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mj1

Some confusing questions about ISLAM

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AOA fellows,

I had some questions in my mind for long and so i decided to post them on the forum.i know that my questions are basic and are a fundamental part of the Muslim faith but I never had an answer that could satisfy me. I would be really thankful if anyone could clear my confusions regarding TAUHID and Prophethood and other topics

1.The proof of the existence of a god 

2.what makes us believe the fact that Islam is the right religion? 

3.Why was Muhammad(PBUH) the last Prophet? every community before got a prophet and the answer that scholars provide to this is that they needed guidance. Why is that we have no prophet in this era who could guide us? are w better than those before us? 

4.Why is that Allah revealed many religions (Judaism,christianity etc)  before the introduction of Islam?

i would be really thankful if anyone could help..

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:ws:

I will try to answer to the best of my knowledge.

5 minutes ago, mj1 said:

1.The proof of the existence of a god 

The best way is to observe His miracles out of which Qur'aan is one. Reading the Qur'aan will most probably answer this question for you, once you listen to His Own words.

6 minutes ago, mj1 said:

2.what makes us believe the fact that Islam is the right religion?

Allah Himself mentioned in the Qur'aan as Islam being the best religion. Apart from that, comparing the current teachings of the religions will help you understand better. Since researching about all the religions isn't an easy task, it's better that you talk to the ones that embraced Islam. You can find them in the Reverts to Islam section. 

8 minutes ago, mj1 said:

3.Why was Muhammad(PBUH) the last Prophet? every community before got a prophet and the answer that scholars provide to this is that they needed guidance. Why is that we have no prophet in this era who could guide us? are w better than those before us?

Although there were Prophets for the ones before us but not for the Christians either since there was a gap between him & the last Prophet (pbuh). Apart from that, there were Imams after the Prophet for our guidance. Allah didn't leave Mohammad's (pbuh) Ummah unguided. Muslims always had an Imam in their time & so do we.

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9 minutes ago, Shian e Ali said:

:ws:

I will try to answer to the best of my knowledge.

The best way is to observe His miracles out of which Qur'aan is one. Reading the Qur'aan will most probably answer this question for you, once you listen to His Own words.

Allah Himself mentioned in the Qur'aan as Islam being the best religion. Apart from that, comparing the current teachings of the religions will help you understand better. Since researching about all the religions isn't an easy task, it's better that you talk to the ones that embraced Islam. You can find them in the Reverts to Islam section. 

Although there were Prophets for the ones before us but not for the Christians either since there was a gap between him & the last Prophet (pbuh). Apart from that, there were Imams after the Prophet for our guidance. Allah didn't leave Mohammad's (pbuh) Ummah unguided. Muslims always had an Imam in their time & so do we.

 

THANKS FOR THOSE ANSWERS.... SPECIALLY THE THIRD ONE(cleared much of my confusions) can u plz provide an answer for my fourth question??

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4 minutes ago, mj1 said:

THANKS FOR THOSE ANSWERS.... SPECIALLY THE THIRD ONE(cleared much of my confusions) can u plz provide an answer for my fourth question??

Sorry but I don't have an answer for that. InshaAllah someone else will answer it for you.

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1 hour ago, mj1 said:

AOA fellows,

I had some questions in my mind for long and so i decided to post them on the forum.i know that my questions are basic and are a fundamental part of the Muslim faith but I never had an answer that could satisfy me. I would be really thankful if anyone could clear my confusions regarding TAUHID and Prophethood and other topics

1.The proof of the existence of a god 

2.what makes us believe the fact that Islam is the right religion? 

3.Why was Muhammad(PBUH) the last Prophet? every community before got a prophet and the answer that scholars provide to this is that they needed guidance. Why is that we have no prophet in this era who could guide us? are w better than those before us? 

4.Why is that Allah revealed many religions (Judaism,christianity etc)  before the introduction of Islam?

i would be really thankful if anyone could help..

Wa aleikum as salam,

With regards to the 4th question, I will do my best to answer this question inshallah.

As for there being so many different religions in the world, Allah (swt) did not create them all - people did. People have been given free will so some have decided to follow the truth while others have deviated. However, in regards to Judaism and Christianity, their message is the oneness of God, just like Islam because that is what the prophets Moses, Noah, Abraham and Jesus taught. So if you think about it, Allah (swt) didn't reveal Judaism, Christianity and then Islam, he revealed Islam right from the beginning and it was some people who walked away from this and created different principles and faith. I hope this makes sense, its difficult to explain. 

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You walk.. and suddenly you see a building... Will you ever think that building came there by itself? No. You will certainly think: aha some good architect made it... 

Also... you have five bricks. Throw them. What is the possibility those bricks will end up laying one on top of other, in stack? There is no chance for that to happen by itself. 

So, there has to be someone to build that building. There has to be someone to arrange those bricks one on top of other....

 

Also, science tells you that all Universe became from explosion called BIG BANG. Science also tells you that you get chaos from explosion. So, how come that after the initial explosion, or Big Bang, this beautiful and perfect Universe was created? There has to be someone to arrange it. 

There you get proof of God. You are the proof. Your body, your mind, your soul... :)

 

anyway.. :)

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3 hours ago, mj1 said:

AOA fellows,

I had some questions in my mind for long and so i decided to post them on the forum.i know that my questions are basic and are a fundamental part of the Muslim faith but I never had an answer that could satisfy me. I would be really thankful if anyone could clear my confusions regarding TAUHID and Prophethood and other topics

1.The proof of the existence of a god 

2.what makes us believe the fact that Islam is the right religion? 

3.Why was Muhammad(PBUH) the last Prophet? every community before got a prophet and the answer that scholars provide to this is that they needed guidance. Why is that we have no prophet in this era who could guide us? are w better than those before us? 

4.Why is that Allah revealed many religions (Judaism,christianity etc)  before the introduction of Islam?

i would be really thankful if anyone could help..

You have a very primitive faith due to your lack of religious knowledge.

Like really?

1- Read your Quran, it will undoubtedly answer your question, If i want to answer it here i wouldn't finish. 

2- Go read about other religions, you will come running back to Islam. And again read your Quran. Islam is perfection, you can't find a mistake or some illogical thing in it. It's impossible. Get to know Ahlulbayt more, they will answer you a lot of your questions that i guess you didn't write here also.

3- It's not our business that God decided to give the ultimate privilege to Prophet Mohammad. It's not our business that God preferred the Holy Prophet out of all the prophets that came to existence. Who told you we are left alone? Are you serious now? What about Imam al Mahdi? And do you think that ahlulbayt are not watching over us like in this very second?

4- There AREN'T any other religions my dear shia brother. They all came to deliver One Message which is Islam. They all failed to deliver it, or the people understood it wrong/didn't believe it/changed it/whatever, the Only person who succeeded in delivering it fully is Prophet Mohammad. And for example if Jesus succeeded in delivering the message of God properly, Prophet Mohammad wouldn't have to come afterwards, cause the task was already done.

I'm so disturbed that i have to answer such question coming out from a Shia. You MUST understand your case is delicate. I used to be a former christian and i asked those questions in the very beginning of my journey towards islam. You are way behind.

READ YOUR QURAN! AND STUDY AHLULBAYT(as). Commitment and faith are not separate from Knowledge, they are linked in all ways, all levels. Don't be lazy get out of your comfort zone and dont seek answers from others go search for yourself. Show God that you are ready to take the first step at least and He'll Guide you along the way.

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4 hours ago, mj1 said:

1.The proof of the existence of a god 

Bismillah.

Salaam.

Who is God and how is it possible to prove His existence?

In order to clarify our answer to the above question, it is necessary to take a few points into account:

1. The concept of “God” is one of the simplest concepts that even atheists can understand and comprehend, because everybody knows that God refers to the being that has created everything, that exists in this world, is capable of doing whatsoever he desires, is aware of everything that occurs and is all perceiving, the ever listening and etc.

2. Although the term "God" is one of the most general concepts, comprehending the true nature of his essence is out of our reach. The reason being that ‘knowledge’ means and happens when the ‘knower’ has total awareness of ‘the known’ subject, and due to the fact that man’s being and attributes are in almost every way finite, which results in a limited and finite knowledge, comprehending God’s infinite true essence is out of his reach (the limited cannot have total awareness of the unlimited because of the lack of capacity for such). “They cannot encompass God in knowledge” [1] hence one should refrain from pondering God’s essence. Perhaps, it is because of the same reason that the Holy Quran while mentioning the attributes of God describes Him as Needless, Knowing, Wise, Seeing, Hearing, Exalted, Great, Compassionate, Merciful, Creator, Originator etc. [2]

In addition, man establishes communication with external objects which are the signs of God and which help mankind gain knowledge about the Lord.  In fact, God, the Exalted is not like anything. "Nothing is like Him". «لیس کمثله شی» [3]

Despite the fact that we cannot comprehend Him completely, everyone is capable of studying the divine attributes and understand them depending on the capacity he possesses.

The ways to knowing and comprehending God can be summed up in the following ways:

1. Reason, like the argument of necessity and contingency (the burhan of Wujub and Imkan)

2. Through experimentation and sensation, such as the argument from design [4]

3. The inner way, the argument of fitrah (genesis, innate disposition towards virtue and knowledge)[5]

4 - The easiest and the best way to understand and know God is the argument of fitrah (or the way of the heart) whereby a person refers to his own God-gifted nature and to his inward where he sees God without any rational argument or any experimental observation. There is always a luminous spot in man's heart which enables him to communicate with the metaphysical world. It is also the closest way to God.[6]

5. Although knowing God, the tendency towards Him and the light of monotheism are ingrained in the nature of all human beings, the superstitious norms, customs, wrong educations, false inculcations, negligence, pride and a lot of other factors especially when one is healthy and enjoys all kinds of bounties, obstruct and overpower the God-gifted nature. But when he is surrounded by misery and hardship and when he despairs of worldly means and feels that he has no access to anything, it is only then that the curtains go away and that luminous spot becomes visible. It is only then that he drops all kinds of polytheistic thoughts and becomes purified in this oven of difficulties and mishaps [7] turning to the metaphysical world. Man's turning to God during times of calamities is a sign of our inclinations to Godliness. Man gets involved with his position and status so much that he forgets about God. He gets fully entangled in his sins and disobedience. Once calamity befalls upon man, he suddenly remembers God and turns to Him for help. Thus, we realize that this sense of Godliness is intrinsic in humans, but man's involvement in worldly affairs results in his forgetting God.

That is why, there are different Quranic verses that remind mankind about the bounty of God-seeking nature. [8]

The great leaders of Islam also guided in the same way those who went contemplating with hesitation about God. For example read the following piece of history:

A man went to see Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq (as) and expressed his amazement about knowing God.

The man said: "I have discussed this issue with many knowledgeable people, but they have not been able to help me." Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s) ended his amazement using his intrinsic human Godliness and asked him:

"Have you ever been aboard a ship?"

The man said: "Yes."

Then Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s) asked: "Have you ever been on a sinking ship, and reached out for a narrow piece of board to stay afloat?"

The man said: "Yes. I have."

Then Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s) said: "Then while you could not see any dry land or anyone there to save you, were you not really attracted to some power to rescue you?"

The man replied: "Yes."

Imam Sadiq (a.s) said: He is God Who has the power to save. There is no one else to save or to come a person's help."

The conclusion we can draw is that Godliness is intrinsic and that every individual has some tendency, perception and knowledge of God within his heart. If he is negligent of God due to some reasons, he cannot deny the incidents which have taken place in his lifetime and in which he has been bereaved of all means causing him to direct his attention to God. [9]

6. Sometimes, man is led to God and His attributes such as knowledge, power and wisdom simply by observing and contemplating carefully over the qualities of things and their relationship with each other. Since this way is based on observation of the natural world and experimental study of natural phenomena, it is called the 'experimentation way'. Given the privileges of this way, the Holy Quran has attached special importance to it. Therefore, there are many verses calling on man to ponder over the worldly phenomena surrounding him because they serve as creational signs of God, the Lord of the universe. Some Muslim scholars, relying on certain aspects and features of the world of nature e.g. the design and pervasive order in natural things, have arranged an argument to prove God's existence. The argument is named "argument from design". Therefore, the argument from design can be named a clear example of what we just termed as 'knowing God through experimentation'.

Understanding through the ‘signs’ pointed to in the Quran and hadiths:

There are verses in different chapters of the Holy Quran which make mention of various natural phenomena considering them as signs and indications for God's existence and also calling on humans to contemplate over them. Knowing God through His creational signs in the world of creation which is a clear example of seeking God through the experimental way is sometimes interpreted as "understanding God through His signs". [10] A number of verses call on mankind to contemplate and ponder over the creational signs of God. They describe the system existing in the universe and in man's being as a reason and guide that lead the wise and the thoughtful towards the origin of the universe:

"Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand." [11]

And "On the earth are signs for those of assured Faith, As also in your own selves: Will ye not then see?" [12]

There are numerous other verses in the Quran which have made reference to special phenomena and considered them as the signs of the existence, knowledge and power of God. The verses relating to this subject are so many that even mentioning few examples would need a great amount of space and time. [13]

Religious leaders, following the Quranic method, have also emphasized on 'sign based understanding of God". For example, it has been reported that Imam Sadiq (a.s) said to one of his companions:

"O' Mufaddal, the structure of the universe is the foremost directive and argument for the existence of Almighty Allah -- how the parts thereof have been set together and been possessed of elegant workmanship and design. An appropriate mood of contemplation with reason focused on individual parts will disclose that this universe is comparable to a house furnished with all articles necessary for human beings.

The sky is like a canopy; the earth is spread like a carpet, while the stars set in stratum upon stratum, appear as lamps alight in their places. The gems are treasured as if the house has lots of collections. Besides these, everything is readily available to meet individual needs. Man, in this world, is like the masterful owner of the house, having in his possession everything therein.

And there exist the different plant species available for meeting; individual needs -- some as fodder for the animals, others as drugs for human beings; some merely for ornaments, some to supply fragrance to man for his recreation; some as drugs for animals, some as nutriment for man; some for birds only and others for the quadrupeds alone and so on. Different species of animals have been allotted functions for particular exigencies and interest.

These are reasons to prove that the universe has been created with wise and precise measuring, order and harmony. It is creator is One and He is the Designer and Originator of this harmony and order." [14]

7. The rational way:

This is the way through which God is proved with purely rational preliminaries, principles and methods. [15]

The philosophical reasons and arguments for proving God’s existence are clear examples of rational investigation and research in line with proving God. Compared to the other two ways, this way has certain features of which we shall mention some as under:

1. Many of the rational arguments and explanations are not very useful for those who lack philosophical information because of the fact that philosophical arguments are complex and difficult in nature. [16]

2. One of privileges of the rational way is that it can be used in our scientific debates with the atheists. Thus, we can reveal the weakness and flaw of their arguments by presenting rational arguments. The rational way can also be used to answer the challenges posed by rationalists and those who surrender not to anything but rational arguments.

3. The rational way used to prove the existence of God can be effective in strengthening religious beliefs because whenever a person’s mind submits to the truth, his heart also inclines towards it. On the other hand, rational argument plays a crucial role in removing doubts and hesitations and in curtailing any harm on one’s religious conviction and belief. [17]

Taking into consideration the unique function of the intellectual method, and the mind’s natural inclination towards profound intellectual matters and discussions, Islamic scholars have made great efforts regarding understanding God through logic and intellect which have led to new arguments in this field, or the completion of previous ones. One of the most solid logic based reasons for proving the existence of God is the famous proof called “The Argument of Necessity and Possibility” (wujub wa imkan). There are different variations to this argument, but for our purposes we will use the one below. We can summarize this proof of necessity and possibility in this format:  It is certain that there exists a being in the universe. If this being is the necessary existent, then our proof will be at hand. If it is a possible existent, then it has a need for a cause and since it is impossible to have an infinite chain of possible existents, this possible existent is in need of a necessary existent (whose existence is not bestowed by another cause). This existent is that of the Wajibul Wujud, or the necessary existent. To repeat this in other words, there are different kinds of possible existents in the world. They are either necessary existents or possible existents. The necessary existent does not derive its being from another cause or being, but the possible existent came into being due to another cause. All possible existents go back in a chain that must lead to a necessary existent, due to the fact that an infinite chain of existents is impossible.

Note: Since your question was precise and it was not clear whether your question dealt with God’s existence or with His attributes, we have endeavored to tackle the first possibility in greater length. In case, you are willing to know further about God’s attributes, you can email us again.


[1] - “لا یحیطون به علما” Taha: 110.

[2] - Tafsir Namunah, vol.14, pg. 161.

[3] -Al-Shura, 11.

[4] - Just because this way utilizes experimentation doesn’t mean it is devoid of any reasoning and rationality, what is meant when it is said that it is experimental is that one of the premises of the argument is such, which is to observe the different phenomena of this world.

[5] - Ma'aref Islami, vol.1, pg. 41.

[6] - Tafsir Namunah, vol.16, pg. 341 & 342.

[7] - Ibid, pg. 418 – 422 & 423

[8] - Such as verse 65 Al-Ankabut and verse 30 of Sura Al-Room and verse 12, 22, and 23 of Sura Yunus, verse 67 and Sura al-Isra and verses 8 and 49 of Sura al-Zumar.

[9] - Behar al-Anwar, vol.3, pg. 41.

[10] - It should be noted that there are many viewpoints about "sign based understanding", a concept derived from the Holy Quran: Some researchers consider it as a prelude to the formation of a rational argument – similar to what was in "argument from design" – about God's existence, His knowledge and wisdom. However, based on another exegetic notion, the Quranic verses which call on man to contemplate over the natural phenomena are simply reminding him about his natural knowledge of God. The verses serve as reminders only. A third view is that the intended verses are aim to argue with the pagans, those who wrongly considered idols and their own hand-made statues as their lords and effective in the affairs of the world having no precise understanding of divine unity. (See: Tafsir Al-Mizan, Allamah Tabatabai, vol.18, pg. 154; Ideological Instruction, Mesbah Yazdi, vol.1-2, pg. 68, and Tabyin Barahin Ethbat, Javadi Amuli, pg. 43).

[11] - ان فی خلق السماوات والارض و اختلاف اللیل والنهار لآیات لاولی الالباب. [Aal-e Imran: 190]

[12] - و فی الارض آیات للموقنین. و فی انفسکم، افلا تبصرون. (Dhariyat, 20 & 21 and also see: Baqarah, 164; Jathiyah, 3 – 6; Yunus, 100 and 101; Ibrahim, 10).

[13] - Verses that emphasize on specific phenomena being signs are sorted out into few general categories. The verses relating to human life are: 1. Overall system of man's creation: Jathiya, 4, and Room, 20. 2. Fetus formation system in the womb: Aal-e Imran, 6, Infitar, 6 – 7; Taghbarun, 3; Ghafir, 64; Hashr, 24; Noorh, 13 – 14. 3. Cognitive system: Nahl, 78. 4. Variety and multiplicity of languages and colors: Room, 22; Fatir, 27 and 28. 5. Sustenance and feeding system: Ghafir, 64; Isra, 70, Jathiyah 50 & 20; Fatir, 3, Room, 4; Saba, 24; Yunus, 31; Naml, 64, Mulk, 21, Anfal, 26; Baqarah, 22 & 172; Ibrahim, 22 and Dhariyat, 58. 6. Sleep system: Room, 23; Naml, 86; Furqan, 47; Naba, 9 and Zumar, 42. 7. Clothing system: A'raf, 26 and Nahl, 14 & 81. 8. Residential system: Nhajl, 80. 9. Marriage system: Room, 21; Shura, 11; Fatir, 11; Najm, 45; Qiyamat, 39; Nahjl, 72; Layl, 3; Naba, 8 and A'raf, 189.

[14] - Also, see: Nahjul Balaghah, sermon 186, Al-Tawhid, Shaykh Saduq, chapt. 2, hadtih 2, and Behar al-Anwar, Allamah Majlisi, vol.3, pp. 61, 82, 130, 152.

[15] - This way being called ‘rational’ does not necessarily mean that only reason or intellect is used to prove God. In fact, it means that it has sufficed to rational preliminaries and methods.

[16] - This meaning is not inconsistent  with the rational way being considered of general and public utility because ‘being public’ is relative here as opposed to ‘being personal’ in the sense that the rational way is not particular to a single person. In fact, different people can benefit from it.

[17] - Rational is useful especially for those who are deprived of the capacity to see God through intuition and with the eye of the heart.

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa520

More info at:

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa13446

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa889

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa3445

With Duas.

Narsis.

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On 3/3/2016 at 0:11 AM, narsis said:

 

Bismillah.

Salaam.

Who is God and how is it possible to prove His existence?

In order to clarify our answer to the above question, it is necessary to take a few points into account:

1. The concept of “God” is one of the simplest concepts that even atheists can understand and comprehend, because everybody knows that God refers to the being that has created everything, that exists in this world, is capable of doing whatsoever he desires, is aware of everything that occurs and is all perceiving, the ever listening and etc.

2. Although the term "God" is one of the most general concepts, comprehending the true nature of his essence is out of our reach. The reason being that ‘knowledge’ means and happens when the ‘knower’ has total awareness of ‘the known’ subject, and due to the fact that man’s being and attributes are in almost every way finite, which results in a limited and finite knowledge, comprehending God’s infinite true essence is out of his reach (the limited cannot have total awareness of the unlimited because of the lack of capacity for such). “They cannot encompass God in knowledge” [1] hence one should refrain from pondering God’s essence. Perhaps, it is because of the same reason that the Holy Quran while mentioning the attributes of God describes Him as Needless, Knowing, Wise, Seeing, Hearing, Exalted, Great, Compassionate, Merciful, Creator, Originator etc. [2]

In addition, man establishes communication with external objects which are the signs of God and which help mankind gain knowledge about the Lord.  In fact, God, the Exalted is not like anything. "Nothing is like Him". «لیس کمثله شی» [3]

Despite the fact that we cannot comprehend Him completely, everyone is capable of studying the divine attributes and understand them depending on the capacity he possesses.

The ways to knowing and comprehending God can be summed up in the following ways:

1. Reason, like the argument of necessity and contingency (the burhan of Wujub and Imkan)

2. Through experimentation and sensation, such as the argument from design [4]

3. The inner way, the argument of fitrah (genesis, innate disposition towards virtue and knowledge)[5]

4 - The easiest and the best way to understand and know God is the argument of fitrah (or the way of the heart) whereby a person refers to his own God-gifted nature and to his inward where he sees God without any rational argument or any experimental observation. There is always a luminous spot in man's heart which enables him to communicate with the metaphysical world. It is also the closest way to God.[6]

5. Although knowing God, the tendency towards Him and the light of monotheism are ingrained in the nature of all human beings, the superstitious norms, customs, wrong educations, false inculcations, negligence, pride and a lot of other factors especially when one is healthy and enjoys all kinds of bounties, obstruct and overpower the God-gifted nature. But when he is surrounded by misery and hardship and when he despairs of worldly means and feels that he has no access to anything, it is only then that the curtains go away and that luminous spot becomes visible. It is only then that he drops all kinds of polytheistic thoughts and becomes purified in this oven of difficulties and mishaps [7] turning to the metaphysical world. Man's turning to God during times of calamities is a sign of our inclinations to Godliness. Man gets involved with his position and status so much that he forgets about God. He gets fully entangled in his sins and disobedience. Once calamity befalls upon man, he suddenly remembers God and turns to Him for help. Thus, we realize that this sense of Godliness is intrinsic in humans, but man's involvement in worldly affairs results in his forgetting God.

That is why, there are different Quranic verses that remind mankind about the bounty of God-seeking nature. [8]

The great leaders of Islam also guided in the same way those who went contemplating with hesitation about God. For example read the following piece of history:

A man went to see Imam Ja’far ibn Muhammad al-Sadiq (as) and expressed his amazement about knowing God.

The man said: "I have discussed this issue with many knowledgeable people, but they have not been able to help me." Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s) ended his amazement using his intrinsic human Godliness and asked him:

"Have you ever been aboard a ship?"

The man said: "Yes."

Then Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s) asked: "Have you ever been on a sinking ship, and reached out for a narrow piece of board to stay afloat?"

The man said: "Yes. I have."

Then Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s) said: "Then while you could not see any dry land or anyone there to save you, were you not really attracted to some power to rescue you?"

The man replied: "Yes."

Imam Sadiq (a.s) said: He is God Who has the power to save. There is no one else to save or to come a person's help."

The conclusion we can draw is that Godliness is intrinsic and that every individual has some tendency, perception and knowledge of God within his heart. If he is negligent of God due to some reasons, he cannot deny the incidents which have taken place in his lifetime and in which he has been bereaved of all means causing him to direct his attention to God. [9]

6. Sometimes, man is led to God and His attributes such as knowledge, power and wisdom simply by observing and contemplating carefully over the qualities of things and their relationship with each other. Since this way is based on observation of the natural world and experimental study of natural phenomena, it is called the 'experimentation way'. Given the privileges of this way, the Holy Quran has attached special importance to it. Therefore, there are many verses calling on man to ponder over the worldly phenomena surrounding him because they serve as creational signs of God, the Lord of the universe. Some Muslim scholars, relying on certain aspects and features of the world of nature e.g. the design and pervasive order in natural things, have arranged an argument to prove God's existence. The argument is named "argument from design". Therefore, the argument from design can be named a clear example of what we just termed as 'knowing God through experimentation'.

Understanding through the ‘signs’ pointed to in the Quran and hadiths:

There are verses in different chapters of the Holy Quran which make mention of various natural phenomena considering them as signs and indications for God's existence and also calling on humans to contemplate over them. Knowing God through His creational signs in the world of creation which is a clear example of seeking God through the experimental way is sometimes interpreted as "understanding God through His signs". [10] A number of verses call on mankind to contemplate and ponder over the creational signs of God. They describe the system existing in the universe and in man's being as a reason and guide that lead the wise and the thoughtful towards the origin of the universe:

"Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand." [11]

And "On the earth are signs for those of assured Faith, As also in your own selves: Will ye not then see?" [12]

There are numerous other verses in the Quran which have made reference to special phenomena and considered them as the signs of the existence, knowledge and power of God. The verses relating to this subject are so many that even mentioning few examples would need a great amount of space and time. [13]

Religious leaders, following the Quranic method, have also emphasized on 'sign based understanding of God". For example, it has been reported that Imam Sadiq (a.s) said to one of his companions:

"O' Mufaddal, the structure of the universe is the foremost directive and argument for the existence of Almighty Allah -- how the parts thereof have been set together and been possessed of elegant workmanship and design. An appropriate mood of contemplation with reason focused on individual parts will disclose that this universe is comparable to a house furnished with all articles necessary for human beings.

The sky is like a canopy; the earth is spread like a carpet, while the stars set in stratum upon stratum, appear as lamps alight in their places. The gems are treasured as if the house has lots of collections. Besides these, everything is readily available to meet individual needs. Man, in this world, is like the masterful owner of the house, having in his possession everything therein.

And there exist the different plant species available for meeting; individual needs -- some as fodder for the animals, others as drugs for human beings; some merely for ornaments, some to supply fragrance to man for his recreation; some as drugs for animals, some as nutriment for man; some for birds only and others for the quadrupeds alone and so on. Different species of animals have been allotted functions for particular exigencies and interest.

These are reasons to prove that the universe has been created with wise and precise measuring, order and harmony. It is creator is One and He is the Designer and Originator of this harmony and order." [14]

7. The rational way:

This is the way through which God is proved with purely rational preliminaries, principles and methods. [15]

The philosophical reasons and arguments for proving God’s existence are clear examples of rational investigation and research in line with proving God. Compared to the other two ways, this way has certain features of which we shall mention some as under:

1. Many of the rational arguments and explanations are not very useful for those who lack philosophical information because of the fact that philosophical arguments are complex and difficult in nature. [16]

2. One of privileges of the rational way is that it can be used in our scientific debates with the atheists. Thus, we can reveal the weakness and flaw of their arguments by presenting rational arguments. The rational way can also be used to answer the challenges posed by rationalists and those who surrender not to anything but rational arguments.

3. The rational way used to prove the existence of God can be effective in strengthening religious beliefs because whenever a person’s mind submits to the truth, his heart also inclines towards it. On the other hand, rational argument plays a crucial role in removing doubts and hesitations and in curtailing any harm on one’s religious conviction and belief. [17]

Taking into consideration the unique function of the intellectual method, and the mind’s natural inclination towards profound intellectual matters and discussions, Islamic scholars have made great efforts regarding understanding God through logic and intellect which have led to new arguments in this field, or the completion of previous ones. One of the most solid logic based reasons for proving the existence of God is the famous proof called “The Argument of Necessity and Possibility” (wujub wa imkan). There are different variations to this argument, but for our purposes we will use the one below. We can summarize this proof of necessity and possibility in this format:  It is certain that there exists a being in the universe. If this being is the necessary existent, then our proof will be at hand. If it is a possible existent, then it has a need for a cause and since it is impossible to have an infinite chain of possible existents, this possible existent is in need of a necessary existent (whose existence is not bestowed by another cause). This existent is that of the Wajibul Wujud, or the necessary existent. To repeat this in other words, there are different kinds of possible existents in the world. They are either necessary existents or possible existents. The necessary existent does not derive its being from another cause or being, but the possible existent came into being due to another cause. All possible existents go back in a chain that must lead to a necessary existent, due to the fact that an infinite chain of existents is impossible.

Note: Since your question was precise and it was not clear whether your question dealt with God’s existence or with His attributes, we have endeavored to tackle the first possibility in greater length. In case, you are willing to know further about God’s attributes, you can email us again.


[1] - “لا یحیطون به علما” Taha: 110.

[2] - Tafsir Namunah, vol.14, pg. 161.

[3] -Al-Shura, 11.

[4] - Just because this way utilizes experimentation doesn’t mean it is devoid of any reasoning and rationality, what is meant when it is said that it is experimental is that one of the premises of the argument is such, which is to observe the different phenomena of this world.

[5] - Ma'aref Islami, vol.1, pg. 41.

[6] - Tafsir Namunah, vol.16, pg. 341 & 342.

[7] - Ibid, pg. 418 – 422 & 423

[8] - Such as verse 65 Al-Ankabut and verse 30 of Sura Al-Room and verse 12, 22, and 23 of Sura Yunus, verse 67 and Sura al-Isra and verses 8 and 49 of Sura al-Zumar.

[9] - Behar al-Anwar, vol.3, pg. 41.

[10] - It should be noted that there are many viewpoints about "sign based understanding", a concept derived from the Holy Quran: Some researchers consider it as a prelude to the formation of a rational argument – similar to what was in "argument from design" – about God's existence, His knowledge and wisdom. However, based on another exegetic notion, the Quranic verses which call on man to contemplate over the natural phenomena are simply reminding him about his natural knowledge of God. The verses serve as reminders only. A third view is that the intended verses are aim to argue with the pagans, those who wrongly considered idols and their own hand-made statues as their lords and effective in the affairs of the world having no precise understanding of divine unity. (See: Tafsir Al-Mizan, Allamah Tabatabai, vol.18, pg. 154; Ideological Instruction, Mesbah Yazdi, vol.1-2, pg. 68, and Tabyin Barahin Ethbat, Javadi Amuli, pg. 43).

[11] - ان فی خلق السماوات والارض و اختلاف اللیل والنهار لآیات لاولی الالباب. [Aal-e Imran: 190]

[12] - و فی الارض آیات للموقنین. و فی انفسکم، افلا تبصرون. (Dhariyat, 20 & 21 and also see: Baqarah, 164; Jathiyah, 3 – 6; Yunus, 100 and 101; Ibrahim, 10).

[13] - Verses that emphasize on specific phenomena being signs are sorted out into few general categories. The verses relating to human life are: 1. Overall system of man's creation: Jathiya, 4, and Room, 20. 2. Fetus formation system in the womb: Aal-e Imran, 6, Infitar, 6 – 7; Taghbarun, 3; Ghafir, 64; Hashr, 24; Noorh, 13 – 14. 3. Cognitive system: Nahl, 78. 4. Variety and multiplicity of languages and colors: Room, 22; Fatir, 27 and 28. 5. Sustenance and feeding system: Ghafir, 64; Isra, 70, Jathiyah 50 & 20; Fatir, 3, Room, 4; Saba, 24; Yunus, 31; Naml, 64, Mulk, 21, Anfal, 26; Baqarah, 22 & 172; Ibrahim, 22 and Dhariyat, 58. 6. Sleep system: Room, 23; Naml, 86; Furqan, 47; Naba, 9 and Zumar, 42. 7. Clothing system: A'raf, 26 and Nahl, 14 & 81. 8. Residential system: Nhajl, 80. 9. Marriage system: Room, 21; Shura, 11; Fatir, 11; Najm, 45; Qiyamat, 39; Nahjl, 72; Layl, 3; Naba, 8 and A'raf, 189.

[14] - Also, see: Nahjul Balaghah, sermon 186, Al-Tawhid, Shaykh Saduq, chapt. 2, hadtih 2, and Behar al-Anwar, Allamah Majlisi, vol.3, pp. 61, 82, 130, 152.

[15] - This way being called ‘rational’ does not necessarily mean that only reason or intellect is used to prove God. In fact, it means that it has sufficed to rational preliminaries and methods.

[16] - This meaning is not inconsistent  with the rational way being considered of general and public utility because ‘being public’ is relative here as opposed to ‘being personal’ in the sense that the rational way is not particular to a single person. In fact, different people can benefit from it.

[17] - Rational is useful especially for those who are deprived of the capacity to see God through intuition and with the eye of the heart.

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa520

More info at:

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa13446

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa889

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa3445

With Duas.

Narsis.

thanks :)

 

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