khisal: From his father (Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babawayh) from al-Himyari from Harun from Ibn Ziyad from Ja’far b. Muhammad from his father from his forefathers عليهم السلام that Ali عليه السلام said: there is in hell a mill-stone which grinds - will you not ask what it grinds? It was said to him: and what does it grind O commander of the faithful? He said: corrupt scholars, and sinful reciters (of the Qur’an), and unjust tyrants, and treacherous ministers, and lying officials(1). And there is in hell a city called ‘the fortified’ - will you not ask me what is in it? it was said: what is in it O commander of the faithful? he said: in it are the hands of the oath-breakers(2).

(1)العرفاء  - Urafa is plural for Arif (lit. ‘person who knows’), the knowledge they possessed was to do with Urf (customs) and societal conventions not knowledge of the Diin which belonged to the Ulama (sing. Alim). An Arif was responsible for the administration of certain tribal or military units called Irafa, they collected taxes, distributed stipends, maintained the Diwan - register of names and arbitrated conflicts. Significantly, they also reported back their units’ doings to the governor and could be held responsible for their men’s rebellion or misconduct. An Arif had to be an influential person within the tribe who is respected by all, though not necessarily from the chiefly lineage. They came into special prominence under the Umayyads who used them as intermediaries between the governors of the Amsar and the tribes in the political hierarchy.  

(2) The hands of the Nakithin is singled out because it is what they used to give their false pledges of allegiance before betrayal.

--> If you look at the five categories of people mentioned by the Imam all of them have certain responsibility within the society or in other words are in positions of authority. They may be Scholars, Qurra (a professional class of people who were experts on the text of the Qur’an, having memorized it, and deemed themselves its guardians and tutors), rulers, their assistants, and the lower-level bureaucracy. If a society is to prosper all these have to be honest brokers with good intentions. 

 

[3/45] معاني الاخبار: أبي، عن سعد، عن ابن أبي الخطاب، عن ابن محبوب، عن حماد ابن عثمان، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام في قول الله عز وجل: "والشعراء يتبعهم الغاوون" قال: هل رأيت شاعرا يتبعه أحد؟ إنما هم قوم تفقهوا لغير الدين فضلوا وأضلوا 

[3/45] Ma’ani al-Akhbar: My father (Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babawayh) from Sa’d from Ibn Abi al-Khattab from Ibn Mahbub from Hammad b. Uthman from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام in regards the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “and the poets - only the astray follow them” (26:224) he said: have you seen anyone following the poet? rather it (“poets” in the verse) refers to a group who gain understanding (seek knowledge) for other than the religion so they themselves become misguided and also misguide others(1).

(1) The group referred to are the scholars who seek knowledge for the world (or in street lingo: “scholars for dollars”). They base their religious rulings on their own whims and flights of fancy and in turn create an unrecognizable religion misguiding their followers. They are referred to as the poets because like the poets they base their judgments and opinions on faulty imagination.

There has been a long-standing academic “feud” with a lot of pointed words exchanged between Professors Irfan Shahid (recently deceased) and Michael Zwettler over the word “ghawun” in this verse. One of the arguments Shahid makes for his interpretation of the verse is that Zwettler’s alternate interpretation “does not correspond with the facts of pre-Islamic Arab literary and social life, in which there was no place for poets with followers.” Zwettler concedes this point. The narration in question has the Imam himself supporting this point and could have been the strongest argument in favour of Shahid (especially considering how early an authority is making it) but he was ignorant of this narration as far as I am aware and did not make use of it. Furthermore, the narration adds a new dimension which was overlooked by both Shahid and Zwettler in their understanding of the verse with the Imam giving a Ta’wili inner-layer interpretation of the word “poet” as a person who exerts effort to become learned for materialistic reasons. This example again reminds us that even a relatively straight-forward word in the Qur’an might not be fully understood using rational and linguistic techniques but requires guidance from the Aimma.

The Bibliography where you can follow the boring/fascinating (depending on your point of view) to and fro between Shahid and Zwettler arranged in chronological order.

(1) I. Shahid, “A Contribution to Koranic Exegesis,” in Arabic and Islamic Studies in Honor of Hamilton A.R. Gibb, ed. by G. Makdisi (Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press: 1965), pp. 563-80.

(2) M. Zwettler, The Oral Tradition of Classical Arabic Poetry: Its Character and Implications (Columbus, Ohio State University Press: 1978).

(3) I. Shahid, “Another Contribution to Koranic Exegesis: The Sura of the Poets ( xxvi )” JAL 14 (1983): 1-21.

(4) M. Zwettler, “A Mantic Manifesto: The Sura of ‘The Poets’ and the Qur’anic Foundations of Prophetic Authority,” in Poetry and Prophecy: The Beginnings of a Literary Tradition, ed. by James L. Kugel (Ithaca, Cornell University Press: 1990), pp. 75-119, 205-31 (notes). 

(5) I. Shahid, “The Sura of the Poets, Qur’an xxvi : Final Conclusions,” JAL 35 (2004): 175-220.

(6) M. Zwettler, “The Sura of the Poets: ‘Final Conclusions’?”, JAL 38 (2007): 111-166.

(7) I. Shahid, “The Sūra of the Poets Revisited,” JAL 39 (2008): 398-423.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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[1/46] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر، عن حماد بن عثمان، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: نعم وزير الايمان العلم، ونعم وزير العلم الحلم، ونعم وزير الحلم الرفق، ونعم وزير الرفق الصبر

[1/46] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr from Hammad b. Uthman from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: the best assistant to faith is knowledge and the best assistant to knowledge is forbearance and the best assistant to forbearance is compassion and the best assistant to compassion is patience.

 

[2/47] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن معمر بن خلاد قال: سمعت أبا الحسن الرضا عليه السلام يقول: ليس العبادة كثرة الصلاة والصوم، إنما العبادة التفكر في أمر الله عزوجل

[2/47] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Muammar b. Khallad who said: I heard Aba al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام saying: worship is not excessive prayers or fasting, worship is reflecting over the affair of Allah Mighty and Majestic.

 

[3/48] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن علي بن فضال عن ابن بكير، عن عبيد بن زرارة قال: قال أبوعبدالله عليه السلام: احتفظوا بكتبكم فإنكم سوف تحتاجون إليها

[3/48] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal from Ibn Bukayr from Ubayd b. Zurara who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: preserve your books for you are going to have need of them. 
 

[4/49] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر، عن جميل بن دراج قال: قال أبو عبدالله عليه السلام: أعربوا حديثنا فانا قوم فصحاء

[4/49] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr from Jamil b. Darraj who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: Arabize our narrations for we are an eloquent people.

--> This is not only in terms of making sure that when you report from memory and attribute meanings to the Aimma you should do so following the correct grammatical rules and pronunciation but also that it should have the loftiest forms of speech and turns of phrase as befitting the station of the Aimma lest you diminish them in any way in the ear of the listener.
 

[5/50] الخصال: عن أبيه، عن سعد، عن البرقي، عن الحسن بن علي بن فضال، عن ثعلبة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: الرجال ثلاثة: رجل بماله، ورجل بجاهه، ورجل بلسانه، وهو أفضل الثلاثة

[5/50] al-Khisal: From my father from Sa’d from al-Barqi from al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal from Tha’laba from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: men are of three kinds: a man by his wealth, a man by his position, and a man by his tongue (eloquent speaker), and he is the best of the three.

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A note on the convention followed in numbering.

Consider an example: [4/49] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from ...

The number on the left (4) is the number of the narration in that particular chapter, while the number on the right (49) is the number of the narration overall across all the chapters and volumes.

Sometimes one can encounter something like this: [2/-] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from ...

The number on the left (2) continues to be the number of the narration in that chapter, while there is no number on the right which has been replaced with a dash. This signifies either one of two things:

(a) al-Muhsini is not entirely sure of the narration's authenticity because there exists some doubt about one or more narrators.

(b) The narration has already come before or will come again in future chapters i.e. repetition, thus, a number is not given to avoid numbering the same narration more than once.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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[1/51] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن محمد بن الحسين، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن أذينة، عن محمد بن مسلم قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: أسمع الحديث منك فأزيد وأنقص؟ قال: إن كنت تريد معانيه فلا بأس

[1/51] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Muhammad b. Muslim who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: I hear the narration from you - am I allowed to add or decrease (some words to/from it)? he said: if you intend to convey the same meaning then there is no harm. 

 

[2/52] الكافي: وعنه، عن أحمد بن محمد ومحمد بن الحسين، عن ابن محبوب، عن عبدالله بن سنان قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: يجيئني القوم فيستمعون مني حديثكم فأضجر ولا أقوى قال: فاقرأ عليهم من أوله حديثا ومن وسطه حديثا ومن آخره حديثا

[2/52] al-Kafi: And from him (Muhammad b. Yahya) from Ahmad b. Muhammad and Muhammad b. al-Husayn from Ibn Mahbub from Abdallah b. Sinan who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - a group comes and hears your narrations from me - but I (sometimes) become weary and do not have the strength (to read all that I have to them), he said: then read for them from the beginning of it (the book) a narration and from the middle a narration and from the ending a narration.

---> This narration is very a beneficial one because it proves that even in the earliest days (the Imama of al-Sadiq) the Ashab used to hold sessions wherein the Shaykh goes over the narrations he has obtained from the Imam to his students (technically called Qira'a) while the students listen to his recital (technically called Sima'a). More important is that the Hadith indicates that the narrations were in written form i.e. ‘beginning’, ‘middle’ and ‘ending’ makes sense only if ‘it’ in the Hadith refers to a book of Hadith (narrations recorded in written format), proving the oft-repeated claim that Shi'ite Hadith were recorded in writing from the start. When the Shaykh cannot read to his students all of his narrations at any particular time he should read a few narrations from the book so that the blessings of going over the whole book is still obtained. He can then presumably provide the book to them to go over it themselves (the Hadith has been used to argue for the permissibility of the Ijaza system, wherein you license the book to them without going through the formal Qira'a or Sima'a) or resume the normal sessions when his strength returns.

 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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[1/53] محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن ربعي ابن عبدالله، عن أبي بصير، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام في قول الله عزوجل: "اتخذوا أحبارهم ورهبانهم أربابا من دون الله" فقال: والله ما صاموا لهم ولا صلوا لهم ولكن أحلوا لهم حراما وحرموا عليهم حلالا فاتبعوهم

[1/53] Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Hammad b. Isa from Rib’i b. Abdallah from Abi Basir from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام in regards the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “they took their rabbis and monks as lords besides Allah” (9:31) he said: by Allah - they did not fast for them nor did they pray to them but they (the rabbis and monks) made permissible for them the prohibited and prohibited for them the permissible so they followed them. 

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Twelfth chapter in the book is 1.12Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/regarding-innovation-and-analogical-reasoning

 

[1/54] الكافي: الحسين بن محمد الاشعري، عن معلى بن محمد، عن الحسن بن علي الوشاء، و عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال جميعا، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن محمد ابن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: خطب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام الناس فقال: أيها الناس إنما بدء وقوع الفتن أهواء تتبع، وأحكام تبتدع، يخالف فيها كتاب الله، يتولى فيها رجال رجالا، فلو أن الباطل خلص لم يخف على ذي حجى، ولو أن الحق خلص لم يكن اختلاف ولكن يؤخذ من هذا ضغث ومن هذا ضغث فيمزجان فيجيئان معا فهنالك استحوذ الشيطان على أوليائه ونجا الذين سبقت لهم من الله الحسنى

[1/54] al-Kafi: al-Husayn b. Muhammad al-Ash’ari from Mualla b. Muhammad from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Washsha AND a number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Fadhal all together from A’sim b. Humayd from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: the commander of the faithful عليه السلام addressed the people and said: O people - verily the beginning of occurrence of strife is [due to] desires being followed and laws being innovated - in which the book of Allah is opposed and in which men follow other men, if the falsehood were to be completely distinct it would not be hidden from anyone who possesses intellect, and if the truth were to be completely distinct there would not be any disagreement, but it is taken from this (falsehood) a handful and from that (truth) a handful and then mixed and presented together, this is whence the Satan overwhelms his allies whilst are saved those to whom had preceded grace from Allah.       

 

[2/55] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس بن عبدالرحمن، عن سماعة بن مهران، عن أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام قال: قلت: أصلحك الله إنا نجتمع فنتذاكر ما عندنا فلا يرد علينا شئ إلا وعندنا فيه شئ مسطر وذلك مما أنعم الله به علينا بكم، ثم يرد علينا الشئ الصغير ليس عندنا فيه شئ فينظر بعضنا إلى بعض، وعندنا ما يشبهه فنقيس على أحسنه؟ فقال: ومالكم وللقياس؟ إنما هلك من هلك من قبلكم بالقياس، ثم قال: إذا جاء كم ما تعلمون، فقولوا به وإن جائكم ما لا تعلمون فها - وأهوى بيده إلى فيه - ثم قال: لعن الله أبا حنيفة كان يقول: قال علي وقلت أنا، وقالت الصحابة وقلت، ثم قال: أكنت تجلس إليه؟ فقلت: لا ولكن هذا كلامه، فقلت: أصلحك الله أتى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله الناس بما يكتفون به في عهده؟ قال: نعم وما يحتاجون إليه إلى يوم القيامة، فقلت: فضاع من ذلك شئ؟ فقال: لا هو عند أهله

[2/55] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman from Sima’a b. Mihran from Abi al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام, I said: may Allah make you prosper - we do gather and discuss what we have (from you), nothing is referred to us (of questions) except that we have in it something (answer) recorded (on your authority), and that is from what Allah has blessed us with through you, however a small thing may be referred to us in which we have nothing (from you), so we look at one another (in hopelessness), but we do have something similar to it (answers from you about parallel scenarios) - should we analogize it (the question asked) to the most suited (closest scenario)? he said: and what do you have to do with analogical reasoning? verily they were destroyed those who were destroyed before you because of analogical reasoning, then he said: if it comes to you that which you have knowledge of then - say, and if it comes to you that which you do not know then - and he pointed with his hand to his mouth, then he said: may Allah curse Aba Hanifa he used to say: “Ali said but I say” and “the companions said but I say”, then he said: did you use to sit with him (in his teaching sessions)? I said: no - but these are his words, then I said: may Allah make you prosper - the messenger of Allah came with all that which would suffice them (the people) in his time? he said: yes, and even that which they will have need of up to the day of judgment, I said: has anything from that been lost? he said: no, it is with his family.  

 

[3/56] الكافي: علي، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن قتيبة قال: سأل رجل أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن مسألة فأجابه فيها، فقال الرجل: أرأيت إن كان كذا وكذا ما يكون القول فيها؟ فقال له: مه ما أجبتك فيه من شئ فهو عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لسنا من: " أرأيت" في شئ

[3/56] al-Kafi: Ali from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Qutayba who said: a man asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about an issue and he answered him in it - so the man said: suppose if it were so and so - what would the answer be in it then? So he said to him: keep silent, whatever I have answered regarding it then it is on the authority of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله, we have nothing to do with ‘suppose’ whatsoever.

--> “suppose” [lit. do you see]: a clause that was used by ever-imaginative students to frame questions of a hypothetical nature to scholars and get them to opine in matters of the law. It was mostly used within circles which considered reason as a primary source of the religion. The Imam sets the record straight by emphasizing the importance of sticking to the letter of the law in which there is no room for personal interpretation beyond what is received from the prophet. 

 

[4/57] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن معاوية بن وهب قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: إن عند كل بدعة تكون من بعدي يكاد بها الايمان وليا من أهل بيتي موكلا به يذب عنه، ينطق بإلهام من الله ويعلن الحق وينوره، ويرد كيد الكائدين، يعبر عن الضعفاء فاعتبروا يا أولي الابصار وتوكلوا على الله

[4/57] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Muawiya b. Wahb who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: For every innovation that arises after me - by which is sought the weakening of the faith - there will be a guardian from the people of my house in charge of it (faith) who will defend it, he will speak by inspiration from Allah and will proclaim the truth and illuminate it, he will repulse the plot of the plotters and speak out in defense of the weak ones, so pay heed O possessors of insight and rely upon Allah.    

 

[5/58] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن الوشاء، عن مثنى الحناط، عن أبي بصير قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: ترد علينا أشياء ليس نعرفها في كتاب الله ولا سنة فننظر فيها؟ فقال: لا، أما إنك إن أصبت لم تؤجر، وإن أخطأت كذبت على الله عز وجل

[5/58] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Washsha from Muthanna al-Hannat from Abi Basir who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: things are referred to us of which we have no knowledge in the Book of Allah nor the Sunna - should we exercise reason in them? He said: no, for even if you were to get it right you will not be rewarded for it, and if you were to err in it then you have lied upon Allah Mighty and Majestic.

 

[6/59] الكافي: محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج، عن أبان بن تغلب عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: إن السنة لا تقاس ألا ترى أن امرأة تقضي صومها ولا تقضي صلاتها يا أبان! إن السنة إذا قيست محق الدين

[6/59] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Safwan b. Yahya from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj from Aban b. Taghlib from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the Sunna cannot be derived by analogy, do you not see that a woman repays her fasts but does not repay her prayers, O Aban! If the Sunna is analogized then the religion is destroyed. 

 

[7/60] التوحيد والعيون والأمالي: ابن المتوكل، عن علي، عن أبيه، عن الريان بن الصلت، عن علي بن موسى الرضا، عن آبائه، عن أمير المؤمنين عليهم السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله قال الله جل جلاله: ما آمن بي من فسر برأيه كلامي، وما عرفني من شبهني بخلقي وما على ديني من استعمل القياس في ديني

[7/60] al-Tawhid and al-Uyun and al-Amali: Ibn al-Mutawakkil from Ali from his father from al-Rayyan b. al-Salt from Ali b. Musa al-Ridha from his forefathers from the commander of the faithful عليهم السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله said: Allah Majestic is His Majesty said: he has not believed in Me the one who interprets My words based on his opinion, and he has not known Me the one who compares Me to My creation, and he is not upon My religion the one who uses analogical reasoning in it.

 

[8/61] معاني الاخبار: ابن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن احمد بن محمد ابن عيسى، عن الأهوازي، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن حماد، عن الحلبي قال: قلت لابي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما أدنى ما يكون به العبد كافرا؟ قال: أن يبتدع شيئا فيتولى عليه ويبرأ ممن خالفه

[8/61] Ma’ani al-Akhbar: Ibn al-Walid from al-Saffar from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Ahwazi from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabi who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: what is the least thing by which the slave becomes Kafir? he said: that he innovates something and associates solely on its basis and disassociates from the one who opposes him (in it).

 

[9/62] معاني الاخبار: وبهذا الاسناد عن ابن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن اذينة، عن بريد العجلي قال: قلت لابي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما أدنى ما يصير به العبد كافرا؟ قال: فأخذ حصاة من الارض فقال: أن يقول لهذه الحصاة: إنها نواة، ويبرء ممن خالفه على ذلك، ويدين الله بالبراءة ممن قال بغير قوله، فهذا ناصب قد أشرك بالله وكفر من حيث لا يعلم

[9/62] Ma’ani al-Akhbar: With the above chain from Ibn Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Burayd al-Ijli who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: what is the least thing by which the slave becomes Kafir? So he took a pebble from the ground and said: that he says about this pebble ‘it is a date-stone’ and goes on to disassociate from anyone who opposes him in that, and he worships Allah by disassociating from the one who professes a belief other than his own, so this is a hostile opponent who has ascribed partners to Allah and disbelieved without knowing.   

 

[10/63] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس، عن حريز عن زرارة قال: سألت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن الحلال والحرام فقال: حلال محمد حلال أبدا إلى يوم القيامة، وحرامه حرام أبدا إلى يوم القيامة، لا يكون غيره ولا يجيئ غيره، وقال: قال علي عليه السلام: ما أحد ابتدع بدعة إلا ترك بها سنة

[10/63] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus from Hariz from Zurara who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the Halal and the Haram so he said: the Halal of Muhammad is Halal forever unto the day of judgment and his Haram is Haram forever unto the day of judgment, there will be nothing other than it and nothing apart from it will come, and he said: Ali عليه السلام said: no one has innovated a Bid’a except that he has abandoned a Sunna (by doing so).

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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Thirteenth chapter in the book is 1.13. Ruling of Everything is in the Book and the Sunna

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/ruling-of-everything-is-in-the-book-and-the-sunna

[1/64] الكافي: علي، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن حماد، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: سمعته يقول: ما من شئ إلا وفيه كتاب أو سنة

[1/64] al-Kafi: Ali from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Hammad from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Hammad) said: I heard him saying: there is nothing except there is about it [a ruling in the] book or Sunna.  

 

[2/65] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن النعمان، عن إسماعيل بن جابر، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: كتاب الله فيه نبأ ما قبلكم وخبر ما بعدكم وفصل ما بينكم ونحن نعلمه

[2/65] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Nu’man from Ismail b. Jabir from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the book of Allah - in it is an account of what came before you and a report of what will come after you and a judgment of what is between you (of differences), and we do know it (all).  

 

[3/66] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن إسماعيل بن مهران، عن سيف بن عميرة، عن أبي المغرا، عن سماعة، عن أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام قال: قلت له: أكل شئ في كتاب الله وسنة نبيه صلى اليه عليه وآله؟ أو تقولون فيه؟ قال: بل كل شئ في كتاب الله وسنة نبيه صلى الله عليه وآله

[3/66] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from Ismail b. Mihran from Sayf b. ‘Amira from Abi al-Maghra from Sama’a from Abi al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام, he said: I said to him: is everything in the book of Allah and the Sunna of his prophet صلى الله عليه وآله or do you have a say in it? he said: rather everything is in the book of Allah and the Sunna of the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله 

 

Is it true that all the Rulings are contained in the Qur’an and the Sunna?

(Adopted from the Discussion by al-Muhsini)

If someone were pose the question: A number of the Ahkam have been established via Aql (intellect), Ijma’ (consensus), deep insight of the Shariah (divine law) such as using its Maqasid (objectives), and implementing the Usul Amaliyya (procedural principles) like Exemption (Bara’a), Precaution (Ihtiyat), Selection (Takhyir) etc. INSTEAD of the Qur’an and the Sunna - which gives a lie to the above narrations - then he will be answered that: 

On top of the misgivings I personally have with some of these aforementioned as sources of law, particularly Ijma’ and Exemption, what has been established by these has been so minuscule as to make it negligible. [Indeed al-Sadr said that despite the Aql being a Hujjah - in actual practice, nothing has been independently based upon it without having its traces in the Qur’an and the Sunna].

Know also that there is NOT in the Qur’an a detailed and comprehensive exposition of Aqaidi matters nor the Fiqhi Ahkam, and this is something that can be observed directly. Furthermore, the first and third narrations also indicate this since they have complemented the Book with the Sunna, which shows that the Sunna supplements the Qur'an. Another supporting indicator for this point is that the verses of the Qur’an obligate following the prophet in absolute terms, this would include following him in legislative contexts and in matters to do with belief and even edicts that were of a political nature and bound in time.

As for the words of the Exalted: “We have not left out any thing in the Book” (6: 37) then it is possible to interpret “thing” as a thing which was appropriate to be mentioned in the Qur’an as per His divine wisdom not everything, additionally, considering the “Book” here to mean “the Qur’an” is not necessarily proven.

However, the Sunna itself - that is the narrations that have reached us - is seemingly not enough for all the Ahkam that are needed in this fast changing life.

One way to allow the claim that everything is in the Qur’an and the Sunna to stand and square this peg with the circle of external reality would be to assert that all the secondary issues of belief and all the trivial rulings of law were actually expounded by them (historically) - even if it was in the form of general principles from which one can infer rulings - and that this has not reached us in its entirety because of factors that have affected the Shia in the past (e.g. books that were lost due to persecution).

However, if one were to take the position that all these matters were NOT expounded on by the prophet and his successors, as is probable or even certain when looking at the biographies of the `Aimma, and also what has been related to us in regards the content of the Jamia - that it was to do solely with Fiqhi rulings - then the question can be asked: Why did the prophet and the `Aimma not expound all such matters in comprehensive detail and transmit it to the believers? There is no convincing answer to this except leaving it to the wisdom of Allah the Wise Majestic is His Majesty. 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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On 12/22/2016 at 10:06 PM, Islamic Salvation said:

[1/51] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن محمد بن الحسين، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن أذينة، عن محمد بن مسلم قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: أسمع الحديث منك فأزيد وأنقص؟ قال: إن كنت تريد معانيه فلا بأس

[1/51] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Muhammad b. Muslim who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: I hear the narration from you - am I allowed to add or decrease (some words to/from it)? he said: if you intend to convey the same meaning then there is no harm. 

 

Does Riwaya bil Ma’na mean that the Ahadith lose Hujiyyah?

(Adopted from the Discussion by al-Muhsini)

Beginning at first principles would require us not to accept Riwaya bil Ma’na (“narration by meaning”) because it entails addition and deletion of words at the narrator’s whim. “Narration by meaning” is Hadasi [involves the narrator’s own cognitive creativity in framing the narration such as in word-choice etc. depending on how he has understood the Imam’s words - and this understanding is not infallible but could be faulty]. Hadas of a narrator is not a Hujjah for other than him. But the Imam in the above reliable-by-chain narration permits this practice, and this permission does not seem to be limited to Muhammad b. Muslim. In reality we cannot ascertain the number of narrators who made use of this permission.

If it is proven that a large number of narrators made use of it - then - it is not far-fetched to hold the position that the apparent meaning of the narrations (Dhawahir al-Ahadith) that have been attributed to al-Sadiq and the `Aimma after him have lost any probative force (Hujiyya) they had. The logical conclusion of holding such a position would be the need to go for the epistemic theory of Insidād (closing the doors to certain knowledge).

And I wrote asking this question in my early student days to al-Sayyid al-Hakim, to which he answered: <<the narrator when he says: al-Sadiq “said”: such and such …, it is apparent that all the wordings are from him (i.e. the Imam) in toto, and this apparency is not abandoned because of the mere possibility of the narrator having used his discretion in selecting words while narrating the narration “by meaning” - to abandon the apparent would require a special indicator (Dalil Khass)>>. 

I say: Because of the existence of the permission from the Imam, and the inevitable presence of narrators who acted upon such a permission, we do not accept that the apparent meaning conveyed by the word “said” should be that a narration are the words of the Imam verbatim, and even if the default position is taken to be this - it is still possible to negate the Hujiyyah [of the narrations] because we have Ilm al-Ijmali [knowledge of a general kind] that narrators did indeed make use of their arbitrary judgment over the narrations’ wordings. In summary, this is an intractable problem (from among the Mushkilat), and the problem is even more severe in the case of lengthy narrations since there is no indicator in each specific case of the transmission being of a written nature. 

Conclusion of the Discussion

In a narration from the Prophet: “may Allah make radiant [the face] who hears my words and memorizes them and understands them and relays them to the one who did not hear them, for it may happen that a bearer of Fiqh is not a Faqih and it may happen that a bearer of Fiqh relays them to one who is more of a Faqih than him”. [This would seem to be demanding narration to be verbatim and underlining the unavoidability of variation in the comprehension of individual narrators].

However, al-Majlisi recounts in his Bihar: <<there is a consensus between most of the Salaf and the Khalaf from both the sects as to the permissibility of narrating “by meaning” if one is certain that he is relaying the exact meaning [of what the Prophet or `Aimma meant]. It is known that the companions of the prophet and those of the `Aimma were not writing down the narrations in the same instance as they were hearing from them. Furthermore, it is customarily impossible for them to have memorized the exact wordings especially if they have heard it just once or if it was a lengthy narration, and the problem is compounded when someone is recollecting after a passage of time. This would explain why it is common to come across the same point narrated from them via different wordings, however none rejected this practice of theirs …>>

I say: the condition that has been imposed for the permissibility of narrating "by meaning" - that is - the narrator should be certain that he is conveying the exact intended meaning - is not within the capability of ordinary narrators or even the adept ones to meet. For every Mujtahid has his own Hadas and subjective understanding gleamed from hearing the same words spoken. Furthermore, for latter-day scholars - who are far-removed from the age of the narrators who actually participated in transmitting narrations - to impose such a condition ex post facto - is to succumb to mere hubris which has no utility [it is purely theoretical]. It is ineffectual because it does not change an iota of what has already occurred before their life-times.

In fact, in some cases one might even be certain that the wordings were not conveyed exactly. Suppose that the Dua of Arafa at the Mawqif was Mu’tabar in its chain - would you accept that it actually goes back to al-Imam al-Husayn? Knowing that the narrator is an ordinary man who did not have writing-desk, ink-well and pen? Even if we grant that he had these things with him - was it possible for him to write it down at the time of a personal supplication? Whoever claims the authenticity of a narration in such circumstances then he is suspect in his thinking and in his intellect! As for the middling-length narrations from the `Aimma in whose time the use of pen and papers was prevalent then it is possible to accept them. All in all, there isn’t any intelligible answer that can be given to solve this quandary and the existence of differences in the contents of narrations probably owes its existence to this allowance of “narrating by meaning”.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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Fifteenth chapter in the book is 

1.15Some of the Reasons for Differences in the Narrations

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/some-of-the-reasons-for-differences-in-the-narrations

 

 [1/73] رجال الكشي: عن ابن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن، عن العباس بن عامر وجعفر ابن محمد بن حكيم، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن أبي بصير قال: قيل لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام - وأنا عنده -: إن سالم بن أبي حفصة يروي عنك أنك تتكلم على سبعين وجها لك من كلها المخرج، قال: فقال: ما يريد سالم مني؟ أيريد أن أجيئ بالملائكة؟! فوالله ما جاء بها النبيون، ولقد قال إبراهيم: إني سقيم والله ما كان سقيما وما كذب، ولقد قال إبراهيم: بل فعله كبيرهم هذا وما فعله وما كذب، ولقد قال يوسف: إنكم لسارقون والله ما كانو سارقين وما كذب

[1/73] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Ibn Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan from al-Abbas b. A’mir and Ja’far b. Muhammad b. Hukaym from Aban b. Uthman from Abi Basir who said: It was said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - while I was with him: Salim b. Abi Hafsa narrates from you that you speak with seventy facets - for each facet you have a way out [a possible alternative interpretation to escape speaking a lie], so he said: what does Salim want from me? does he want me to come with the angels (to prove my truth)?! For by Allah - not even the prophets came with them, and Ibrahim had said “I am sick” (37:88) but by Allah he was not sick nor did he lie, and Ibrahim also said: “rather this biggest one of them (idol) has done it” (21:63) while he had not done it nor did he lie, and Yusuf said: “you are thieves” (12:70) and by Allah they were not thieves nor did he lie.

--> Salim b. Abi Hafsa (d. 137) was a leader of the Batri Zaydis. It should be noted that the Imam had indeed said what is attributed to him here by Salim - for there are a number of corroborating narrations in which the `Aimma say something along the lines of:

إنا لنتكلم بالكلمة لها سبعون وجها لنا من كلها المخرج 

'We Speak a word which has seventy facets - we have for each - a way out'

--> As al-Muhsini comments: the presence of a Makhraj (way out/escape clause) in all the facets shows that the Imam would never lie outright, though they may equivocate for certain reasons.

--> Indirect speech is permitted in the Shariah and not considered a lie if it is employed as a way to avoid harm (Taqiyya/Tawriyya), or to fulfill a greater good such as to bring about resolution of conflicts between the people or to show people the error of their ways by conjuring up a hypothetical etc. Lying on the other hand is being mendacious in seeking to disprove a truth or to conceal a falsehood.

--> Al-Majlisi says: since Salim's objection originated from his lack of recognition of the Imam - the Imam addressed this first by saying: what does Salim want from me as evidence to return to his submission to me for haven’t I already provided aplenty? And if he is only to believe once I come with the angels and make them bear witness that I am truthful then this is something that not even the prophets did. Then the Imam addressed the objection raised by Salim by pointing out that the motive for speaking in such a manner is because of Taqiyya or fulfilling some greater good, and this does not amount to lies for even the prophets have done it.

--> Ibrahim had said “I am Sick” and he did not lie because they took it to mean that he is ill literally and cannot join them in their festival, while Ibrahim meant - according to some commentators - that he was sick in heart of witnessing their Shirk, and he made this Tawriyya to get them to leave so that he could get a chance to destroy their idols. 

--> Ibrahim also said “rather this biggest one of them has done it” and this was not a lie, that is because Ibrahim said it to shock them to think anew, he spoke this while predicating it on the condition that he (the idol) could speak and that is why he continued to say “if they should speak”, as if wanting to say - if he can speak then he can do it, and this is a way to rebuke them as part of argumentation.

--> And Yusuf said “O ye caravan - you are thieves”. This was not said by Yusuf in person but the Qur’an attributes it to him because it was commanded by him. He did not lie because he wished by this a reconciliation between himself and his brothers and it is permitted to 'lie’ so as to bring about peace between fighting parties. And it is also possible that this was Tawriyya because السارق also means weak in intellect. [Another possible meaning is that they were thieves in the sense that they had stolen him in his childhood from his father]

 

[2/74] الكافي: علي بن ابراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي نجران، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن منصور بن حازم قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما بالي أسألك عن المسألة فتجيبني فيها بالجواب ثم يجيئك غيري فتجيبه فيها بجواب آخر؟ فقال: إنا نجيب الناس على الزيادة والنقصان قال: قلت: فأخبرني عن أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله صدقوا على محمد صلى الله عليه واله أم كذبوا؟ قال: بل صدقوا قلت: فما بالهم اختلفوا فقال: أما تعلم أن الرجل كان يأتي رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله فيسأله عن المسألة فيجيبه فيها بالجواب، ثم يجيبه بعد ذلك بما ينسخ ذلك الجواب فنسخت الأحاديث بعضها بعضا

[2/74] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Najran from A’sim b. Humayd from Mansur b. Hazim who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: what is my condition - I ask you about an issue so you answer me in it with a certain answer, then someone other than me comes to you so you answer him in it with a different answer? He said: we answer the people with addition (in-depth) and with deletion (in-brief). I said: so inform me about the companions of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله - were they truthful about Muhammad صلى الله عليه واله or did they lie? He said: they were truthful, I said: so what was the matter with them that they differed? He said: don’t you know that a man used to come to the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله and ask him about a thing so he answers him in it with an answer, then he answers him after that with that which abrogates the former answer, so the narrations superseded one another.     

--> As to the different answers given by the Imam on a single issue, it is possible that it was necessary and justified because of Taqiyya i.e. the Imam had knowledge that the questioner will require such an answer to preserve his life, or it was for some other greater good. 

--> On the other hand different answers given by the Imam do not always mean that it is Taqiyya, because there is no question except that it has different aspects - which the different answers could be addressing. So if a scholar is asked the same question repeatedly and he answers differently each time - while having a different aspect of it in mind, all the answers are equally true, even if the questioner does not know the reasoning behind this, and the ignorance of the questioner does not detract from the correctness of the answers given, because what is required after ascertaining the greatness of status and the knowledge of the Imam is to submit to him unconditionally and believe in him.

 

[3/75] الكافي: أحمد بن إدريس، عن محمد بن عبدالجبار، عن الحسن بن علي، عن ثعلبة بن ميمون، عن زرارة بن أعين، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سألته عن مسألة فأجابني ثم جاء ه رجل فسأله عنها فأجابه بخلاف ما أجابني، ثم جاء رجل آخر فأجابه بخلاف ما أجابني وأجاب صاحبي، فلما خرج الرجلان قلت: يا ابن رسول الله رجلان من اهل العراق من شيعتكم قدما يسألان فأجبت كل واحد منهما بغير ما أجبت به صاحبه؟ فقال: يا زرارة! إن هذا خير لنا وأبقى لنا ولكن ولو اجتمعتم على أمر واحد لصدقكم الناس علينا ولكان أقل لبقائنا وبقائكم قال: ثم قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: شيعتكم لو حملتموهم على الاسنة أو على النار لمضوا وهم يخرجون من عندكم مختلفين، قال: فأجابني بمثل جواب أبيه

[3/75] al-Kafi: Ahmad b. Idris from Muhammad b. Abd al-Jabbar from al-Hasan b. Ali from Tha’laba b. Maymun from Zurara b. A’yan from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام, he (Zurara) said: I asked him about a matter so he answered me, then a man came to him and asked him about it so he answered him with a different answer to mine, then another man came so he answered him with a different answer to the one he gave me and the first man, so when the two men had exited I said: O the son of the messenger of Allah - two men from the people of Iraq from among your followers came to ask you - but you answered each one of them with a different answer? He said: O Zurara, this is better and more safe for us and you, for if you were all to unite upon one position the people would believe you [in what you say] about us and that would be a threat to both our and your survival, he (Zurara) said: then I [later] said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: your followers - if you were to make them move in the face of arrows or on fire they would do it but they come out from you having differences! He said: so he answered me with the same reply as his father.

--> ان هذا خير لنا وأبقى لنا ولكن ولو اجتمعتم على أمر واحد لصدقكم الناس علينا ولكان أقل لبقائنا وبقائكم - If you were all to agree on everything [become one homogeneous and disciplined body within the wider society], and narrate all the identical rites and practices that mark you out - on our authority - your claim to have an association with the `Aimma would become more believable because of your unanimity, and they will consider you our followers in actual fact, consequently the door of infamy and persecution by our enemies will be opened, but if you were to diverge in what you attribute to us, and differ among yourself, they will consider the whole thing a charade and not believe that you are our followers rather mere charlatans. 

--> The success of this policy of the `Aimma was such that the proto-Sunni’s historically doubted whether there was any link between the `Aimma and their putative followers and many considered the whole thing to be a fabrication. 

--> The same narration in Ilal has it as -  ولو اجتمعتم على أمر واحد لقصدكم الناس علينا - "if you were to unite upon one position - the people would target you because of us". Which seems more natural.

 

[4/76] علل الشرائع: أبي، عن سعد، عن محمد بن الوليد والسندي، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن محمد بن بشير وحريز، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قلت له: إنه ليس شئ أشد علي من اختلاف أصحابنا، قال: ذلك من قبلي

[4/76] Ilal al-Sharai: My father from Sa’d from Muhammad b. al-Walid and al-Sindi from Aban b. Uthman from Muhammad b. Bashir and Hariz from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Hariz) said: I said to him: there is nothing more difficult for me [to bear] than the differences [that exists] between our fellows, he said: that is from me (I purposely caused that).    

--> He caused that by reporting different things to them to maintain Taqiyya, and the wisdom behind this is to preserve the lives of the believers from the unjust aggressors. This is consonant with what the Imam said in a similar narration in Ilal when asked about Ikhtilaf - لو اجتمعتم على أمر واحد لاخذ برقابكم - "if you had been unanimous in all affairs - it would have been off with your necks".

 

[5/77] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن عثمان بن عيسى والحسن بن محبوب جميعا، عن سماعة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سألته عن رجل اختلف عليه رجلان من أهل دينه في أمر كلاهما يرويه: أحدهما يأمر بأخذه والآخر ينهاه عنه، كيف يصنع؟ فقال: يرجئه حتى يلقي من يخبره، فهو في سعة حتي يلقاه، وفي رواية اخرى بأيهما أخذت من باب التسليم وسعك

[5/77] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Uthman b. Isa and al-Hasan b. Mahbub all together from Sama’a from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Sama’a) said: I asked him about a man who is answered oppositely by two of his co-religionists (i.e. Shi’as) in regards a matter - [and] both transmit it [their answers - on your authority], one of them obligates it while the other forbids it - what should he do? he said: he withholds [doing anything] until he accesses one who will inform him (of the true position), and he is respited until such a time as he meets him. <And in another narration [the Imam said]: whichever of them he acts by -  suffices him - if done in subservience (with the intention of obeying)>.

--> If one receives conflicting reports - both attributed to the Imam - one obligating action and the other forbidding - the Imam advises postponing judgment until you can meet him who will resolve it. This is Tawaqquf. The seeker is also not blamable in the interim. Al-Kulayni includes another narration which says - he can choose to do either one and no fault will attach itself to him if this is done with the intention of obeying. This is Takhyir.

 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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22 hours ago, Islamic Salvation said:

[1/73] رجال الكشي: عن ابن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن، عن العباس بن عامر وجعفر ابن محمد بن حكيم، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن أبي بصير قال: قيل لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام - وأنا عنده -: إن سالم بن أبي حفصة يروي عنك أنك تتكلم على سبعين وجها لك من كلها المخرج، قال: فقال: ما يريد سالم مني؟ أيريد أن أجيئ بالملائكة؟! فوالله ما جاء بها النبيون، ولقد قال إبراهيم: إني سقيم والله ما كان سقيما وما كذب، ولقد قال إبراهيم: بل فعله كبيرهم هذا وما فعله وما كذب، ولقد قال يوسف: إنكم لسارقون والله ما كانو سارقين وما كذب

[1/73] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Ibn Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan from al-Abbas b. A’mir and Ja’far b. Muhammad b. Hukaym from Aban b. Uthman from Abi Basir who said: It was said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - while I was with him: Salim b. Abi Hafsa narrates from you that you speak with seventy facets - for each facet you have a way out [a possible alternative interpretation to escape speaking a lie], so he said: what does Salim want from me? does he want me to come with the angels (to prove my truth)?! For by Allah - not even the prophets came with them, and Ibrahim had said “I am sick” (37:88) but by Allah he was not sick nor did he lie, and Ibrahim also said: “rather this biggest one of them (idol) has done it” (21:63) while he had not done it nor did he lie, and Yusuf said: “you are thieves” (12:70) and by Allah they were not thieves nor did he lie.

al-Muhsini says: As for the narration of al-Kashshi – then – the meaning of ’seventy facets’ is to employ words in different ways resulting in multiple possible interpretations. Sometimes the narration was meant to be understood literally and at other times a metaphorical or allegorical meaning was intended - as in the examples cited by the Imam from the words of Ibrahim and Yusuf. And this practice is unavoidable for a religious scholar or a political leader especially when he has a multitude of enemies. 

In my own personal experience, frequently has it occurred that believers ask me via mobile phone: “what is your opinion about serving in the western armed forces and being sent to different war-zones?” and I answer them differently (due to his suspicion that he is under surveillance), making sure that none of the answers reaches the level of being considered a lie or against the Sharia, but if one were to ask me man-to-man [in a physical meeting] I would make it clear to him that it is absolutely forbidden. 

And I sometimes answer by saying: “it is incumbent to preserve your life” if I have a suspicion that the questioner is a spy, and similar is the case in emotive and controversial matters such as the ruling on anal intercourse, where I may give a Fatwa at times that it “is permissible” and at others that it “is harmful according to some of the doctors”, and at other times I might say that it “is permissible to have any kind of [sexual] enjoyment with the wife” and … depending on the circumstance.

22 hours ago, Islamic Salvation said:

[2/74] الكافي: علي بن ابراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي نجران، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن منصور بن حازم قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما بالي أسألك عن المسألة فتجيبني فيها بالجواب ثم يجيئك غيري فتجيبه فيها بجواب آخر؟ فقال: إنا نجيب الناس على الزيادة والنقصان قال: قلت: فأخبرني عن أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله صدقوا على محمد صلى الله عليه واله أم كذبوا؟ قال: بل صدقوا قلت: فما بالهم اختلفوا فقال: أما تعلم أن الرجل كان يأتي رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله فيسأله عن المسألة فيجيبه فيها بالجواب، ثم يجيبه بعد ذلك بما ينسخ ذلك الجواب فنسخت الأحاديث بعضها بعضا

[2/74] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Najran from A’sim b. Humayd from Mansur b. Hazim who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: what is my condition - I ask you about an issue so you answer me in it with a certain answer, then someone other than me comes to you so you answer him in it with a different answer? He said: we answer the people with addition (in-depth) and with deletion (in-brief). I said: so inform me about the companions of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله - were they truthful about Muhammad صلى الله عليه واله or did they lie? He said: they were truthful, I said: so what was the matter with them that they differed? He said: don’t you know that a man used to come to the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله and ask him about a thing so he answers him in it with an answer, then he answers him after that with that which abrogates the former answer, so the narrations superseded one another.    

al-Muhsini says: As for the second narration then it is applies only to the time of the prophet (when he was alive), as there is no abrogation after his time except in a very rare scenario mentioned in Usul al-Fiqh. However, Takhsis [specification] and Taqyid [conditionalizing] are also sometimes referred to as Naskh [abrogation], so a Mufti might depend on the Amm (general rule) but mention a Khass (specific) instance of it or mention it Mutlaqan (in absolute terms) depending on the circumstances whilst having not exceeding the bounds to fall into lying. And this is what was meant by ‘addition’ and ‘deletion’ [in the narration]. And as for his words “they [the companions] were truthful [in what they relayed from Muhammad]” then it is taken to mean as a whole (since there was a group [of companions] within the whole group of companions who were truthful). 

22 hours ago, Islamic Salvation said:

[5/77] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن عثمان بن عيسى والحسن بن محبوب جميعا، عن سماعة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سألته عن رجل اختلف عليه رجلان من أهل دينه في أمر كلاهما يرويه: أحدهما يأمر بأخذه والآخر ينهاه عنه، كيف يصنع؟ فقال: يرجئه حتى يلقي من يخبره، فهو في سعة حتي يلقاه، وفي رواية اخرى بأيهما أخذت من باب التسليم وسعك

[5/77] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Uthman b. Isa and al-Hasan b. Mahbub all together from Sama’a from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Sama’a) said: I asked him about a man who is answered oppositely by two of his co-religionists (i.e. Shi’as) in regards a matter - [and] both transmit it [their answers - on your authority], one of them obligates it while the other forbids it - what should he do? he said: he withholds [doing anything] until he accesses one who will inform him (of the true position), and he is respited until such a time as he meets him. <And in another narration [the Imam said]: whichever of them he acts by -  suffices him - if done in subservience (with the intention of obeying)>.

al-Muhsini says: As for the last Hadith then it is dependent on the possibility of the Mukallaf to refer the matter back to the Imam or a Mufti who is a Marja of Taqlid, so he will postpone acting until he meets him, and the words of the two men [who report the Imams position] will have no Hujiyyah because they are contradicting, and in this age there is no great difficulty upon the Mukallaf [to access the Marja]. This narration while it has utility for the Mukallaf who is a layman both in the age of presence of the `Aimma and the Ghayba does not have utility for the Mukallaf who is a Mujtahid in the age of the Ghayba (because he has no one to refer it to) … and Allah Knows more.  

In conclusion, it is undeniable that contradictions have occurred between Mu’tabar narrations and I have mentioned some of the reasons for this in my book <<Hudud al-Shariah>>. Two of the main reasons that can be inferred from the narrations found in this chapter are abrogation and using indirect speech because of Taqiyya or some other reason as we have clarified previously. And Allah is the Protector and the Guide. 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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1.16Fitting Response Appropriate to the Understanding of the Questioner and the Addressee

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/fitting-response-appropriate-to-the-understanding-of-the-questioner-and-the-addressee

 

[1/78] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن اليقطيني، عن يونس قال: العبد الصالح عليه السلام: يا يونس ارفق بهم، فإن كلامك يدق عليهم قال: قلت: إنهم يقولون لي: زنديق، قال لي: ما يضرك أن تكون في يديك لؤلؤة فيقول لك الناس: هي حصاة، وما كان ينفعك إذا كان في يدك حصاة فيقول الناس: هي لؤلؤة

[1/78] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Yaqtini from Yunus who said: the Righteous Servant عليه السلام said: O Yunus - be more lenient towards them for your words are hard-hitting on them, I said: but they consider me a Zindiq, he said to me: what will it affect you if you have in your hands a pearl but the people say to you: it is a stone, and what will it benefit you if you have in your hand a stone but the people say: it is a pearl!

--> The companions of the Imam can broadly be divided into three categories: there were the traditionalists who stuck to narrating the Ahadith and did not go beyond this, there were the rationalists who despite narrating the Ahadith [which were mostly Fiqhi based] were more free-thinking, especially in theological matters (Kalam), they engaged in debates which the Aimma had permitted for some among them, and there were the Esotericists who concentrated on decoding the true nature of the Imam and claimed to have been initiated to possess secret knowledge. We have evidence that these camps did not necessarily get along and much bickering occurred between them which the Aimma had to put a stop to.

--> Yunus as a student of Hisham b. al-Hakam is someone who can firmly be placed in the rationalist camp, because of this and other reasons, some other fellow Shias despised him and considered him to have gone against the orders of the Imams, they complained to the Imam about him and ostracized him, in this narration he himself confirms that he was labelled a Zindiq [we even have fabricated narrations which portray the Imam cursing him and forbidding prayers behind him, narrations circulated by his adversaries].  

--> The Imam gives practical advice to Yunus that you should always speak to people at their level lest they misunderstand you. The Imam himself suffered from this and different companions varied as far as understanding the intricacy of the Imam's teaching was concerned. Yunus who came from an intellectual tradition could better appreciate what the Imam meant but this caused a divide between him and his fellows. Despite this, Yunus is advised not to reciprocate with harshness of tone and posture because it further estranges people from you. However, censure and blame from the people cannot affect you one whit provided you are assured of the Imam’s pleasure and your actions are based on true knowledge. 

 

 [2/79] الخصال: في الحديث الأربعمائة قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: خالطوا الناس بما يعرفون ودعوهم مما ينكرون، ولا تحملوهم على أنفسكم وعلينا، إن أمرنا صعب مستصعب لا يحتمله إلا ملك مقرب أو نبي مرسل أو عبد قد امتحن الله قلبه للإيمان

[2/79] al-Khisal: In  the ‘Four Hundred’ Narration: the commander of the faithful عليه السلام said: Interact with the people on that which they know and leave them be as to that which they do not know, and do not impose them upon yourselves and us, our affair is hard (in of itself) and deemed hard (by others) - no one can bear it except an angel brought-near or a prophet sent or a slave whose heart has been tried for faith by Allah. 

--> The affair (Wilaya) of the `Aimma and the divine favour that came upon them is hard for many people to accept, similarly, the words of the `Aimma are like those of the gracious prophet -  no one can bear them [act upon its purport and fully comprehend it] except the prophets, the angels and the perfected believers whom Allah has tried and found them able and willing to bear its implications.

--> The hardship spoken about here is not necessarily a difficulty in understanding but of a reticence to submit and accept what they say and acknowledge their superiority. This is where many able-thinkers from the Mukhalifin stumbled. 

--> The Imam advises the Shia to mingle with the Mukhalifin and speak to them those things that are common between both, but not to confront them with that which they consider alien, because it will cause a revulsion in them "the people hate that which they do not know". This act of abandoning Taqiyya by divulging the secrets to them will also empower them against us, because they will use it to denounce and further persecute.

 

[3/80] علل الشرائع: أبي، عن سعد، عن البرقي، عن ابن بزيع، عن ابن بشير، عن أبي حصين، عن أبي بصير، عن أحدهما عليهما السلام قال: لا تكذبوا بحديث أتاكم به مرجى ء و لا قدري و لا خارجي نسبه إلينا، فإنكم لا تدرون لعله شيء من الحق فتكذبوا الله عز و جل فوق عرشه

[3/80] Ilal al-Sharai: My father from Sa’d from al-Barqi from Ibn Bazi from Ibn Bashir from Abi Husayn from Abi Basir from one of them عليهما السلام who said: do not reject a narration which is brought to you by a Murji or a Qadari or a Khariji which he attributes to us, for you do not know  - perhaps it is something of the truth and you will be rejecting Allah Mighty and Majestic above his throne.

--> The Murjia are an early grouping which held the opinion that judgement should be left to Allah as per someones Iman. Even someone who commits a major sin remains a believer, because faith is independent of deeds and requires but acknowledgment of the Shahada. "The one who commits Zina near the Ka'ba has equal faith to angel Gabriel near the Arsh".

-->  The Khawarij held the opposite position whereby they excommunicated anyone they felt was not living up to the high standards they expected a Muslim to demonstrate, this Takfir would make such a person’s blood permissible to be shed. 

--> The Qadariyya believed in absolute free-will, a reaction against the Jabriyya (pre-destinarians), they held that God had no role in human actions, and humans had full control over their actions and destiny.

--> al-Muhsini says: the narration concerns someone who is in doubt whether a Hadith is true or false, but if one is certain of a Hadith’s falsity then it is permitted for him to reject it, and there is no doubt that people lied and fabricated things and attributed them to the prophet, and the Aimma, even Allah the Exalted - for instance in some reports which are called the Qudsiyya which the Sufis and their likes have forged.

In conclusion: if a narration is not established to be originating from them then it is not permitted to depend upon it, as the Book and the narrations that are to come and have already come indicate - but one should avoid calling it a lie if one is in doubt as regards its status.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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1.17No Excuse for the Ignorant One who Falls Short

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/no-excuse-for-the-ignorant-one-who-falls-short

 

[1/0] امالي الطوسي: المفيد عن ابن قولويه عن محمد الحميرى عن ابيه عن هارون عن ابن زياد قال: سمعت جعفر بن محمد علهما السلام وقد سئل عن قوله تعالى "قل فلله الحجة البالغة" فقال: ان الله تعالى يقول للعبد يوم القيامة: عبدى أكنت عالما؟ فان قال: نعم قال له: أفلا علمت بما علمت؟ وان قال: كنت جاهلا قال: أفلا تعلمت حتى تعمل؟ فيخصمه فتلك الحجة البالغة 

[1/0] Amali al-Tusi: al-Mufid from Ibn Qulawayh from Muhammad al-Himyari from his father from Harun from Ibn Ziyad who said: I heard Ja’far b. Muhammad علهما السلام - and he was asked about His words the Exalted: “to Allah belongs the conclusive argument!” (6:149) - say: Allah the Exalted will say to a slave on the day of judgment: My slave did you possess knowledge? So if he says: yes, He will say to him: why did you not act by what you knew? And if he says: I was ignorant, He will say to him: why did you not seek knowledge so you could act? Thus he will be vanquished - and that is the “conclusive argument”.  

 

al-Muhsini: The chain of this Hadith is reliable except that the manuscript of the Amali of the Shaykh al-Tusi did not reach the authors of Bihar and Wasail [who incorporated it into their respective encyclopedic compilations] via a reliable chain. And the Majalis of Shaykh al-Mufid is similar in this regard. 

However, we have included this particular narration among the Mu’tabar because of a Qarina [indicator], and this is the fact that the merituous Shaykh Abi al-Hasan Sulayman b. al-Hasan al-Sahrishti who was one of the famous students of the Shaykh al-Ta’ifa al-Tusi quoted this narration in his book <<Qabs al-Misbah fi al-Dua>> - and he narrated it: “From a number of scholars like Abu Ya’la Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Hamza al-Ja’fari and Shaykh al-Ta’ifa al-Tusi and Abu al-Husayn Ahmad b. Ali al-Kufi al-Najashi and Abu al-Faraj al-Mudhaffar b. Hamdan al-Qazwini all together - reported to us the august Shaykh al-Mufid Muhammad b. Muhammad b. al-Nu’man al-Harithi may Allah be pleased with him on the day of Saturday the third of the month of the mighty Ramadan in the year four hundred and ten - he said …” to the end of the narration having the same upper chain and similar content.   

And the Shaykh Muntajab al-Din said in his Fihrist about this man: “The trustworthy Shaykh Abu al-Hasan Salman (Sulayman) b. al-Hasan better known as Salman al-Sahrishti, jurisprudent, eminent, religious, he tutelaged under our felicitious Shaykh Abi Ja’far al-Tusi, and he attended the study-sessions of our Sayyid Murtadha may Allah have mercy on them, and he has authored a number of books …”

And he did not include <<Qabs al-Misbah>> among his authored works but al-Majlisi having attributed it to him is enough [to substantiate that].

This should have been enough to establish the reliability of the narration under discussion, despite this I do not consider it reliable, and that is because of the suspicion of a disconnection in its chain, because Harun b. Muslim could not have narrated from the companions of al-Sadiq directly, so an intermediary or two must have been dropped and are missing. [Ittisal of the chain would require Harun b. Muslim to have lived a very long life - approx. a hundred and thirty years in age, which would seem to indicate that the narration is Mursal]. 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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1.18Narration that Contradicts the Qur'an

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge/narration-that-contradicts-the-quran

 

[1/81] الكافي: محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم وغيره، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: خطب النبي صلى الله عليه وآله بمنى فقال: أيها الناس ما جاء كم عني يوافق كتاب الله فأنا قلته وما جاء كم يخالف كتاب الله فلم أقله

[1/81] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam and other than him from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله addressed the people in Mina and said: O people, whatever comes to you attributed to me which agrees with the Book of Allah then I have indeed said it, and whatever comes to you opposing the book of Allah then I never said it.

 

[2/82] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن يحيى الحلبي، عن أيوب بن الحر قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: كل شئ مردود إلى الكتاب والسنة، وكل حديث لا يوافق كتاب الله فهو زخرف

[2/82] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from his father from al-Nadhr b. Suwayd from Yahya al-Halabi from Ayyub b. al-Hur who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: everything is referred back to the Book and the Sunna, and every Hadith that does not agree with the Book of Allah then it is a worthless embellishment.

 

What Does a Narration 'Agreeing' with the Qur'an Mean?

(Adopted from the Discussion by al-Muhsini)

There can be no doubt that a considerable number of narrations originating from the `Aimma do not seem to agree with the Qur’an (do not have a one-to-one harmonious correspondence). This is either because these narrations make Takhsis [specify a generality found in the Qur’an], or Taqyid [conditionalize an absolute found in the Qur’an], or because their purport cannot be found in the Qur’an [the Qur’an is silent - neither affirming nor rejecting]. One option to resolve this incongruity would be to interpret the Hadith to mean - “Every narration that contradicts with the Book of Allah then it is a worthless embellishment”. However, there is an alternative which would allow us to forego this far-fetched interpretation which compels us to equate agreement with non-contradiction. 

We could measure the degree of agreement between a narration vis a vis the Qur’an relative to the spirit of the Qur’an, the framework it provides and overall objectives it sets forth instead of confining ourselves to scrutinizing the Qur’an’s wordings to ensure an absence of  direct contradictions. Hence, what the Imam wishes to say in this statement of his is that - an authentic narration should not be inconsistent with the Qur’anic world-view and the broad vision conveyed by the prophet and the Awsiya. 

Practically speaking, an experienced and sincere scholar who delves into their words over a long period of time can get a ‘feel’ for whether a narration falls in line or not and this would be one of the conditions for the Hujiyya of a narration. 

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That was the end of the Book of Intellect and Knowledge which al-Muhsini finished on 11th of Rajab 1431 AH in Kabul.

Next is the Book of Principles of Jurisprudence [Usul al-Fiqh].

         https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-intellect-and-knowledge

         http://corpus.purifiedhousehold.com/muʿjam-al-aḥadith-al-muʿtabara/

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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BOOK OF THE PRINCIPLES OF JURISPRUDENCE

 

2.1Prohibition of Giving Fatwa without Knowledge and Evidence

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/prohibition-of-giving-fatwa-without-knowledge-and-evidence

 

[-/1] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن علي ابن رئاب، عن أبي عبيدة الحذاء، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: من أفتى الناس بغير علم ولا هدى لعنته ملائكة الرحمة وملائكة العذاب، ولحقه وزر من عمل بفتياه

[1/-] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Ali b. Riab from Abi Ubayda al-Hadhdha from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: whoever gives Fatwa to the people without knowledge or true guidance the angels of mercy do curse him and so do too the angels of punishment and the burden of the one who acts by his Fatwa attaches itself to him.

 

[-/2] الكافي: علي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عبدالرحمن بن الحجاج قال: كان أبوعبدالله عليه السلام قاعدا في حلقة ربيعة الرأي، فجاء أعرابي فسأل ربيعة الرأي عن مسألة فأجابه فلما سكت قال له الاعرابي: أهو في عنقك؟ فسكت عنه ربيعة ولم يرد عليه شيئا فأعاد عليه المسألة فأجابه بمثل ذلك، فقال له الاعرابي: أهو في عنقك؟ فسكت ربيعة فقال له أبوعبدالله عليه السلام: هو في عنقه، قال أو لم يقل، وكل مفت ضامن 

[2/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام was seated in a study-circle of Rabia al-Rayy when a bedouin came and asked Rabia al-Rayy about a matter and he (Rabia) proceeded to answer him, so when he was done (answering) the bedouin asked: is it upon your neck (do you accept responsibility for me following your answer)? Rabia remained silent and did not say anything, so he (the bedouin) repeated the question again and he (Rabia) answered in the same way, so the bedouin said to him again: is it upon your neck? but Rabia remained silent, then Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to him: it is upon his neck whether he declares it to be so or not, and every giver of Fatwa is liable.

 

[-/3] الكافي: عدة من اصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن الحسن بن علي الوشاء، عن أبان الاحمر، عن زياد بن أبي رجاء، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: ما علمتم فقولوا، و ما لم تعلموا فقولوا: الله أعلم، إن الرجل لينتزع الآية من القرآن يخر فيها أبعد ما بين السماء والارض

[3/-] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Washsha from Aban al-Ahmar from Ziyad b. Abi Raja from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: say what you know and if you do not know then say: “Allah is more knowing”, a man selectively picks out a verse from the Qur’an and falls in it (misinterpreting it) a farther distance than what is between the earth and the sky.

 

[-/4] الكافي: علي، عن ابيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: ما حق الله على خلقه؟ فقال: أن يقولوا ما يعلمون، ويكفوا عما لا يعلمون، فإذا فعلوا ذلك فقد أدوا إلى الله حقه

[4/-] al-Kafi: Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. Salim who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: what is the right of Allah over his creation? he said: that they should only say that which they know and should remain silent over that which they do not know - so if they were to do that then they have fulfilled the right of Allah.

 

Verses from the Qur'an with a similar theme

 

                                    فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا لِيُضِلَّ النَّاسَ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ

Then who is more unjust than one who invents a lie about Allah to mislead the people by [something] without knowledge? (6:144)

 

                                  أَلَمْ يُؤْخَذْ عَلَيْهِم مِّيثَاقُ الْكِتَابِ أَن لَّا يَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ

Was not the covenant of the Scripture taken from them that they would not say about Allah except the truth (7:169)

 

                                                  آللَّهُ أَذِنَ لَكُمْ أَمْ عَلَى اللَّهِ تَفْتَرُونَ

Has Allah permitted you [to do so], or do you invent [something] about Allah (10:59)

 

                                                 أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Or do you say about Allah that which you do not know? (2:80)

 

                      وَلا تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَـٰئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولًا

And do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge, verily, the hearing, the sight and the heart - about all those [one] will be questioned (17:36)

 

                                   ائْتُونِي بِكِتَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِ هَٰذَا أَوْ أَثَارَةٍ مِّنْ عِلْمٍ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Bring me a scripture [revealed] before this or a [remaining] trace of knowledge, if you should be truthful (46:4)

 

 

2.2Everything has a Ruling in the Book and the Sunna

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/everything-has-a-ruling-in-the-book-and-the-sunna

 

[-/1] الكافي: علي، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن حماد، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: سمعته يقول: ما من شئ إلا وفيه كتاب أو سنة

[1/-] al-Kafi: Ali from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Hammad from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Hammad) said: I heard him saying: there is nothing except there is about it [a ruling in the] Book or Sunna.  

 

[-/2] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن إسماعيل بن مهران، عن سيف بن عميرة، عن أبي المغرا، عن سماعة، عن أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام قال: قلت له: أكل شئ في كتاب الله وسنة نبيه صلى اليه عليه وآله؟ أو تقولون فيه؟ قال: بل كل شئ في كتاب الله وسنة نبيه صلى الله عليه وآله 

[2/-] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from Ismail b. Mihran from Sayf b. ‘Amira from Abi al-Maghra from Sama’a from Abi al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام, he said: I said to him: is everything in the book of Allah and the Sunna of his prophet صلى الله عليه وآله or do you have a say in it? he said: rather everything is in the book of Allah and the Sunna of the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله

 

 

2.3Permanence of the Halal and the Haram unto the Day of Judgment

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/permanence-of-the-halal-and-the-haram-unto-the-day-of-judgment

 

[-/1] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس، عن حريز عن زرارة قال: سألت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن الحلال والحرام فقال: حلال محمد حلال أبدا إلى يوم القيامة، وحرامه حرام أبدا إلى يوم القيامة، لا يكون غيره ولا يجيئ غيره، وقال: قال علي عليه السلام: ما أحد ابتدع بدعة إلا ترك بها سنة

[1/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus from Hariz from Zurara who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the Halal and the Haram so he said: the Halal of Muhammad is Halal forever unto the day of judgment and his Haram is Haram forever unto the day of judgment, there will be nothing other than it and nothing apart from it will come, and he said: Ali عليه السلام said: no one has innovated a Bid’a except that he has abandoned a Sunna (by doing so).

 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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2.4. What Can be Used to Infer some General Principles

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/what-can-be-used-to-infer-some-general-principles

 

[1/83] الكافي: علي، عن أبيه، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل، جميعا عن ابن أبي عمير عن حفص بن البختري، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سمعته يقول في المغمى عليه: ما غلب الله عليه فالله أولى بالعذر

[1/83] al-Kafi: Ali from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl all together from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hafs b. al-Bukhtari from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Hafs) said: I heard him saying about the one who loses consciousness: what Allah has power over then Allah is more entitled to excuse. 

--> One who loses his senses cannot be held to account because it is something beyond his control (in fact, him being overcome is one of the signs of the might of God as opposed to human weakness). Narrations also confirm that such a one does not repay the Salat missed in such a state.

 

[2/84] الكافي: علي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن حماد، عن حريز قال: كانت لإسماعيل بن أبي عبد الله دنانير وأراد رجل من قريش أن يخرج إلى اليمن فقال إسماعيل يا أبت إن فلانا يريد الخروج إلى اليمن وعندي كذا وكذا دينارا فترى أن أدفعها إليه يبتاع لي بها بضاعة من اليمن فقال أبو عبد الله عليه‌ السلام يا بني أما بلغك أنه يشرب الخمر فقال إسماعيل هكذا يقول الناس فقال يا بني لا تفعل فعصى إسماعيل أباه ودفع إليه دنانيره فاستهلكها ولم يأته بشيء منها ... فقال يا بني إن الله عز وجل يقول في كتابه يُؤْمِنُ بِاللهِ وَيُؤْمِنُ لِلْمؤْمِنِين يقول يصدق الله ويصدق للمؤمنين فإذا شهد عندك المؤمنون فصدقهم ...

[2/84] al-Kafi: Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hammad from Hariz who said: Ismail the son of Abi Abdillah had gold coins and a man from the Quraysh wanted to set out to Yaman, so Ismail said: O father - so and so wants to set out to Yaman and I have some gold coins do you think I should give them to him to buy me some goods from Yaman? Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: O my son - has it not reached you that he drinks wine? Ismail said: this is what the people say, he said: O my son - do not do that, but Ismail did not obey his father and gave the gold coins to him so he (that man) lost it all and did not give anything of them (back) to him… he said: O my son - verily Allah Mighty and Majestic says in his book: “(he) believes in Allah and believes the believers” (9:61) - meaning: confirms the truth of Allah and considers the believers truthful, so if the believers witness something to you then accept it from them…

 

[3/85] الكافي: علي، عن أبيه، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان جميعا، عن حماد، عن حريز، عن زرارة قال: قال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: تابع بين الوضوء كما قال الله عز وجل ابدأ بالوجه ... ابدأ بما بدأ الله عز وجل به

[3/85] al-Kafi: Ali from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Hammad from Hariz from Zurara who said: Abu Ja’far said عليه السلام: follow in the Wudhu the way Allah Mighty and Majestic said - begin with the face… begin with what Allah Mighty and Majestic began with. 

--> The chronological arrangement of a series of commands found in a verse are significant in so far as the external rite should also conform to such an order.

 

[4/86] الكافي: علي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل ابن شاذان، عن صفوان، وابن أبي عمير، عن معاوية بن عمار، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله حين فرغ من طوافه وركعتيه قال: أبدء بما بدء الله عز وجل به من إتيان الصفا إن الله عزوجل يقول: إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِنْ شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ ...

[4/86] al-Kafi: Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Safwan and Ibn Abi Umayr from Muawiya b. Ammar from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام that when the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله finished his Tawaf and the two units (Salat al-Tawaf) he said: I begin with what Allah Mighty and Majestic began with - proceeding to Safa first - Allah Mighty ad Majestic says: “Verily Safa and Marwa are from among the signs of Allah” (2:158) ...   

--> The Sai begins with Safa because of the arrangement found in the verse, Safa is mentioned first before Marwa.

 

[-/5] الكافي: علي بن ابراهيم عن أبيه ومحمد بن اسماعيل عن الفضل ابن شاذان جميعا عن حماد بن عيسى عن حريز عن زرارة قال قلت: لابي جعفر عليه السلام الا تخبرني من أين علمت وقلت إن المسح ببعض الرأس وبعض الرجلين؟ فضحك ثم قال ... ثم قال: مَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم (في الدين) مِّنْ حَرَجٍ والحرج الضيق

[5/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Hammad b. Isa from Hariz from Zurara who said: I said to Abi Ja’far عليه السلام: will you not inform me how you knew and ruled that the wiping should only be limited to a part of the head and a part of the feet? so he laughed and then said: … then he said: “Allah does not intend to place upon you [in the religion] any difficulty” (5:6) - and “difficulty” is “discomfort”. 

--> When the Imam recited the verse he included في الدين - this is put in brackets as it is not part of the verse as we have it today. Such ‘additions’ were also common among the companions who were involved in transmitting the Qur’an and the scribes from the Tabi’in. They were not considered part of the Qur’an but mnemonic marker to aid the correct interpretation of the Qur’an in personal Masahif. However, since the Arabic script was under developed and writing was still in its infancy stages no distinctions used to be made between the primary text and such interpretive comments, sometimes it occurred that the latter was mistakenly considered part of the former by transmitters, giving rise to variants even in the Qira’at.

 

[-/6] التهذيب: المفيد عن أحمد بن محمد عن أبيه عن الحسين بن الحسن بن أبان عن الحسين بن سعيد عن ابن أبي عمير عن ابن اذينة عن الفضيل قال سئل أبوعبدالله عليه السلام عن الجنب يغتسل فينتضح من الارض في الاناء فقال: لا بأس هذا مما قال الله تعالى: مَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ 

[6/-] al-Tahdhib: al-Mufid from Ahmad b. Muhammad from his father from al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Aban from al-Husayn b. Said from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from al-Fudhayl who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام was asked about the one in the state of Janaba who is bathing so [some of the used water] sprays off the ground and into the utensil, he said: there is no harm - this is covered by what Allah the Exalted said: “He has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty” (22:78).

 

[7/87] توحيد الصدوق: عن العطار، عن سعد، عن ابن يزيد، عن حماد، عن حريز، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله: رفع عن امتي تسعة: الخطاء، والنسيان، وما أكرهوا عليه، وما لا يطيقون، وما لا يعلمون، وما اضطروا إليه، والحسد، والطيرة، والتفكر في الوسوسة في الخلق ما لم ينطق بشفة

[7/87] Tawhid al-Saduq: From al-Attar from Sa’d from Ibn Yazid from Hammad from Hariz from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله said: my Umma are absolved of nine things: error, forgetfulness, what they are coerced to do, what they do not have the strength for, what they are ignorant of, what they have to do out of necessity, jealousy, bad omen, and thinking about the whispered (Shaytan-inspired) prompts (doubts cast) in regards the creation - so long as it is not voiced aloud.

                                                                  NOTES:

Humans are not liable for

(a) Inadvertent errors AND

(b) Lapses in memory - 

This is because both are an unavoidable part of human nature. This should not be taken to extend to carelessness or become habitual. 

Similarly, actions which are done

(c) Because of compulsion (like cursing the Imam if ordered by the unjust ruler) OR

(d) Without information about the true state of affairs (like praying Salat in clothes which were Ghasbi or clothes which were Najis etc.) OR

(e) Beyond human capacity (causing irreparable injury) OR

(f) To preserve one’s life (such as eating a Haram animal if there is no other option) -

Will also be overlooked and not result in negative consequences because of God’s mercy. They are not punishable because man is not in total command of himself and has no freedom of choice to act as he deems best in such cases. 

(g) There is a difference of opinion as to what رفع  of الطيرة (bad omen) means here, some have taken it to mean the lifting of its prohibition [so one can act based on the import  of the bad omen], others have taken it to mean the opposite - the lifting of its permissibility [it was allowed for previous Umam] but not this one, others have taken it to mean that it is the effects of bad omen that have been lifted thus they do not affect the people of this Umma, while others take it to mean that the lifting cautions us to ignore the omen and not concern ourselves with it. I say: the lifting of its effects seems more appropriate. Note that the meaning of رفع changes just for this word since for the remaining articles it means lifting of punishment.

This interpretation is further supported by what al-Sadiq says:

علي بن إبراهيم عن أبيه عن عبد الله بن المغيرة عن عمرو بن حريث قال قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام الطيرة على ما تجعلها ان هونتها تهونت وان شددتها تشددت وإن لم تجعلها شيئا لم تكن شيئا

"The omen is what you make it out to be, if you consider it light it becomes light, if you consider it severe it becomes severe and if you consider it nothing it becomes nothing".

(h) The jealousy which is not punishable is the type that is not acted upon, it has been lifted from the Umma because of the mercy of Allah who knows that it is impossible to avoid inklings of jealousy in the heart.

(i) There are two interpretations of التفكر في الوسوسة في الخلق - one is that it refers to pondering over the doubts originating when looking at the creation such as whether all this has a creator or not, this does not incur punishment so long as one is working to to obtain certainty about it and does not verbalize these doubts, another interpretation can be - having ill-thoughts about people and suspecting their intentions and internally discussing their faults, this is again not punishable so long as one does not vocalize this outwardly and spread his contentions. I say: the former is more evident even though the annotator of al-Faqih calls it far-fetched.  

 

[-/8] التهذيب: عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب، عن ابن عيسى، عن البزنطي قال: سألته عن الرجل يأتي السوق فيشتري جبة فراء لا يدري أذكية هي أم غير ذكية أيصلي فيها؟ فقال: نعم ليس عليكم المسألة إن أبا جعفر عليه السلام كان يقول: إن الخوارج ضيقوا على أنفسهم بجهالتهم إن الدين أوسع من ذلك

[8/-] al-Tahdhib: Muhammad b. Ali b. Mahbub from Ibn Isa from al-Bazanti who said: I asked him about a man who comes to the market and buys a cloak of fur but he is not sure whether it is pure or not pure - can he pray in it? he said: yes, you do not have to inquire about it, Aba Ja’far عليه السلام used to say: the Khawarij straitened things for themselves because of their ignorance, the religion is more expansive than that.

 

[-/9] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن ابن اذينة، عن بريد العجلي قال: قلت لابي جعفر عليه السلام: ... قال: ... ولم يجعل الله تبارك وتعالى في الدين من ذيق فالحرج أشد من الضيق ... 

[9/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Muhammad b. Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Burayd al-Ijli who said: I said to Abi Ja’far عليه السلام: … he said: … and Allah Blessed and Exalted did not place in the religion any discomfort for “difficulty” is more extreme than “discomfort”.

Al-Muhsini says: The previous Sahih Riwaya of Zurara (No. 5) equated between الحرج (difficulty) and الضيق (discomfort), but it is also possible to hold that الحرج is the highest particular form of the more general الضيق as this narration makes clear - and there would be no contradiction between the two. In other words, all الحرج is الضيق  but not all الضيق  can be considered to reach the level of الحرج

When the Imam says that Allah did not place in the religion any discomfort, it is as though he had in mind the verse that says “And He has not placed for you in the religion any difficulty” - and clarifies that difficulty in the verse means the highest form of discomfort, so if difficulty has been avoided in the religion then what to say of mere discomfort.  

 

The General Principles that can be inferred from these Narrations

1. The chronological order of commands in a verse is maintained in performance of a ritual.

2. Accepting the witness given by the believers.

3. Lifting of the Taklif or punishment because of lack of knowledge or ability.

4. Hujiyya of the ‘Markets of the Muslims’ or the non-obligation of scrutinizing things in the Mawduat.

5. Absolute lifting of the Taklif if it leads to difficulty - in the form discussed in the appropriate place for such a discussion [i.e. Usul al-Fiqh].   

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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