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Bida' in Adhan

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Salam

It is famous between Muslims that any change which distorts the original form of Islamic ceremonies, ritual or practices, which were proved at the time of the holy prophet, is Bida' and also is haram (forbidden).

Adhan (the call to prayer) was something special with specific words in the time of the holy prophet and during the caliphate of Abubakr. But a strange event made it different!!

Quoted from Al Movata':

The Muezzin (who call, the call to prayer) of Umar came to him to wake him up for the morning prayer, but he saw that Umar is asleep. So he said: Al Salat khayr men Al num (meaning the prayer is better than sleeping), then Umar ordered to put this sentence in the Adhan of the morning!

Al Movata', Malik

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Tbh, Sunni's believe that that phrase was there from the time of Rasullah s.a.w.

Shia's on the other hand, recognize that not only did Rasullah s.a.w never ask us to add the third Shahadah, none of the Imams a.s ever in any evidenced narration added this third Shahadah. Many of our classical scholars also did not add the third Shahdah. It was a later innovation.

I have to ask:

1. If the Prophet, the imams a.s, and many classical scholars did not recite the third Shahdah, even with the intention it is not part of the adhan, who are we to try and 'improve' on the adhan ?

Surely, the best thing we ought to do is follow what the prophet s.a.w and imams a.s had done - recite it as it was meant to be recited?

In my eyes, it is pure intellectual dishonesty to claim the third shahadah is not part of the adhan, yet recite it in every single Adhan as if it were an inseperable part of it.

Why not recite the Adhan as Rasullah s.a.w recited it, or As Ali a.s recited it, or as Hasan a.s recited it, or as Hussain a.s recited it, or as his son, and his son, and his son, going to our twelfth imam (ajfs) recited it?

It could be highly possible that while shia's have innovated the third shahdah into the adhan, the twelfth imam a.s currently recites adhan without the third shahadah. It is possible. Seeing as that is what his 11 grand fathers and Rasullah s.a.w did.

Therefore it is also possible one of the things the twelfth imam ajfs abolishes is the third shahadah in the adhan.

Edited by Tawheed313
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Here's what Sheikh As Sadooq r.a has stated about the third Shahdah in the Adhan:

Here is what Al-Sadooq (d. 381 AH) has said concerning the 3rd testimony. Here are his actual words.

هَذَا هُوَ الْأَذَانُ الصَّحِيحُ لَا يُزَادُ فِيهِ وَ لَا يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُ وَ الْمُفَوِّضَةُ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ قَدْ وَضَعُوا أَخْبَاراً وَ زَادُوا فِي الْأَذَانِ مُحَمَّدٌ وَ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ فِي بَعْضِ رِوَايَاتِهِمْ بَعْدَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ رَوَى بَدَلَ ذَلِكَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ لَا شَكَّ فِي أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَّهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً وَ آلَهُ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ خَيْرُ
الْبَرِيَّةِ وَ لَكِنْ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ فِي أَصْلِ الْأَذَانِ وَ إِنَّمَا ذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِيُعْرَفَ بِهَذِهِ الزِّيَادَةِ الْمُتَّهَمُونَ بِالتَّفْوِيضِ الْمُدَلِّسُونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ فِي جُمْلَتِنَا

Translation: "This is the Authentic / Correct (SaHeeH) adhaan; nothing is to be added or subtracted from it. The mufawwidah's (form of ghullah), may Allaah curse them, have fabricated traditions and have added to the adhaan مُحَمَّدٌ وَ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ (Muhammad and the family of Muhammad are the best of mankind) twice. In some of their traditions, after saying  أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allaah) (they add) أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ (I bear witness that 'Alee is the Walee of Allaah) twice.
 
Among them there are others who narrate this أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (I bear witness that 'Alee is the commander of the faithfull) twice. There is NO doubt that 'Alee is the walee of God and that he is the true commander of the faithful and that Muhammad and his family, peace be upon them, are the best of creatures. However, that is not [part] of the original adhaan. I have mentioned this so that those who have been accused of concocting tafweed and have insulated themselves in our ranks should be known."

Source:

1. Al-Sadooq, Man Laa YaHduruh Al-Faqeeh, vol. 1, pg. 290 - 291
 
 
 
So the first people who innovated adding the third shahdah into the adhan were actually the Ghulat sects. This is something sheikh Sadooq r.a testifies to. So we are essentially following an innovation done by the ghulat.
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Sheikh Al Toosi r.a on the third Shahadah in the Adhan:

 

Here is what Al-Toosi (d. 460 AH) had to say about the 3rd testimony in the adhaan.

و أمّا ما روي في شواذّ الأخبار من قول: «أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه و آل محمّد خير البريّة» فممّا لا يعمل عليه في الأذان و الإقامة. فمن عمل بها كان مخطئا

Translation: "The are some odd (shaadh) reports of saying أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه and آل محمّد خير البريّة. You must NOT do it in the Adhaan and Iqaamah. And whoever does this action is in mukhTi (error)"
Source:

1. Al-Toosi, Al-Nihaayah fee Mujarrad Al-Fiqh wa Al-Fataawaa, pg. 69
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1 hour ago, Tawheed313 said:

Sheikh Al Toosi r.a on the third Shahadah in the Adhan:

 

Here is what Al-Toosi (d. 460 AH) had to say about the 3rd testimony in the adhaan.
 

 

و أمّا ما روي في شواذّ الأخبار من قول: «أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه و آل محمّد خير البريّة» فممّا لا يعمل عليه في الأذان و الإقامة. فمن عمل بها كان مخطئا

 

Translation: "The are some odd (shaadh) reports of saying أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه and آل محمّد خير البريّة. You must NOT do it in the Adhaan and Iqaamah. And whoever does this action is in mukhTi (error)"
Source:

 

1. Al-Toosi, Al-Nihaayah fee Mujarrad Al-Fiqh wa Al-Fataawaa, pg. 69

Dear brother, you are saying the third shahadah in adhan is an innovation. I think either you are doing taqleed of Shaikh tusi and Shaikh Sadooq (which is not possible) or you are doing your acts according to the precaution. 

Ayatullah seestani and other marajae says that the third testimony is not the part of adhan but it is better to recite after second testimony.  (wa ulil amr e minkum). 

Here is the ruling of Ayatullah seestani. 

1Question: Is the Third Testimony a part of Adhan and Iqamah?

Answer: Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu'minina Aliyyan waliyyullah is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the Niyyat of Qurbat.
 
 
So please don't try to convince other brothers to ward of innovation, people do taqleed and it's not their duty to ask questions in fiqhi masael. You are requested to first concentrate on what OP wants to say.
Sorry if I sounded harsh. 
 
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The key here is understand what is Biddah.

Anything that is added by normal humans assuming its wajib is called Biddah. Umer L adding "salat o kahir un minal nom" in fajr adhan, his adding tarawweeh as jamaa' salat, and bunch of other things that he added on his own wiswas is called biddah and is an action of inspiration from Shaitan. May Allah swt sends laa'n on those who added biddah in Islam.

All those dhikr  that one does for the closeness to Allah swt not thinking it as wajib but only to be close to Allah swt is a mustahib act in itself. For example, one is in trouble, during the salat this person makes a short dua after last sjada or even in every sajda, this action would not count as biddah. Similarly the person who adds salawat on the Prophet S and his Ahlubayt in sajda, rukuu after wajib sentences, would not be committing biddah. Similarly a person who makes a sweet on the 15th of Shaban and distributes it among people after reciting a fatiha is not a biddah, because this person is not thinking its something wajib in Islam. Testifying the Imamat of Ameer ul Momineen AS in adhan is not biddah because all sane Shia know this is not wajib part of the adhan  You could stand their and recite the shahada of all Imams and your adhan would be fine because you are not dooing it thinking as wajib; although you would be out of norm. All in all, even Adhan itself is not wajib part of salat.  

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["Whoever has denied the testimony to Ali’s Wilayah in Adhan, regarding it as heresy, has made mistake and has as uncommon belief. The caller to Adhan in Islam [usually added phrases to the beginning and the end of Adhan—phrases that are not derived from the religion, but still they are not heresy and adding them is not forbidden. The reason is that the callers to Adhan do not consider these phrases as parts of Adhan, and include them just due to the general arguments.81 The testimony to Ali’s Wilayah is subject to these general arguments. Moreover, short phrases from the people themselves do not nullifyAdhan and iqamah.82 To say these during Adhan and iqamah is therefore not forbidden…”83

Consequently, since naming Ali (a.s) is as worship, there is no doubt about the preference of mentioning his name in general and in Adhan, in particular. As Muttaqi Hindi narrates in Kanz Al-Ummal:

ذِكْرُ عَلِيٍّ عِبادَةٌ.

Mentioning Ali’s name is as worship.84

https://www.al-islam.org/shiism-sunnism-ayatullah-sayyid-muhammad-ridha-mudarrisi-yazdi/tradition-and-heresy-adhan-call#testimony-ali’s-wilayah-adhan

*****

Not sure why a Shia, will involuntary, bring something up, specially, when it is not propagated by anyone here, or even if a very small segment does do what is been projected[not sue what their proof is, they are not here to offer it]. Reason to address it. In a thread for Sunni Adhan issue? This issue, is not been propagated by the so called adherents of it, but frequently highlight by the opponents? 

Whenever this issue of Adhan, comes up. Its prudent to see if the person even believes in the Third Testimony, as obligatory.

Once this is clarified in very clear terms.[If no clear answer is given, you know the reality]-No reason to discuss the next step of Adhan.[under any pretext]

We can go to the Adhan issue, from a Fiqhi[Jurisprudence] and holistic point of view. Because you can look at one thing from only a Jurisprudence point of view but it actually points to other defects, in proper understanding of Faith. Specially, when the Fiqhi[Jurisprudence] aspect of the issue has been clarified by the Top Learned Scholarswho have spent their lifetime looking at All Traditions in Shia Book/Qur'an/Intellect [and all the ramifications[manifest/hidden] of an issue, which are not apparent to laypeople and all Shai's have access to their opinion. 

Ash-hado an la ilaha illAllah

(I bear witness that there is no God But Allah)

Wahdahoo la shareeka lah

(The one, Who has no Partner)

Wa ash-hado anna Muhammadun abdohoo wa Rasoolullah…..

(and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger.

Ash-hado an Aliyun Waleeullah, Wasi-o-Rasoolilah

(I bear witness that Ali is the Wali of Allah, rightful executor of the Will of the Prophet)

Edited by S.M.H.A.
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Whenever there is no answer,To hide the reality,  Distraction Tactics are utilized.[Two cases can't be justified]

*****

["Question 7: Why do Shi’a Add Ashhadu anna ‘aliyyan waliyyullah” in the Call to Prayer?

In adhan {call to prayer}, why do you say, “Ashhadu anna ‘aliyyan waliyyullah” {“I bear witness that ‘Ali is Wali of Allah”} and give testimony to the wilayah {guardianship} of ‘Ali (‘a)?

Reply: In order to reply to this question, let us consider the following points:

1. In their books on jurisprudence, all the Shi‘ah jurists {fuqaha} stress that to say: “I bear witness to the wilayah of ‘Ali (‘a)” is not part of adhan or iqamah, and no one has the right to say that it is part of any of the two.

2. From the viewpoint of the Qur’an, ‘Ali (‘a) is one of the awliya’, and the following verse explicitly points to his wilayah over the Muslims:

﴿ إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ ﴾

“Your guardian is only Allah, His Apostle, and the faithful who maintain the prayer and give the zakat while bowing down.”1

The Sunni Sahihs and Musnads include narrations that highlight the fact that the noble verse was revealed to praise ‘Ali (‘a) who, while doing ruku‘ {bowing down in prayer}, gave his ring to a poor person.2 When this verse which refers to ‘Ali (‘a) was revealed, Hassan ibn Thabit versified this event in the following poem:

فأنت الذي أعطيت إذ أنت راكع

فدتك نفوس القوم يا خير راكع

فأنزل فيك الله خير ولاية

وبينهما في مُحكمات الشرائع

You are the one who donated, while doing ruku‘. May the souls of the folk be sacrificed to you, O the best of those who bow down!
Thus, God has sent down the best wilayah to you, and explained it through the decrees of the Shari‘ah.

3. The Holy Prophet (S) said:

إنما الأعمال بالنّيات.

“Verily, actions are (judged) by intention.”

Since the wilayah of ‘Ali (‘a) is one of the principles stipulated in the Qur’an, and the said phrase is not regarded as part of the adhan (or iqamah), what is wrong about uttering it alongside the testimony to the apostleship of the Prophet (S)?

Here, it is necessary to mention that if due to adding a sentence to adhan, the Shi‘ah must be castigated, how could the following two cases be justified?

1. Authentic historical references confirm that the following phrase:

حيّ على خير العمل

Hayya ‘ala khayr al-‘amal

“Come to the best of deeds”

was part of adhan,3 but during the caliphate of the second caliph, this phrase was omitted under the pretext that when people hear the words “the best of deeds” they will think that praying is better than jihad and cease taking part injihad. And things remained as such.4

2. The sentence,

الصلوة خير من النوم

As-salatu khayrun mina ’n-nawm

“Prayer is better than sleeping”

was not part of the adhan during the time of the Holy Prophet (S) but has been included therein later on,5 and as such, in the book, Al-Umm, Imam ash-Shafi‘i says:

"أكره في الأذان الصلوة خير من النوم لأن أبا محذورة لم يذكره."

It is not pleasing for me that we say in the adhan: ‘as-salatu khayrun mina ’n-nawm’ because Abu Mahdhurah (one of the narrators and muhaddithun) has not included it (in his compilation of hadiths).6

1. Surah al-Ma’idah 5:55.

2. The references concerning the circumstances related to the revelation of this verse on the said case is more than what have been enumerated here. Anyway, below are some of these ample references:
Tafsir at-Tabari, vol. 6, p. 186;
Ahkam al-Qur’an (Tafsir Jasas), vol. 2, p. 542;
Tafsir al-Baydawi, vol. 1, p. 345;
Ad-Durr al-Manthur, vol. 2, p. 293.

3. Kanz al-‘Ummal, “kitab as-salah,” vol. 4, p. 266, an at-tabrani, “kana Bilal yu’dhdhin bi’s-subh fayaqul: hayya ‘ala khayr al-‘amal”; Sunan Bayhaqi, vol. 1, pp. 424-425; Malik, Al-Muwatta’, vol. 1, p. 93.

4. Kanz al-‘Irfan, vol. 2, p. 158; Sirat al-Mustaqim wa Jawahir al-Akhbar wa al-Athar, vol. 2, p. 192; Qawshachi, Sharh at-Tajrid, mabhath imamah, p. 484, “sa‘ad al-minbar wa qal: ayyuha ’ n-nas thalath kann ‘ala ‘ahd rasul Allah ana anhi ‘anhum wa aharramahunna wa hiya mut‘ah an-nisa’i wa mut‘ah al-hajj wa hayya ‘ala khayr al-‘amal”.

5. Kanz al-‘Ummal, “kitab as-salah,” vol. 4, p. 270.

6. Quoted in Dala’il as-Sidq, vol. 3, “al-qism ath-thani,” p. 97.

https://www.al-islam.org/shia-rebuts-sayyid-rida-husayni-nasab/question-7-why-do-shia-add-ashhadu-anna-aliyyan-waliyyullah-call-prayer

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Why does Shia say: The sentence “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” must be repeated in Adhan?

question

Why does Shia say: “The sentence “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” must be repeated in Adhan and Talqin (a funeral rite) of a dead body? Vide: Foru’ al-Kafi vol.3, pg.82

Concise answer

The term “wali” has been used in several meanings some of the most important of which are the following:

A)    Wali meaning guardian;

B)    Wali meaning friend;

C)    Wali meaning helper or assistant

Although each of three meanings can be used with regards to Imam Ali (a.s.), considering the narratives related in this regard, wali in the foregoing sentence in Adhan refers to the first meaning. That is to say, Ali is the guardian and in charge of the affairs and he is more entitled to be in authority on all matters of faith and law. Thus guardianship has been granted to him by God in the same way as prophethood was granted to the Messenger of Allah, Prophet Muhammad – peace and blessings of Allah be upon and his pure family.

The question to deal here with is: Is “Ali waliullah” a part of Adhan? A brief answer is that as per the sayings of Ahlulbayt (a.s.) and edicts of Shia’s grand jurists, Adhan consists of eighteen sentences of which the sentence “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” is not a part and which should not be recited with the intention that it is a part of Adhan.

Detailed Answer

In order to give a precise answer to the question, we shall follow up the discussion in three parts:

1) Is it basically okay to recite “Ashhadu anna alian waliullah” in Adhan or is it totally wrong and false?

2) If it is supposedly correct, is it a part of Adhan or not?

3) If it is not a part of Adhan, is there any problem in reciting it in Adhan without considering it as a part?  

In order to reply to the first part of the question, it would first be necessary to deal with the meaning and import of the word “wali”.

Meaning of “wali”:

A) Wali in the sense of being a guardian or custodian: There are many Quranic verses in which the word “wali” has been used in the same meaning e.g. “You have not besides Him any guardian or any intercessor”.[1]

B) Wali in the sense of being a close friend[2]: There are also verses in the Quran with the word “wali” meaning friend. One of those verses is the following: “The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel the evil deed with one which is better, then lo! he, between whom and thee there was enmity (will become) as though he was a bosom friend.”[3]

C) Wali in the sense of helper and aide[4]: The Holy Quran says, “And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another.”

Without doubt, there is no objection or problem in using "Waliullah" for believers in the second and third meaning (friend and helper). In fact, there are traditions transmitted by both Shiite and Sunni narrators with the word "wali" used in these meanings.[5]

As for the first meaning, it should be said that there are many narratives in which Ali (a.s.) has been introduced as the guardian, master and more entitled to be in authority in the same way as Holy Prophet (pbuh) was. Of course, Ali is a divinely-appointed leader; he was appointed as guardian and master of the Ummah by God in the same way as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was appointed as the Messenger of God.

As for whether "Ashhadu anna alian waliullah" is a part of Adhan or not, there are narrations from the Ahlulbayt (a.s.) which expressly state that Adhan consists of eighteen sentences. Those sentences are the following:

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah, Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah, Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah, Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah, Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal, Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal ; Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah; La ilaha illal lah.[6]

Thus, "Ashhadu anna alian waliullah" is not a part of Adhan. Shia jurists have issued verdicts on the basis of these narrations saying that the third testimony is not a part of Adhan.

Imam Khomeini (may Allah bless him) says in this regard: "Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences: Allahu Akbar four times; Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah; Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah; Hayya’alas Salah; Hayya’alal Falah; Hayya’ala Khayril ‘Amal; Allahu Akbar; La ilaha illal lah each two times." Then he says, "Ash hadu anna Aliyyan Waliullah is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah."[7]

The next question that has to be dealt with is: Does reciting "Ashhadu anna alian waliullah" affect the prayers or not?

Obviously, there is a problem in reciting the third testimony as a part of Adhan. Some have said that if it is recited in such a way that it does not sound to be like one of the sentences of Adhan, there would be no problem.[8] At the most, the spurious argument that is likely to be raised is that reciting the third testimony is a mere bid’ah (innovation).

Considering that bid’ah means adding to the religion what is not a part of it, if someone considers this sentence to be a part of Adhan and recites it with such an intention, it is bid’ah and forbidden. However, since none of the Shiite jurists and grand scholars considers it as a part of Adhan and if someone recites it in a way such that it does not turn out to be like one of the sentences of Adhan and Iqamah, it would not be bid’ah and there would be no problem in it.

In addition, we come across narrations in our textual resources which say that whenever a person testifies to the prophecy of Holy Prophet (pbuh), he should also testify to the successorship (wilayah) of the Commander of Faithful, peace be upon him.

In any case, the reason why Shiite jurists allows the recitation of the third testimony in Adhan, not as a part, lies in the unrestricted narratives which say: “Whenever you testify to the oneness of God and the prophecy of Muhammad, you should testify also to the mastership of Ali bin Abi Tablib (a.s.).” Since this narrative is absolute and unrestricted, it includes Adhan and Iqamah also. Therefore, whenever someone testifies to the oneness of God and prophecy of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), he will also testify to the wilayah (guardianship) of the Commander of Faithful, Ali (a.s.) and this does not at all imply that the third testimony is a part of Adhan.

Also, there are special narrations which confirm the validity of reciting the third testimony in Adhan.[9]Hence, considering the lofty rank and position of the Commander of the Faithful,[10] there would be no problem in reciting “Ali waliullah” in Adhan and in the Talqin (a funeral rite) of a dead body with the intention of Qurbat (seeking nearness to God) or Tabarruk (as a blessing), not as a part.

It is to be noted that many Sunni scholars admit that the sentence “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm” (prayer is better than sleep) is not a part of Adhan and it is one of the innovations of the second caliph. It has been reported from Malik bin Anas that the Muezzin (one who calls for prayers) went to Umar to wake him up for Fajr prayers. He saw Umar sleeping. Then he said, “al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm”. Umar then ordered him to recite this same sentence in Adhan also.[11]

The question is that what justifies the recitation and inclusion of this sentence (i.e. al-salaatu khayrun min al-nawm) in the Adhan for Fajr prayers by Sunnis? Is it comparable with what the Shiites are reciting and which has many narrations authenticating and confirming it?   

[1] - Al-Sajdah: 4

[2] - Tabari Kiyaharasi, Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad, Ahkaamul Quran (Al-Kiyaharasi), vol.3, pg.83, Darul Kutub al-Ilmiyah, Beirut, 1405. A.H.

[3] - Fussilat: 34

[4] - Ibn Mazur, Muhammad bin Mukram, Lesan al-Arab, vol.15, pg.407, Dar Sadir, Beirut, 3rd edition, 1414 A.H.

[5]  - Ibn Abi Hatam, Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad, Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim (Ibn Abi Hatam) vol.2, pg.675, published by Maktabat Nazar Mustafa al-Baz, 3rd edition, 1419 A.H.

[6] - Saduq, Man La-yahzuruhul Faqih, vol.1, pg.289-291, Jame'ah Mudarresin Publications, Qom, 1413 A.H.

[7] - Tauzihul Masail (with connotation), vol.1, pg.519, issue No.918.

[8] - Ibid.

[9] - Vide: The Third Testimony in Adhan, Iqamah and Prayers.

[10] - For further reading in this regard refer to the following indexes on this website: “Proving the Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.), No.1162” and “Quran and Imamate of Imam Ali (a.s.) No.1817”

[11] - Malik, Muwatta, vol.1, pg.210, al-Islam website: www.al-islam.com

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Ash-hado an la ilaha illAllah

(I bear witness that there is no God But Allah)

Wahdahoo la shareeka lah

(The one, Who has no Partner)

Wa ash-hado anna Muhammadun abdohoo wa Rasoolullah…..

(and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger.

Ash-hado an Aliyun Waleeullah, Wasi-o-Rasoolilah

(I bear witness that Ali is the Wali of Allah, rightful executor of the Will of the Prophet)

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When ever anyone brings up the Third Testimony of Faith(Testifying to the Waliyah) under the pretext of Adhan form a Jurisprudence[Fiqh] point of view. In my layman experience, it's alway good to get clarity on the basics of faith. See their true opinion on The Three testimonies of Faith. [Fundamental of Faith] Tawhid, Prophethood &  Imamat]. Usually, matter is resolved here at the basic/fundamental conceptual level, before getting into to Fiqhi technicalities.

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If true or not, is not the issue. Any issue can and should be discussed in a proper manner, form a holistic point of view, under proper threads. Because usually, certain concepts lead to other fundamental concepts.

So, fundamental understanding is questioned. Because from a Fiqhi point of view, we are not Jurists, and their opinion is stated above. 

 

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Aside from the Fiqhi issue, Adhan is a call to Prayer.

This statement that is questioned, is not child's play, many lives have been lost in protecting it. This statement has blood  of our Martyrs supporting it.

Non Shia's  will benefit if the non shia's/kids  do not have to hear the name in their communities from our Mosques. It is kind of broadcasting the message of Wilayah Five times a day. . Kids might question, who is this Ali we never hard of or read a lot about in books of Hadiths --that we hear from their mosques.(This puts their sect in great danger).. I am sure they want it stopped.

Fiqh is the easiest way to attack anything, by making it Haram. We know the which sect uses this strategy the most. 

In reality and in practical - when we look at things from a 360 degree point  of view. this equation has many parts including fiqhi angle. 

 

Edited by S.M.H.A.
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Third testimony became official first during the safavid era of Shah Ismail (16th century) by jurists like Majlisi I and Majlisi II. Despite their giving permissiblity officially their contemporaries did not concur with them.

al-Muhaqqiq al-Sabzawari (d. 1090/1679) in his Dhakheerah Al-Ma’aad fi sharh Al-Irshaad, vol. 2, pg. 244 says:

و أمّا إضافة أن علیّا وليّ الَّله و آل محمّد خیر البریّة و أمثال ذلك فقد صرّح الأصحاب بكونها بدعة و إن كان حقّا صحیحا إذ الكلام في دخولها في الأذان و هو موقوف على التوقیف الشرعي و لم یثب

And about adding the “Aliyyan Waliullah” and “Aal Muhammad Khairul Bariyya”, the jurists have clearly stated that this is a bid’ah, and the statement is true, but adding it to the adhaan is dependent upon its divine ordainment (al-tawqeef al-shar’ee) a fact which has not been established.

Fayd al-Kashani (d. 1091/1680) maintains in his Mafatih al-sharai that reciting the third testimony is an abominable (makruh) act that is contrary to the sunna.

Sheikh Hurr al Amili also specially quoted the words of Sheikh Saduq about the third testimony being a Bid’a in his Wasail ush Shia.

In the modern day, scholars like Ayatullah Muhammad Hussain Fadhlullah (Lebanon), Ayatullah Muhammad Hussain Najafi (Pakistan), Ayatullah Sadeqi Tehrani (Iran) etc are known to have spoken against mentioning the third testimony in the Adhan.

On the other hand, extrimists like Yasir Habib and his spiritual leader Ayatullah Sadiq Shirazi have declared the third testimony to be “Wajib” (compulsory) in Adhan. Another scholar by the name of Ayatullah Jamil Hamud Amili has declared that a fourth testimony (Shahadat Rabi’) should also be recited in Adhan, that is, “Ash hadu Anna Fatimatu zahra sayyidati nisa al aalameen” (I bear witness that Fatima is the leader of all women of the universe).

May be in future we will see a separate testimony for each Imam in Adhan. If you not stop it now more n more will be inserted in Adhan and in other practices of Islam just on the name of wilayah and love of ahlebayt.

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If the Jurists have clarified something, and it is done - why is there an issue with people bring it up all the time-

Must be a reason, something else that we do not see, as I mentioned above, aside from the Fiqhi issue- It must really be something that they can’t hear or like to hear, and want it stopped.

*****

928. Ash hadu anna Amiral Muminina'Aliyyan Waliyyullah (i.e. I testify that the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (Peace be on him) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Azan or Iqamah It is, however, better to pronounce it after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah to seek Divine pleasure.

https://www.al-islam.org/islamic-laws-ayatullah-abul-qasim-al-khui/prayers#azan-and-iqamah

928. Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu'minina 'Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.

http://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2216/

928 َوِل اًّليِع َن َّاُ هد َشَ ْا)Ash'hadu anna Aliyyan wali'ullah) (“I bear witness that Ali (Peace be upon him) is the vicegerent of God”) is not a part of the azan, nor the iqamah. However, since the guardianship of Amir al-Mu’menin (Peace be upon him) is the completion of the religion, to recite it in any state, including after the statement لل ََّّا ل ُسو ُرَ bear I“اَ ْش َهدُ ا َّن ُم َح َّمدً witness that Muhammad (Peace be upon him and his progeny) is the messenger of

God” is the best means of attaining Divine proximity.

http://www.islamic-laws.com/download/Islamic Laws - Sheikh Wahid Khorasani.pdf

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14 hours ago, Ya Allah Madad said:

In the modern day, scholars like Ayatullah Muhammad Hussain Fadhlullah (Lebanon), Ayatullah Muhammad Hussain Najafi (Pakistan), Ayatullah Sadeqi Tehrani (Iran) etc are known to have spoken against mentioning the third testimony in the Adhan.

 Ayatullah Sadiq Shirazi have declared the third testimony to be “Wajib” (compulsory) in Adhan

 

I quoted the opinion below of the above hilighted Jurists/Mujtahids>

There is no Taqlid in Faith:

Quote

 It is necessary for a Muslim to believe in the fundamentals of faith on the basis of proof and he cannot follow anyone in this respect i.e. he cannot accept he word of another with regard to the fundamentals without demanding proof. 

In reference to Obligatory Prayers( Part of Islamic Law) its a matter of Taqlid. 

Quote

However, in order to act on Islamic code (except in those matters which are considered by all to be indisputable e.g. the obligatory nature of the five daily prayers, fasting during the holy month of Ramadan etc.) a person must adopt one of the following methods

 

If its is Obligatory or Recomended is a Fiqhi Issue and Different Jurists have different opinions. Based on the rules of Taqlid you follow your Jurists.

Issue is It is Recited in the Adhan: You can't judge the intention of the people reciting it. So Issue must be Why is it Recited?

*****

 

 

Quote

“Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu'mineena 'Aliyyan Waliyyullah” (i.e. I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after “Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasuloollah” with the intention of Qurbah.

http://www.alnajafi.org/books/43-a-concise-guide-of-islamic-laws/143-rules-of-prayer.html

 

Quote

Case: The phrase “Ash_hado an-na Aliy-yan waliy-yol-la>h” is the integral part of both adha>n and iqa>mah, as some narrations point to.

http://www.english.shirazi.ir/books/Islamic_Law_2013_SecondEdition.pdf

 

Taqlid: (you can search for any Mujtahid same and see their opinion on Taqlid).
https://www.al-islam.org/islamic-laws-ayatullah-abul-qasim-al-khui/taqlid#following-mujtahid

 

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18 hours ago, Ya Allah Madad said:

 

This Video was posted in the Thread posted above, and you were active there so you know who posted it there.That Thread had an incident (Avalanche) so the stuff is going to get buried there. 

Question, I have is Can you decipher the Intention here?

If you can you must be a god.in that case forget Bidah issues, you are entering Shirk Territory. 

Non Fiqhi Question: When you hear the Name: do you smile or frown? ( don't have to answer it) 

 

Edited by S.M.H.A.
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Quote
Here is what Al-Sadooq (d. 381 AH) has said concerning the 3rd testimony. Here are his actual words.

 

هَذَا هُوَ الْأَذَانُ الصَّحِيحُ لَا يُزَادُ فِيهِ وَ لَا يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُ وَ الْمُفَوِّضَةُ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ قَدْ وَضَعُوا أَخْبَاراً وَ زَادُوا فِي الْأَذَانِ مُحَمَّدٌ وَ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ فِي بَعْضِ رِوَايَاتِهِمْ بَعْدَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ رَوَى بَدَلَ ذَلِكَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ لَا شَكَّ فِي أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَّهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً وَ آلَهُ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ وَ لَكِنْ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ فِي أَصْلِ الْأَذَانِ وَ إِنَّمَا ذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِيُعْرَفَ بِهَذِهِ الزِّيَادَةِ الْمُتَّهَمُونَ بِالتَّفْوِيضِ الْمُدَلِّسُونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ فِي جُمْلَتِنَا

 

Translation: "This is the Authentic / Correct (SaHeeH) adhaan; nothing is to be added or subtracted from it. The mufawwidah's (form of ghullah), may Allaah curse them, have fabricated traditions and have added to the adhaan مُحَمَّدٌ وَ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ (Muhammad and the family of Muhammad are the best of mankind) twice. In some of their traditions, after saying أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allaah) (they add) أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ (I bear witness that 'Alee is the Walee of Allaah) twice. Among them there are others who narrate this أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (I bear witness that 'Alee is the commander of the faithfull) twice. There is NO doubt that 'Alee is the walee of God and that he is the true commander of the faithful and that Muhammad and his family, peace be upon them, are the best of creatures. However, that is not [part] of the original adhaan. I have mentioned this so that those who have been accused of concocting tafweed and have insulated themselves in our ranks should be known."
Source:

 

1. Al-Sadooq, Man Laa YaHduruh Al-Faqeeh, vol. 1, pg. 290 - 291

 

 
So essentially, the Ghulat [May Allah curse them] out of some kind of extreme devotion decided to not only add the third shahadah into the adhan, but fabricate traditions to support it.
 
This was step one. It was only until Alama Majlisi in savafid Iran [about 400 years ago] when this was then allowed to infiltrate into mainstream shia islam and was practised widely.
 
Look what another of our great scholars, shayk Tusi said:
Al-Toosi (d. 460 AH) had to say about the 3rd testimony in the adhaan.
 

 

و أمّا ما روي في شواذّ الأخبار من قول: «أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه و آل محمّد خير البريّة» فممّا لا يعمل عليه في الأذان و الإقامة. فمن عمل بها كان مخطئا

 

Translation: "The are some odd (shaadh) reports of saying أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه and آل محمّد خير البريّة. You must NOT do it in the Adhaan and Iqaamah. And whoever does this action is in mukhTi (error)"
Source:

 

1. Al-Toosi, Al-Nihaayah fee Mujarrad Al-Fiqh wa Al-Fataawaa, pg. 69

 

 
 
 
What the ulema of today say is that you can recite it when reciting the adhan, but not in a way that you are reciting it as part of the adhan. Your intention should be that while reciting the adhan, this is just a statement you are making as an aside and not part of the adhan, and hope Allah azwj rewards it. I think such a stance is problematic and i agree with the ulema in the minority who disagree. I also agree with Shayk as Saduq [rh] and Shayk Tusi [rh].

You posted this in the Thread mentioned above. 

From what I can decipher, you would not be under the Taqlid for( Fiqhi issues)of the any of the Jurists who's opinions I posted in above pasts ( Correct me If I am wrong) . That would be your issue not mine. You are entitled to your choice. 

But Who entitled you and others to Judge others based on your Fiqhi criteria ? (even at the Jurist level, they just differ in their opinion- 

If I follow Jurist A and you follow Jurist B, they have a different opinion on one issue, are we suppose to have a war? This is not our way. You need to be concerned with your Taqlid (only).

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Taqlid

Following a Mujtahid

1. It is necessary for a Muslim to believe in the fundamentals of faith on the basis of proof and he cannot follow anyone in this respect i.e. he cannot accept he word of another with regard to the fundamentals without demanding proof.

However, in order to act on Islamic code (except in those matters which are considered by all to be indisputable e.g. the obligatory nature of the five daily prayers, fasting during the holy month of Ramadan etc.) a person must adopt one of the following methods:

    i) The man concerned should be a Mujtahid (jurist)1 himself and should know the Articles of Acts on the basis of Ijtihad2 and reason (i.e. he should be a man of such high learning and scholarship that he can solve problems from his study of the Qur’an and Hadith).

    ii) If he is not a jurist himself, he should follow a jurist i.e. he should act according to the judgment (fatwa) of the jurist without demanding proof.

    iii) If he is neither a jurist nor a follower (muqallid) he should act after taking such precaution that he should become sure of his having performed his religious duty. For example, if some jurists consider an act to be unlawful and some others say that it is not unlawful, he should not perform that act and in case some jurists consider an act to be obligatory (wajib) and others consider it to be recommended (mustahab) he should perform it. Hence it is obligatory for those persons who are not jurists and cannot also take precautionary measures (ihtiyat) to follow a jurist.3

.....

https://www.al-islam.org/islamic-laws-ayatullah-abul-qasim-al-khui/taqlid#following-mujtahid

 

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@QuranandAhlulbayt

In order to avoid the repeatedly posting a response to this Hot issue, which will be raised in many Thread under different contexts. 

A)In an indirect way, pointing to Taqiyah been utilized by 

1) Shia Modern Jurists

2) Shia in general

3) Both Modern Jurists and Shia

Let's get some clarification here.

B) Taqlid in issues of Fiqh(Jurisprudence) - In Fiqhi(Jurisprudence Issues)  the Jurist/Marja is taking the responsibility - Unlike Faith issue(s), in Fiqhi(Jurisprudence)He is your proof between you and Allah(awj). ( Do you understand this Concept ).

 

 

Edited by S.M.H.A.
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Q 1: Is taqlīd an absolute rational issue or is it also grounded on jurisprudential evidence? 
A: Taqlīd has its jurisprudential evidence in addition to reason which also admits that a person who is ignorant of religious rules should refer to a qualified mujtahid. 
 

 

Quote

Q 13: It is said that one should to do taqlīd of a ‘just’ mujtahid. What is meant by being ‘just’?
A: A ‘just’ person is so pious that he would not commit a sin deliberately.

 

Quote

Q 16: Is it required to follow only the most learned marji‘? And what is the criterion of being the most learned? 
A: It is a caution to follow the most learned mujtahid with respect to issues in which his fatwās differ from that of others. The criterion of being the most learned is to have a greater competence, when compared to other mujtahids, in the following realms: 
i. Identifying the divine laws, 
ii. Inferring the shar‘ī rules from their proofs, and 
iii. Being aware of the events of his time insofar as it affects identifying the subjects of religious rules and influences the expression of juristic opinion.
 
 

 

Saying “Ashhadu anna ‘Aliyyan Waliyyullāh” in adhān and iqāmah

Quote

Q 452: What is your esteemed opinion on the third testimony for the master of believers, Imam Ali (a.), as being the commander and the leader, in the adhān and iqāmah of obligatory prayers?
A: Saying “Ashhadu anna ‘Aliyyan Waliyyullāh” in adhān and iqāmah with the intention of being a symbol for the Shī‘ah school of thought is good and important and it should be said only for the sake of nearness to Allah, but it is not a part of adhān and iqāmah. 

Leader of the Islamic republic of Iran, Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei

http://www.leader.ir/en/book/23

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Just a reminder this in the context of Taqlid in Fiqhi(Jursiprudence) Issues.(Not Faith Issues)

Is this the real issue?

Quote

   ii) If he is not a jurist himself, he should follow a jurist i.e. he should act according to the judgment (fatwa) of the jurist without demanding proof.

Ayatullah Sayyid Abulqasim al-Khui

https://www.al-islam.org/islamic-laws-ayatullah-abul-qasim-al-khui/taqlid#following-mujtahid

 

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Just now, S.M.H.A. said:

Just a reminder this in the context of Taqlid in Fiqhi(Jursiprudence) Issues.(Not Faith Issues)

Is this the real issue?

Ayatullah Sayyid Abulqasim al-Khui

https://www.al-islam.org/islamic-laws-ayatullah-abul-qasim-al-khui/taqlid#following-mujtahid

 

The only reason that you keep pushing so many of these rulings is that you know fine well that according to the example of the Imams, there is no third shahada in the adhan and iqama, you know this, everyone knows this.

You should just accept it and move on, no one is saying that you should stop doing it, but at least don't argue about it, when someone says to you "Rasulallah said..." and you reply "but my marja' says..." that is an indication that you have left your brain at the door, because the authority of the marja' come from his knowledge of the narrations, when he is clearly quoting his own opinions, you should accept that they are a fallible man's opinion, end of discussion.

It is like the story of the two men standing by a pool and one man says to the other "I'm going to give you seventy reasons why there is no water in this pool" to which the other man replies "I'm going to give you one reason" and he pushes the man in the water. - that is exactly the same situation that you are in, you can bring your seventy reasons why the 3rd shahada should be recited, but at the end of the day, the weight of the sunna against your seventy reasons is the same as you being pushed into the pool.

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2 minutes ago, Ali_Hussain said:

according to the example of the Imams, there is no third shahada in the adhan and iqama, you know this, everyone knows this.

 

Jurists are been dishonest in their opinion on a Fiqhi Issue. (using Taqiyah). Is this you opinion.?

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8 minutes ago, S.M.H.A. said:

Jurists are been dishonest in their opinion on a Fiqhi Issue. (using Taqiyah). Is this you opinion.?

Why do they have to be dishonest? Is it not possible that one person (majlisi) made a mistake and they are all doing taqlid to that person? Or it could be that they made mistakes.

There are examples where the narrations don't say something, but one person said it and everyone does taqlid to them, du'a Kumayl on a Thurdat night, that raising the Qur'an above your head 'du'a' that is recited during Ramadan, black clothes being mustahabb for men etc, if you really think about it, there are a whole list of things that are recommended today, but when you look at the sources that they are based on you can see that someone erred along that way and the whole community just go along with it. - when it isn't an issue of halal and haram, there isn't the urgency to correct it.

At the end of the day, this 3rd shahada business has been going on for maybe 4 centuries, are you saying that for the 10 centuries before that, the jurists were being dishonest in their opinion on a fiqhi issue? (using taqiyah)

Or worse, are you saying that the Imams didn't know about this issue?

Edited by Ali_Hussain
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8 minutes ago, Ali_Hussain said:

Why do they have to be dishonest? Is it not possible that one person (majlisi) made a mistake and they are all doing taqlid to that person? Or it could be that they made mistakes.

 

No Direct answer was given. (Issue was sided stepped). 

*****

Do you understand this?

Quote

Taqlid

Following a Mujtahid

1. It is necessary for a Muslim to believe in the fundamentals of faith on the basis of proof and he cannot follow anyone in this respect i.e. he cannot accept he word of another with regard to the fundamentals without demanding proof. However, in order to act on Islamic code (except in those matters which are considered by all to be indisputable e.g. the obligatory nature of the five daily prayers, fasting during the holy month of Ramadan etc.) a person must adopt one of the following methods:

    i) The man concerned should be a Mujtahid (jurist)1 himself and should know the Articles of Acts on the basis of Ijtihad2 and reason (i.e. he should be a man of such high learning and scholarship that he can solve problems from his study of the Qur’an and Hadith).

    ii) If he is not a jurist himself, he should follow a jurist i.e. he should act according to the judgment (fatwa) of the jurist without demanding proof.

    iii) If he is neither a jurist nor a follower (muqallid) he should act after taking such precaution that he should become sure of his having performed his religious duty. For example, if some jurists consider an act to be unlawful and some others say that it is not unlawful, he should not perform that act and in case some jurists consider an act to be obligatory (wajib) and others consider it to be recommended (mustahab) he should perform it. Hence it is obligatory for those persons who are not jurists and cannot also take precautionary measures (ihtiyat) to follow a jurist.3

Are you (i) -  i) The man concerned should be a Mujtahid (jurist)1

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Just now, S.M.H.A. said:

No Direct answer was given. (Issue was sided stepped). 

 

Subhanallah subhanallah, coming from you that is rich, you never address a single proof presented to you (in any discussion that you are involved in), all you do is copy and paste the same things over and over and over again, do you have any thoughts of your own?

What I did wasn't side stepping the issue, I was offering up an alternative view on why they have given the rulings that they have.

Side stepping is what you have done, you haven't addressed a single point that I made and then you have the audacity to accuse me of side stepping your point?

What a hypocrite you are.

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8 minutes ago, Ali_Hussain said:

Subhanallah subhanallah, coming from you that is rich, you never address a single proof presented to you (in any discussion that you are involved in), all you do is copy and paste the same things over and over and over again, do you have any thoughts of your own?

What I did wasn't side stepping the issue, I was offering up an alternative view on why they have given the rulings that they have.

Side stepping is what you have done, you haven't addressed a single point that I made and then you have the audacity to accuse me of side stepping your point?

What a hypocrite you are.

A) Are the Jurists been dishonest?

1)Yes.

2)No.

 

B)Are you are Jurist Yourself?

1)Yes

2)No

 

C) Do you understand that in the matter of Taqlid in Fiqh(Jurisprudence). A Jurist who has a book of Islamic lawm (Is a Mujhtid/Jurist/Marja -e Taqlid), is not in the Taqleed of anyone else, He is a Jurist himself?

1)Yes

2)No

D) Are you questioning that You should accept the opinion of a Jurist in Fiqhi Issues, with out demanding proof?

1)Yes

2)No

E) You are not in the Taqlid of any of the Jurists mentioned above in this post?

1) Yes

2) No

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