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In the Name of God بسم الله

A Dialogue on your understanding of - Shirk

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Audhu billahi min ash-shaitanir rajeem.

Bismillah, ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim

AsSalam Alaykum,


It is my layman opinion. that the basic understanding of what is been provided below is prerequisite for this discussion/dialogue. I should have included in the first post.


1] Shahada (Muslim[Shia]-Testament of Faith)


Ash-hado an la ilaha illAllah

(I bear witness that there is no God But Allah)

Wahdahoo la shareeka lah

(The one, Who has no Partner)

Wa ash-hado anna Muhammadun abdohoo wa Rasoolullah…..

(and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger.

Ash-hado an Aliyun Waleeullah, Wasi-o-Rasoolilah

(I bear witness that Ali is the Wali of Allah, rightful executor of the Will of the Prophet)


2] Adhan[ Call to Prayer], from Muslim Mosques, repeat the Three testimony of Faith-Five times a Day for All to hear.


Allahu Akbar... ... ...... . (Allah is great)

Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah . . . . . . . . . . (I testify that there is no deity but Allah)

Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah . . . . . . . : . . (I testify that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger)

Ash hadu anna Amirul Muminina'Aliyyan Waliyyullah ……..(i.e. I testify that the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (Peace be on him) is the vicegerent of Allah)


3]The Recommended Acts Of Prostration[Prayers]

Recite Salawat while reciting prostrations.

4]. Tashahhud (Bearing Witness During Prayers)


"Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah waash hadu anna Muhammadan Abduhu wa Rasuluh, Ala humma salli ala Muhammadin wa Aali Muhammad.


5] Salam (Salutation) Of The Prayers

Assalamu allayka ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barrakatuh; and then he should say: Assalamu alayna wa ala ibadil lahis salihin


6] Holy Qur’an Surah Al-Ikhlas.

[112:1] Say: He is Allah, the One!

[112:2] Allah, the eternally Besought of all!

[112:3] He begetteth not nor was begotten.

[112:4] And there is none comparable unto Him.


7] Holy Qur’an Surah Al-Faathia.

[1:1] In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

[1:2] Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds,

[1:3] The Beneficent, the Merciful.

[1:4] Master of the Day of Judgment,

[1:5] Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) we ask for help.

[1:6] Show us the straight path,

[1:7] The path of those whom Thou hast favoured; Not the (path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray.


8] Verses of the Holy Qur'an, Related to the Announcement of Adam[as] as the viceroy/Khalifa/vicegerent on/for earth


[16:98] And when thou recitest the Qur'an, seek refuge in Allah from Satan the outcast.

[23:97] And say: My Lord! I seek refuge in Thee from suggestions of the evil ones,

[23:98] And I seek refuge in Thee, my Lord, lest they be present with me,

[43:62] And let not Satan turn you aside. Lo! he is an open enemy for you.


[2:30] And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth, they said: Wilt thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not.

[2:31] And He taught Adam all the names, then showed them to the angels, saying: Inform Me of the names of these, if ye are truthful.

[2:32] They said: Be glorified! We have no knowledge saving that which Thou hast taught us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower, the Wise.

[2:33] He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names, and when he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I not tell you that I know the secret of the heavens and the earth? And I know that which ye disclose and which ye hide.

[2:34] And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever.


[7:11] And We created you, then fashioned you, then told the angels: Fall ye prostrate before Adam! And they fell prostrate, all save Iblis, who was not of those who make prostration.


[7:12] He said: What hindered thee that thou didst not fall prostrate when I bade thee? (Iblis) said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me of fire while him Thou didst create of mud.

[15:32] He said: O Iblis! What aileth thee that thou art not among the prostrate?


[17:61] And when We said unto the angels: Fall down prostrate before Adam and they fell prostrate all save Iblis, he said: Shall I fall prostrate before that which Thou hast created of clay?


[18:50] And (remember) when We said unto the angels: Fall prostrate before Adam, and they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He was of the jinn, so he rebelled against his Lord's command. Will ye choose him and his seed for your protecting friends instead of Me, when they are an enemy unto you? Calamitous is the exchange for evil-doers.


[38:71] When thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to create a mortal out of mire,

[38:72] And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My Spirit, then fall down before him prostrate,

[38:73] The angels fell down prostrate, every one,

[38:74] Saving Iblis; he was scornful and became one of the disbelievers.

[38:75] He said: O Iblis! What hindereth thee from falling prostrate before that which I have created with both My hands? Art thou too proud or art thou of the high exalted?

[38:76] He said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me of fire, whilst him Thou didst create of clay.

[38:77] He said: Go forth from hence, for lo! thou art outcast,

[38:78] And lo! My curse is on thee till the Day of Judgment.

[38:79] He said: My Lord! Reprieve me till the day when they are raised.

[38:80] He said: Lo! thou art of those reprieved

[38:81] Until the day of the time appointed.

[38:82] He said: Then, by Thy might, I surely will beguile them every one,

[38:83] Save Thy single-minded slaves among them.


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Audhu billahi min ash-shaitanir rajeem.

Bismillah, ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim

AsSalam Alaykum,

I want emphasize that below is My layman, current [incomplete] understanding. Allah{AWJ} knows best.


Tawheed is the primary pillar of our faith. It has various aspects.

In the same way Shirk also consists of different types:

1) Shirk with regard to the DIVINE Essence of Allah (AWJ).

2) Shirk with regard to the DIVINE Attributes of Allah (AWJ).

3) Shirk in Allah(AWJ) DIVINE actions.

4) Shirk in Allah(AWJ) DIVINE Obedience.

5) Shirk in Allah(AWJ) DIVINE worship.

6) Denial of the Creator

7) Doubts in Allah[AWJ],

8) Doubts in Allah[AWJ] Divine Book

9] Doubts in Allah[AWJ] Messengers/Hujjat and their abilities and disobedience of their commands.

10] Doubts in Allah[AWJ] abilities.

11] Many other ways, Shirk/Kufr can be committed.

Above could be all interrelated.

The Jinn, that became the outcast[Satan/Iblis], what type of Shirk, did he commit.

Point # 9 in above Post #3. Verses of the Holy Qur’an.

A] Did Iblis, associate any Divine Partner [as equal, independent deity ] to Allah[AWJ]?

B] Did Iblis associate any other DEITY with Divine Status[independent cause][like the Mushrik/Polythiest did] to  Allah[AWJ], and sought protection and made dua/supplicate to that Deity ?

C] Did Iblis, reject the day of Judgement, and that Allah[AWJ] is the Master of that day?

C] DId iblis associate his creaturely attributes to be equal to the DIVINE Attributes?

What was his real Crime, that made him an outcast till the day of Judgement?

If it was disobedience of the Divine decree[2:30], is this not we need to focus on the most ? as it concerns us, [Muslims]? We are directed to what Allah[AWJ] message was to the Meccans. Ok, let's fast forward, we are Muslims now. Is the story of Iblis for Meccans to convert them to Islam? It's directed at us. What difference does it make to the Mushriks/polytheists/infidels/pagans etc.. of Makkah, that Allah[AWJ] appointed a Khalifa and an entity rebelled, and disobeyed and became outcast, and we are to take refuge in Allah[AWJ] before reading the Qur’an [16:98], iblis has been deemed and open enemy? why don’t we concentrate and REFLECT on his actions that lead to his eternal condemnation.

Prostration ordered by the Divine Command was not to acknowledge Adam[as] Divinity.Or in Qur’an [12:100] in the case of Prophet Yusuf[as].[ Did Allah[AWJ] by HIS[AWJ} Divine command ordered Shirk here]?

Adam[as] can’t have Divine Attributes, he can only have creaturely attributes which are dependent on the Allah[AWJ] bestowing on him [2:31]. [There is a difference in Divine Knowledge and Adam[as] knowledge[which is not independent, of the original cause].

Rejection of Divine Command, is the most important message that Allah[AWJ] is trying to convey to us, Rejection of Allah[AWJ]’s appointment of Khalifa is of the essence.

If Allah[AWJ] has ordered respect and reverence of Allah{AWJ], Signs, Hujjat - and ability or any and all attributes they[the dependent creations] have been given is a dependent attribute not equal to the DIVINE attribute.

Everythings else that we are distracted with, may have lesser value in the overall scheme as they are all subjective to one’s opinion/interpretations//bais/political affiliations etc..

Now , I want to open myself [Layman] for constructive criticism, like to have an conceptual, academic and dispassionate and honest “ Dialogue’.

Kindly, put forward your understanding of Shirk/Kufr and in your opinion, what constitutes Shirk/kufr and any comments on my current/incomplete understanding.



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smha, I have approved the first of your posts. The other 2 were duplicates. All posts on this forum need approval that is why you won't immediately see them. And keeping on reposting does not help.

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On 1/15/2016 at 3:17 AM, colargol said:

Shirk is giving to something or someone what is reserved for Allah S.W.T alone, and giving to others or other things what belongs to Allah S.W.T. alone.

Before defining shirk, worship has to be understood. Worship is a consequence of something else, mainly piety and fear (hushoo), that come from ma'arifa (Knowledge of God). From that comes knowledge of the attributes of God and realisation of Tawheed (Oneness), which lead to love, fear, devotion, trust (tawakkal) to Allah S.W.T. and more,  they are the root of worship, and worship in itself. A person commits shirk if such person ascribes to others what is Allah's only mainly His S.W.T. unique attributes, ascribes other attributes of Allah S.W.T. equally to the creation, and disproportionates love, fear, devotion etc, to others or other things equally or more then to Allah S.W.T.

The Third post in this thread/topic above.


Quranic verses 2:34, 7:11, 7:12, 15:32, 17:61, 18:50, 38:72, 38:75


And Prostration of the Father[Prophet], the mother and 11 brothers to Prophet Yusuf[as]


إِذْ قَالَ يُوسُفُ لِأَبِيهِ يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ كَوْكَبًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ رَأَيْتُهُمْ لِي سَاجِدِينَ {4}

[Shakir 12:4] When Yusuf said to his father: O my father! surely I saw eleven stars and the sun and the moon-- I saw them making obeisance to me.

[Pickthal 12:4] When Joseph said unto his father: O my father! Lo! I saw in a dream eleven planets and the sun and the moon, I saw them prostrating themselves unto me.

[Yusufali 12:4] Behold! Joseph said to his father: "O my father! I did see eleven stars and the sun and the moon: I saw them prostrate themselves to me!"


وَرَفَعَ أَبَوَيْهِ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَخَرُّوا لَهُ سُجَّدًا ۖ وَقَالَ يَا أَبَتِ هَٰذَا تَأْوِيلُ رُؤْيَايَ مِنْ قَبْلُ قَدْ جَعَلَهَا رَبِّي حَقًّا ۖ وَقَدْ أَحْسَنَ بِي إِذْ أَخْرَجَنِي مِنَ السِّجْنِ وَجَاءَ بِكُمْ مِنَ الْبَدْوِ مِنْ بَعْدِ أَنْ نَزَغَ الشَّيْطَانُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ إِخْوَتِي ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي لَطِيفٌ لِمَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ {100}

[Shakir 12:100] And he raised his parents upon the throne and they fell down in prostration before him, and he said: O my father! this is the significance of my vision of old; my Lord has indeed made it to be true; and He was indeed kind to me when He brought me forth from the prison and brought you from the desert after the Shaitan had sown dissensions between me and my brothers, surely my Lord is benignant to whom He pleases; surely He is the Knowing, the Wise.

[Pickthal 12:100] And he placed his parents on the dais and they fell down before him prostrate, and he said: O my father! This is the interpretation of my dream of old. My Lord hath made it true, and He hath shown me kindness, since He took me out of the prison and hath brought you from the desert after Satan had made strife between me and my brethren. Lo! my Lord is tender unto whom He will. He is the Knower, the Wise.

[Yusufali 12:100] And he raised his parents high on the throne (of dignity), and they fell down in prostration, (all) before him. He said: "O my father! this is the fulfilment of my vision of old! Allah hath made it come true! He was indeed good to me when He took me out of prison and brought you (all here) out of the desert, (even) after Satan had sown enmity between me and my brothers. Verily my Lord understandeth best the mysteries of all that He planneth to do, for verily He is full of knowledge and wisdom.


Sajada-falling down in prostration

Would you call this Worship?

If not, what would it be called?

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4 hours ago, S.M.H.A. said:


as-Salaam Alaikum brother. 

The angels prostrated before Adam a.s. as an act of honoring Adam's a.s. status with Allah S.W.T. Similarly the prostration to Yusuf a.s. as an expression of love. Such acts are takreem honoring respecting someone. Today we have reserved these acts only for Allah S.W.T. in our daily prayers, and have appropriated other acts for honoring and showing love and respect to people or symbols and objects, such as to The Holy Prophet s.a.w.a. or his Pure Family a.s. or companions and awliya of Allah S.W.T. such as ziyarat mourning, remembrance or respect for objects related to them. However when the social norm is, as in the case of cultures like Japan and China where bowing slightly is a sign of respect and humility, we should not have a problem performing them as part good behavior and good akhlaq, as long as they remain within the confines of social norms in these cultures, and have no religious undertones. 

Worship is every act that is in line with what Allah has allowed, ordered and called to, and keeping away from everything that He has forbidden, meaning actions that result from following the path of God (ittibaa). Eating a halal meal with Bismilah and being grateful is worshiping Allah S.W.T., whereas acting in a boastful manner and ungratefully with one's meal is considered as tazkiyat an Nafs, and is part of worshiping the self. The two acts of worship are differentiated while outwardly in appearance they are the same act.

Allah S.W.T. says.

"And O ye in sin! Get ye apart this Day!

"Did I not enjoin on you, O ye Children of Adam, that ye should not worship Satan; for that he was to you an enemy avowed?" (36:59, 60)

The people that worshiped shaytan l.a. didn't necessarily prostrate themselves to a statue of shaytan l.a. rather as the verse says they where (mujrimeen) sinners, their worship of shaytan l.a. is in following him l.a. in performing evil acts by following his l.a. footsteps

"They have made Satan the master of their affairs, and he has taken them as partners. He has laid eggs and hatched them in their bosoms. He creeps and crawls in their laps. He sees through their eyes, and speaks with their tongues. In this way he has led them to sinfulness and adorned for them foul things like the action of one whom Satan has made partner in his domain and speaks untruth through his tongue." Imam Ali a.s. Nahj al Balagha 7 

If worship of Allah S.W.T. are the acts that result from following the path of Allah S.W.T., then shirk is all of these actions that are performed for other then Allah S.W.T. either by ascribing equals to Allah S.W.T. or by ascribing divine lordship to other then Allah S.W.T. 

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This is an example of "shirk" brought up in Quran:

وَ كانَ لَهُ ثَمَرٌ فَقالَ لِصاحِبِهِ وَ هُوَ يُحاوِرُهُ أَنَا أَكْثَرُ مِنْكَ مالاً وَ أَعَزُّ نَفَراً (34) 

وَ دَخَلَ جَنَّتَهُ وَ هُوَ ظالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ قالَ ما أَظُنُّ أَنْ تَبيدَ هذِهِ أَبَداً (35) 

وَ ما أَظُنُّ السَّاعَةَ قائِمَةً وَ لَئِنْ رُدِدْتُ إِلى‏ رَبِّي لَأَجِدَنَّ خَيْراً مِنْها مُنْقَلَباً (36) 

قالَ لَهُ صاحِبُهُ وَ هُوَ يُحاوِرُهُ أَ كَفَرْتَ بِالَّذي خَلَقَكَ مِنْ تُرابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ سَوَّاكَ رَجُلاً (37) 

لكِنَّا هُوَ اللَّهُ رَبِّي وَ لا أُشْرِكُ بِرَبِّي أَحَداً (38) 

وَ لَوْ لا إِذْ دَخَلْتَ جَنَّتَكَ قُلْتَ ما شاءَ اللَّهُ لا قُوَّةَ إِلاَّ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ تَرَنِ أَنَا أَقَلَّ مِنْكَ مالاً وَ وَلَداً (39) 

He had abundant fruits, so he said to his companion, as he conversed with him:" I have more wealth than you, and am stronger with respect to numbers."
He entered his garden while he wronged himself. He said," I do not think that this will ever perish,
and I do not think that the Hour will ever set in. And even if I am returned to my Lord I will surely find a resort better than this."
His companion said to him, as he conversed with him:" Do you disbelieve in Him who created you from dust, then from a drop of] seminal [fluid, then fashioned you as a man?
But I] say [," He is Allah, my Lord," and I do not ascribe any partner to my Lord.
Why did you not say, when you entered your garden,"] This is [as Allah has wished! There is no power except by Allah!" If you see that I have lesser wealth than you and children,

I don't think it is needed to explain it more; but you need to think of it so you would understand the reason for which he said :"I do not ascribe any partner to my lord". I would become happy if your share your thoughts of this story and why is he considered to be "Mushrik".


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The word itself, Shirk, means to give a portion or share, or the involvement of two partners [1]. The Quranic term has been used in face of "Hanif" (orthodox Muslim), and what is meant by shirk is - to associate a partner or an equal for God (Exalted be his praise). The term Hanif means to have inclination towards truth and righteousness from misguidance. And since the followers of Towhid wholly oppose the idea of shirk and instead are inclined towards this fundamental principal [of Towhid], they are called Hanif. And this is why one of the meanings of Hanif is "straight" and "clear" [2]

In the generous Quran, Allah The Most High has said to the Prophet: Say, 'Indeed my Lord has guided me to a straight path, the upright religion, the creed of Abraham, a Hanif, and he was not one of the polytheists'. [3] God has also stated: "Dedicate yourself to the religion as a Hanif, and never be one of the polytheist." [4]

Hence from a Quranic standpoint; in religion shirk is the opposite of Hanif, and in order to recognize shirk one must recognize Hanif, by identifying an entity by its contrary, meaning that one can distinguish something by distinguishing its opposite. In brief it can be said that shirk is the opposite of Towhid, and just like Towhid has different types, so does shirk. In a general categorization, shirk can be divided into two types: shirk in 'Amal' or actions (such as; obedience and worship), and shirk in 'Aqideh' (belief). Shirk in belief is divided into three parts:

1.    Shirk in Deity: Believing in an existence other than God, which independently has all of the divine qualities. Such a belief will be the cause of kufr [5], which is why Allah states in the Generous Quran: They are certainly faithless who say, 'Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary.' Say, 'Who can avail anything against Allah should He wish to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary and this mother and everyone upon the earth?' To Allah belong the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them. He creates whatever He wishes and Allah has power over all things.[6]

2.    Shirk in Creatorship: Believing in two independent origins and creators for the world in such a way that they control creation and modifications made to creation. Like the Mazdakians (Zoroasters) who believe in two originators, one of good "Yazdan" (God), and one of evil "Ahruman" (the devil).

3.    Shirk in Lordship: To believe that there are multiple lords and that God is the Lord of lords. Meaning that managing the affairs of the world has been delegated to each of the independent and individual lords. Just like the polytheist of Hazrat Ibrahim's (Peace be upon him) time who practiced this type of shirk. A group of them recognized the stars as the governor of the world and a group of others recognized the moon and another group the sun.

Shirk in stage of "Amal" (action):

This is known as "shirk in worship and obedience", Meaning that a person's humility and humbleness arises from belief in the deity, creatorship or Lordship of those whom he respects and has humility and humbleness for.

These are the criterion and standards of shirk as it has been mentioned in the Holy Quran. However there are some people who make up standards and criteria for shirk, and then commence to accuse other Muslims of practicing polytheism. These views that some have taken it upon themselves to gather have no type of credibility, as their criteria contradicts the ayats of the Holy Quran, the Seereh (Way and life) of the dear Prophet of Islam (Peace be upon him), and his successors (The Twelve Saint Imams).

Here we will mention some of the 'made-up' standards for shirk:

1.    believing in a super naturalistic sovereignty for other than Allah; they say, "If someone were to implore the Prophet or any of the of Allah's Saints for assistance, and if he believes that they can hear this supplication or have knowledge of his situation or are able to grant what he needs, then this is an eminent type of shirk." [7]

2.    Requesting a need from the deceased. They have said that; "Requesting things from the deceased, seeking their help, and favoring the deceased are all types of shirk, and these are the principals and basis for polytheism." [8]

3.    Dua and imploration are types of worship; they say that, "Worship is only for Allah and Dua is a type of worship; therefore asking for something from other than Allah is also shirk." [9]

4.    Visitation of tombs or graves is shirk.

5.    Seeking blessing and sacring through the effects of the prophets and righteous persons is shirk.

6.    Celebrating the birthday of the prophet is shirk.

7.    Building a dome above a grave is shirk.

These made-up standards and beliefs can be broken into two parts:

1.    One part of these actions and standards are called polytheist actions, because they recognize them as being shirk in belief.

In rebuttal to this part of their beliefs, it can be said that if believing in super naturalistic sovereignty, believing in intercession, and believing in granting of needs, etc. is such that all of these matters are related to Allah, and all that anyone has is from Allah, The Most High, then this is not shirk, because no type of sovereignty other than that of Allah's has been taken into consideration. In the definition of shirk in Deity, shirk in Lordship and shirk in Creation, we said that these various types of shirk take place when one believes that someone other than Allah independently has the [divine] attributes of glory and perfection or can be an independent creator or can independently manage the affairs of this world. However, if one's power or authority was dependent upon Allah, then that would no longer be shirk. We and all other Muslims that request needs from the Noble Prophet and his successors and or that believe that they have mystical strengths, also believe that this position and status has been bestowed upon them from The One Lord, The Most High. Considering this description can we still call this shirk?

2.    As for the other section of actions that they regard as shirk; this is because they recognize these actions as being a kind of worship; i.e. Celebrating the birth of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), Building a dome or cupola over a grave or kissing a shrine.

Worship has certain mannerisms, and those mannerisms are specific to Allah. Worship denoted by humbleness and humility which comes from one's belief in Deity, Creatorship or Lordship. However, if humility and humbles did not arise from such beliefs then by no means will that be 'worship'. This is why in Sura Yusuf, Allah does not recognize the prostration that Hazrat Yusuf's brothers made before him as shirk, for the reason that they never had a belief of Deity, Creatorship or Lordship towards Hazrat Yusuf (Peace be upon him).  

Fortunately, scholars of Islam and other conscious scholars have given rebuttals to all of these cases and fabricated principles.

For more information you can make reference to "Quranic Discussions in Towhid and Shirk", written by Dr. Allama Jafar Subhani.


[1] Majma'ul Bahrain – Vol.5, Pg.274; Al-Ain – Vol.5, Pg.293

[2] The word 'Hanif' comes from the word 'Hanafa' meaning – inclination towards truth and righteousness form misguidance. However 'Hanafa' actually means –inclination from truth to falsehood. Since the followers of pure Towhid, have turned away from that misguidance and have embraced this basic principal (Towhid) then they are called 'Hanif'. This is also why one of the meanings of Hanif is straight and clear.

[3] Sura An'aam –Verse 161

[4] Sura Yunus – Verse 105

[5] It is necessary to mention that all of these different types of shirk cause kufr. What is meant by kufr here is more general that what legal authorities and theologians recognize as kufr.

[6] Sura Ma'edeh – Verse 17

[7] Collection of the Fatwas of Ibn Baz – Vol.2, Pg.552

[8] Fathul Majid – Pg.68

[9] Arrad Ala Rafezah – According to the Shia narration – Ali Asghar Rezwani – Pg.135 - 143


With Duas.


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On 1/16/2016 at 0:23 PM, The Batman said:

I believe shirk is anything which contradicts the Islamic understanding of Tawheed.

"The great Islamic scholar and commentator of the Holy Qur’an -the late Allamah Tabatabai (may Allah bless his soul) says: At-Tawhid, when expanded, becomes the whole of Islam, and Islam, when condensed, At-Tawhid is acquired.”1


"As for Lordship in Divine Legislation, we know that from the Islamic perspective and in accordance with the teachings which the Holy Our’ an presents, the origin of deviation in belief and action is Iblis which is the same being who had been created before Hazrat Adam (AS) and had been engaged in worshipping Allah for many years. Amirul-Mu’mineen (The commander of the faithful) Al- Imam ‘Ali (AS) says in "Nahjul- Balaghah":

“Iblis worshipped Allah for six thousand years, while we do not know whether it was the years of this world or of the years of the hereafter6

Iblis worshipped Allah for six thousand years and yet it is not known whether these years have been of the years of this world each year of which is 365 days or of the years of the other world each day of which is one thousand years. Anyhow, for a very long period of time which is not quite imaginable for us, Iblis had existed and had been worshipping Allah (SWT), so that the angels had though that Iblis was of the angels and had given it a place in their own ranks. But Iblis had a two-sided nature (namely, like man, it had free will) and had to be tested so that the level of its At-Tawhid and knowledge of Allah (SWT) would emerge and it would become clear whether he had the necessary level of At-Tawhid or not.

The test of Iblis was realized through Hazrat Adam (AS), in the way that after the creation of Hazrat Adam (AS), Iblis was commanded (By Allah) to perform sajdah (prostration) to Adam (AS). But Iblis disobeyed this Divine command and because of this disobedience, it was driven away from the nearness to Allah and became the head of the inmates of hell and the rest of the inmates of hell will go to hell for following Iblis.

But why the one who has worshipped Allah (SWT) in His Oneness is driven away from His nearness for one opposition and one sin and reaches such a level of wretchedness which is unthinkable for us? What is the secret behind the fact that so much worship is ignored and Iblis falls so low because of just one sin?

The analysis which on the basis of Islamic outlook can be made on this matter is that the sin of Iblis stemmed from defect in its At-Tawhid, manifested itself in the form of a practical disobedience (to Allah) and caused its fall. Because in reality Iblis did not believe in whatever Allah (SWT) commands, His creatures should accept His command unquestionably, Iblis said;

..أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ

“…I am better than he; You have created me out of fire, while him did you create out of dust (7:12).”

What is this command You are giving me, how should I prostrate to Adam while I am better than him? These words in fact arose from Iblis spirit of disbelief and unfaithfulness and were demonstrative of his inner and hidden kufr. The Holy Qur’an says:

..وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

“…And he was one of the disbelievers (2:34)”

Such disbelief existed in Iblis before, but it had not yet emerged and turned into the stage of action. Iblis did not have belief up to the required level of At-Tawhid and did not believe that the right to command order and inhabit unquestionably belongs exclusively to Allah (SWT) and whatever He commands has to be fulfilled: otherwise, Iblis believed in the One God and he also talked to Allah.

..خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ

“…You have created me out of fire, while him did you create out of dust (7:12).”

Iblis even believed in Allah’s Lordship in creation and in the Resurrection Day.

..أَنْظِرْنِي إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ

“…Respite me until the day when they are raised up (7:14)”.

So, Iblis had neither any defect in the principle of belief in Allah’s being the Creator, or in belief in Allah’s Lordship in creation and nor in belief in ma’ad. But still he falls so much! Why? Because he does not believe in Allah’s Lordship in Law-giving (Divine legislation) and docs not regard Allah’s command to be obeyed unquestionably, unless Allah’s command would be consistent with (Ibis’s) own thought and desire." 2



Edited by S.M.H.A.
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On 1/18/2016 at 2:16 PM, mostafaa said:

why is he considered to be "Mushrik".


Topic is about, your understanding of Shirk, and in your opinion what actually,  constitutes Shirk.

You quoted the Qur’an. And we can understand it differently.

It would help, if you explicitly explain your understanding here?

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When scientists need to understand something, they always go back to the beginning of the universe, [as they know the beginning to be], to see what existed and how it transformed into what is it today, or the shape or form or derivative of the first known elements or particles.


In my layman's opinion, We need to do the same, as most of these concepts, issues and different definition of terms , like infallibility, Imamat, Mawla, Worship, Prayer, Dua/Supplication, invocation..etc..


They trace all their beginning back to The event of Ghadir Khumm[1], on 18th of Dhu’l Hijjah of the year 10 AH. One party of Muslims went one way and the other went with a different understanding. Both have different understanding of Islam based on their understanding and acceptance of the Message delivered at Ghadir Khum. Who is right or wrong is not the issue here under discussion. But for academic discussion, need to point out some facts as they are directly related to the topic at hand, i.e, “Shirk” [ in worship ]


Two main things to happen that may have influence on how these terms are defined today. One before the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp], and one after.


A] That the book of Allah is sufficient for us. [2] [2A]


B]   “ ..one who worshipped Muhammad Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam should know that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had passed away, the one who worships Allah, let him know that Allah is living and will live for ever..” [3]


What was the environment like at that time, that one of the companion had to say, One who worshipped Muhammad[pbuhahp], should know that he passed away…


What necessitated this explicit comment? What is the meaning of Worshipping the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp]?

Your thoughts?

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In the last post [2A], should have said, scroll to the bottom to get to the hadith “ Volume 9, Book 92, Number 468:  "The Prophet is seriously ill, and you have the Qur'an, so Allah's Book is sufficient for us."


Also, since the event of Ghadir Khumm is crucial in understanding the major differences and subsequent issue related to Tawheed, Shirk,etc. Some, of the new people maybe not sure, as there are various websites creating all sort of confusion related to this event.


What we layman can gather on this event.


1][Pickthal 5:3] “....This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam…”


2][Pickthal 5:67] O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord, for if thou do it not, thou wilt not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect thee from mankind. Lo! Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk.


3]The Messenger of Allah declared:

"It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere to them both,  you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my Progeny, that is my Ahlul Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."


4]Then the Messenger of Allah continued:

"Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?"  

People cried and answered:

"Yes, O' Messenger of God."


5]Then followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of 'Ali as the leader of the Muslim ummah.  The Prophet held up the hand of 'Ali and said:


"For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), 'Ali is his Leader (mawla)."  [ 1 ]


6]Farewell Speech delivered by Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp]

7]Place called Ghadir Khumm on the 18th of Dhu'l-Hijjah of the year 10 AH

8] 100,000 + companions

9] All companions were told to convey the have message that they received to others.

10] In Verse 5:3 the order is between other issues.


Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] speech at Ghadir Khumm here Link [Sahih Muslim: Ghadir Khumm]


If you review the link I have attached, for the farewell pilgrimage from the book titled “ The Sealed Nectar “ the life of Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] by Safi-ur Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri, Islamic University of Al Madenah Al- Munawwarah [Link: Farewell Pilgrimage]

In addition to the link, you can search on the net for The last Sermon[Khutbatul Wada] of Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp].


“On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah….. “—


“They saddled it and had it ready, so he went down the valley where a hundred thousand and twenty-four or forty-four thousand people gathered round him. There he stood up and delivered the following speech”:


“As soon as the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had accomplished delivering the speech, the following Qur’ânic verse was revealed to him:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [5:3]”

From above, it is clear that the part of the verse 5:3 in question was revealed at the time of the Farewell Pilgrimage, 10 AH. Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] did give a sermon, [either on 8 or 18 or on both days of Dhul-Hijjah [ ?] ]. Because Sahih Muslim gives the place of the sermon called Ghadir Khumm. Maybe there are multiple narrations. There were at least 100,000+ companions present.

Islam is not only, a personal relationship with Allah[awj]. It’s a way of life. Qur’anic Verses 5:3 & 5:67 clearly explain the importance of the message. Message which will create some issues, among the Muslims and Allah[awj] informs the Prophet  Muhammad[pbuhahp], will protect. Not that Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] was afraid, it does not make sense, as the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] preached the message to the hostile Meccans and so on. Its for us to realize the importance to it, and the resistance, it will generate. Divine Message[Islam] had to be delivered by an infallible Prophet and executed/implemented by an infallible Imam[as].

Prophet Muhammad [pbuhahp] preached for 13 years in Mecca, Migrated to Medina, First assault on Muslims there were 300+ Muslims defenders, fast forward to conquest of mecca, an army of 10,000 + Muslims 8AH. Meccan who waged three major wars on the Muslim community in Medina, could not fight and “accepted” Islam. Don’t know exact figures, but you get the idea that in 8AH many new muslim entered Islam. Approximately two years later we have 100,000 plus pilgrims at the first and the last Pilgrimage[may be some for other areas].

Point is that the community after the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] had a large number of people who had just recently converted to Islam[within last 2 or 3 years]. Today, we see people regard Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] as just a man, who delivered a message, and we have the Quran. Because the message they received form history is that after the Religion was completed at the final pilgrimage, no more revelation from God. They started planning ahead.

They all recognized and and verbally profess that he is th Prophet, belived in one God, the Qur’an and the day of judgement.

In the last day, we see resistance to Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] commands and wishes.

As “The leadership of Osamah was subject to criticism”  [ 2 ], Tragedy of Thursday, [2] & [2A] last post.

One of the companion said

“ ..one who worshipped Muhammad Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam should know that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had passed away, the one who worships Allah, let him know that Allah is living and will live for ever..” [3]

like the past, separate the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] and the Ahlul Bayt[as] from Islam. We have the same thing going on today. Only Allah[awj]. Only Qur’an. Respect/Reverence of the Muslims is manipulated as worship.

Instead of the Divine Kingdom, we have the Political Kingdom. They will scream “Shirk” at anything that they feel will get the Muslim stay connected with Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] and Ahlul Bayt[as].

Karbala exposed them in the past, and they would like the memory of it to disappear and Karbla not commemorated. As the commemoration of Karbala will keep us attached to Al- Islam. Which the political Kingdom would very much like to mold it in their way for their political purpose.

So, the real Shirk is rejection of Ghadir Khumm.The Command of Allah[awj], The Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] and Imam[as].


[Pickthal 4:59] O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority..”

[Pickthal 5:55] Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe, who establish worship and pay the poordue, and bow down (in prayer).

Above is my Layman's view, and all as mentioned in the last post.[If there are any mistakes, point them out]. Your comments are appreciated.

Edited by magma
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Moderator: Kindly fix the last post- strikethrough lines.

Here is  a deep dive into the concept which is essential in understanding the differences we have, which are the cause of all evil - Today's Khawarij are calling other Muslims Mushriks, and kafir. On the surface their slogans are appealing " Only Allah" , for ones without insight. 

“Khawarij raised the slogan "rule of Allah" and said that Ali Ibn Abi Talib should not be the ruler. They used to say, لاٰحُکْمَ اِلاَّللّٰہ‘ - Governing is the right of God only. In response Commander of the Faithful used to say, 5کَلَمِۃُ حَقٍّ يُرٰادُ بِھَاالْبٰاطِل - What they are saying is correct but their purpose is evil.

They are right and the real ruler is God. The One who defines the commandments and holds the reins of all affairs of life is God. Rule and law belong to God but who is going to execute the law? Are you saying that no one other than God should implement the law? In response Imam Ali said, لاٰ بُدَّلِلنّا سِ مِنْ اَميرٍ - For a human society there is a need for a ruler.”


[Qur’an 5:55] Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe, who establish worship and pay the poordue, and bow down (in prayer).


“وَ الله وَلِيُّ الْمُوْمِنينَ

Allah is the Wali of the Faithful.

We have pondered over the verses that have the word Wali or Walis in them and have studied them all briefly. We have observed that God is Islamic Society's Wali, there is no helper for the faithful other than God and God should be the Ruler over all affairs of mankind is a subject that is consistently upheld in the Glorious Qur'an.

The meanings may be confusing to some people and we want to remind them that our discussion is not about Lord of the Worlds' Innate Rule i.e., Rule by Creation. It is a fact that the Lord manages the movement of the earth and the skies with His Controlling Will. Our talk relates to the fact that the laws in the peoples' lives and the individual and the community relationships in the Islamic society should be based on the Commandments from God. In other words the legal Ruler of the Islamic and Qur'anic society under the Islamic system and that of Imam Ali could only be God and only God.

Now a question arises, "what is meant by the Ruler is God?"

The Sublime Lord is not going to come to the people to implement His commandments.

Furthermore, only a human being can rule over other humans. It is vital that the control of people's affairs should be in the hands of a person. However, when we talk about a person, it does not imply that we are emphasizing a single individual and negating plural leadership. What we are saying is that there is a need for an individual who can take the reins of people's affairs in his hands, otherwise, if there is law in a society - it may even be God's law - but there is no commander, ruler or a committee; in short, if there is no administrator to implement the law in a human society, its systems will not function.

Who can such an individual be?

Who is that individual or individuals with the right to rule over the society; who have been recognized as the Wali of the society; who have to take the responsibility of Wilayat.

There have been several answers to this question. Historical facts also give several answers.

Some have said, اَلْمُلْکُ لَمِنْ غَلَب - whoever takes charge will be the ruler of the state. In other words, rule of the jungle. Some have stated whoever is shrewd deserves to rule. Others have decreed one who has support of people should rule. Still others have declared one who belongs to a certain tribe is eligible to rule. Some other people have expressed other logic and ideas.

The religion and school of thought has answered,

اِنَّمَا وَلِيُّکُمُ الله وَ رَسُوْلُہ

verily Allah and His Prophet are your Walis.

So practically speaking the one who has been given the responsibility of enforcing the law and enjoining good and forbidding evil in the society is the Prophet. So when a Prophet arrives in a society, there is no room for anyone else to rule in his presence. Prophet is the one who should have the power in the society.

However, when the Prophet passes away just like others, who will be the next ruler?

The Qur'anic verse responds, وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - the believers are your walis.

What believers?

Can every faithful who believes in the religion and the school of thought be the Wali and the ruler of the Islamic society? In this situation there will be as many rulers as the believers.

The Qur'anic verse in addition to identifying a known and appointed individual according to legislation as the rightful ruler, rationalizes the selection and provides a measure. It says, وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - those who believe. And who really believe. These words are for those who have validated their belief through action. So وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - the first condition is that they are truly believers. There are other conditions too. الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ - those who establish prayer. It does not say, "those who pray." It is one thing to pray and another to establish prayer. If the objective was to just pray, then يصلّون - pray would have been a short message. Establishing prayer in a society means that the soul of the prayer in the society is alive; praying is common in the society. And you know that praying society implies a society in which remembrance of God is present in all its corners.

You know that in a society that is filled with remembrance of God, no crime or evil happens. In such a society the human values are not debased. A society that has all its members remembering God has its compass pointed towards God and all peoples' deeds are for God.

The only reason for the presence of evil in a society and bowing to tyranny and oppression is forgetting God. A society in which God is remembered, has its ruler like Ali Ibn Abi Talib who does not oppress, rather eradicates oppression. It has commoners like Abu Dharr Ghaffari who do not bow to subjugation in spite of physical abuse, deportation, terrorization and helplessness. They do not leave the path of God. This is a society that remembers God. This is a society where prayer is established. A believer who establishes prayer in the society, i.e, directs the society towards God and fosters remembrance of God in the society is among الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ -those who establish prayer.

The discourse does not stop here. Next وَ يُوتُوْنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ - they pay alms; they spend in the way of Allah; they distribute wealth justly. Then He says, وَ ہُمْ رَاکِعُوْنَ - in the state of bowing (pay alms). This is an allusion towards a special event and an anecdote. Some commentators say that وَ ہُمْ رَاکِعُوْنَ - means that these people are always kneeling and it does not refer to any special incident.

However, knowledge of Arabic language discards this conjecture and tells us that this phrase means that someone likes equality so much; he is so eager to give in the way of God; it pains him so much to see poverty and a needy that he just cannot wait to finish his prayer. This person is so intensely inclined towards spending in the way of God and he is so involved in this activity that he just cannot wait; has no patience. When he looks at a poor person, he sees a picture that is not appreciated by God and he himself does not like it; at that moment all he has is a ring, so he just takes it off in the state of prayer and hands it over to the needy. This is a known historical incident that occurred in the hands of the Commander of the believers, Imam Ali: while he was praying, a needy person came and the Imam gave him his ring, at this point this verse was revealed.

So as you observed, this verse is hinting towards appointing Ali Ibn Abi Talib as the Wali. It is not doing it the same way as some individuals in history were forced upon people. As an example, when Mu’awiyyah wants to appoint his son as his successor, he says, "My successor is my son and he is going to rule after me." The sublime Lord is not appointing the successor of the Prophet the same way. However, since the qualities in a head of the government - total faith in God, establishment of prayer and the fondness for charity to the extent of forgetting oneself - are found in Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the magnificent Lord, while selecting the Imam as the Caliph, is explaining the yardstick and the wisdom behind the criterion for the caliphate. On these grounds the Wali in Islam is an individual sent by God and chosen by God.

The concept is that according to the makeup of this world no one individual has the right to rule over another individual and the only entity that has this right is God; so He can delegate this right to someone based on what is good for the people. And we know that God's work is for the welfare of human beings and not based on force. So He appoints and we should accept His appointments.

The Lord of the worlds appoints the Prophet and the Imams. He also defines certain characteristics for the rulers to come after the Imams and says that those who bear these qualities will be the rulers of Islamic society after the infallible Imams. So He appoints Walis. He Himself is a Wali; his Prophet is a Wali and the twelve Imams coming after the Prophet are Walis. The Imams have been appointed from the family of the Prophet and their count is twelve. For later time periods those who meet the specific criteria have been appointed as rulers.

This was one verse that we described for you. There are other verses in Glorious Qur'an, some of them we have referred to in our speeches and the others you should look for yourselves. There are scores of such verses.

Islam underscores the fact that the reign of people should not be in the hands of such people who would push the ordinary people into hell.”



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“Say, “I am just a human being like you. It has been revealed to me that your God is One God. So whoever expects to encounter his Lord—let him act righteously, and not associate anyone with the worship of his Lord’.”10

In regard to this verse, Imām al-Sādiq (‘a) stated, “This kind of polytheism is sanctimony.”11

In another hadīth, a transmitter of traditions has said, “I went to see the Noble Prophet (s) and noticed that his face showed signs of anger. I asked why he was angry. His Holiness [the Noble Prophet (s)] responded, ‘I fear lest my community become polytheists.’ I asked, ‘Your community will become polytheists after you have left?’ The Noble Prophet (s) responded, ‘Beware! My community will not worship the sun, the moon, idols and/or stones, but will be sanctimonious in their deeds, and sanctimony is exactly the same as polytheism, which I fear will engulf my community.’ Then, he recited this verse, ‘So whoever expects to encounter his Lord—let him act righteously, and not associate anyone with the worship of his Lord’.”12


Can any knowledgeable member, provide an Arabic version of the above hadith[Tradition] and can you also verify, if the translation into English is accurate. Do we have other Hadiths[Traditions] from Prophet Muhammad[pbuh ahp] and Ahlul Bayt[as] on this subject.

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What is Worship ? [It is used in connection of Shirk as it is alleged we do not worship Allah[awj] and assign partners]. Is it only daily obligatory prayers which maybe amount to in total time about One Hour per day? or is it something more ...Is this term been define in narrow terms to bring about a desired outcome?

At the passing of the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] form this material/temperal world it was said

" “ ..one who worshipped Muhammad Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam should know that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had passed away, the one who worships Allah, let him know that Allah is living and will live for ever..” [3]


وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ {56}

[Shakir 51:56] And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me.
[Pickthal 51:56] I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me.
[Yusufali 51:56] I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me.

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 51:56]

Refer to Sad: 27. Imam Jafar bin Muhammad As Sadiq said:

"Allah created man and gave him faculties of observation and contemplation to acquire knowledge with which he understands the manifestation of His power and then submits to Him."

Without knowledge man's adoration of Allah has no real worth. The actual meaning of adoration is not the performance of rituals or a few prescribed formal prayers, recited by the mouth. Adoration involves surrender of ego, self-control and discipline, so that he acts only in consonance with the expressed will of Allah, by abiding with His commands. The whole life-activity of the individual should be nothing but the fulfilment of the will of Allah.

"Say: Verily my prayer and my sacrifice, and my life and my death (all) are for the Lord of the worlds." (An-am: 163)

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This is the purpose of creation, as expressed in the holy book-to act according to the will and the command of Allah. The most perfect form of action is the absolute submission to His will, that is, Islam. Therefore of the creatures, whoever is better in manifesting His will and His command throughout life, will be closer to the purpose of creation, and therefore nearer to Him. The more perfect in obedience will be nearer to the creator, and the closer they are to Him, the more perfect they will be in the order of creation.


قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {31}

[Shakir 3:31] Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
[Pickthal 3:31] Say, (O Muhammad, to mankind): If ye love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
[Yusufali 3:31] Say: "If ye do love Allah, Follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:31]

Love of Allah is the basis and essence of Islam. Fear is not the motivating factor, because one who worships Him and obeys His commands out of fear, devoid of love for His grace, comes in the category of idolworshippers who worship the false deities to appease their anger. See the commentary of rahman and rahim in surah al Fatihah and know that the heathen syndrome has been destroyed and replaced with love, kindness and compassion by the religion of Allah, Islam. The phrase "God-fearing" actually means guarding oneself against evil with awareness of the boundaries laid down by Allah. Man must refrain from thinking or acting in a way which may hurt the feelings of the beloved whom he intensely loves, reveres and worships.

It is made clear in this verse that he who loves Allah must follow the Holy Prophet. Sincere following of the Holy Prophet in the day to day life is the only proof of the love of Allah, otherwise it is an empty claim. Allah loves the true followers of the Holy Prophet and forgives their sins.

One who loves his beloved also loves those whom his beloved loves, therefore, every sincere follower of Islam (Allah's lover) must love the Holy Prophet and those whom he loves. There are several authentic traditions reported in the books of history written by Muslim scholars, referred to in the commentary of many verses in this book, according to which the Holy Prophet had openly declared his exclusive love for Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and their children; and in verse 23 of al Shura love of the Ahl ul Bayt has been enjoined on all the true believers. In fact those who do not love the Ahl ul Bayt are not the believers, therefore, the doctrine of tawalla is one of the fundamentals of the true faith, Islam original or Shi-aism.

Likewise, in the light of verse 28 of this surah, it is the duty of every Muslim to avoid and dislike the enemies and the allies and friends of the enemies of the Holy Prophet, because a believer cannot be a friend of those who hated and opposed the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. Therefore, the doctrine of tabarra is also one of the fundamentals of the true faith, Shi-aism.

The love of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt makes man follow in their footsteps, which, in fact, is the love of Allah. Those who oppose them and follow their enemies go against Allah and His commandments.

A true lover of Allah becomes a devotee of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, and mindful of the life after death, his true love activates him to always do that which pleases Allah, the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, and refrain from acts of wickedness which certainly displease them; moreover, he remains attached with the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt and refrains from going near their ungodly enemies, be they his own kith and kin.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

According to An-am: 50;Araf: 203;Yunus: 15; Ahqaf: 9 and Najm: 3 and 4, since the Holy Prophet only followed the divine will, therefore, following in his footsteps is the only proof of the love of Allah, which alone entitles man to receive Allah's love. Any deviation from his word or deed means the deviator not only loses Allah's love but also earns His displeasure.

Ali ibna abi Talib has said:

The words and deeds of the Holy Prophet, from the beginning to the end of his stay in this world, were the truest demonstration of the divine revelations (nothing but a revelation revealed), and I did not follow any save him.

Therefore, Ali was the beloved of Allah and His prophet because he loved Allah and His prophet.

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Forms and Levels of Tawhid and Shirk in Islam - by Br. Khalil Jaffar

Consider the Prophet Muhammad [pbuhahp] and his Ahlulbayt[as] as the Best Teachers of Tawhid.

Meaning of Tawhid and Shirk is much more than just basic understanding and definition of monotheism and polytheism.

Tawhid and Shirk are multidimensional just as Islam & Iman.

Limiting ourselves to the definition and understanding of Monotheist and Polytheist from a Jurisprudence [Fiqh] point of view/perspective.

From the Theological and Spiritual perspective , all the different levels of Tawhid and Shirk even if at face value one is considered a Muslim.

There are many different forms/levels of Tawhid and Shirk, but the most prominent and pertinent here are at least Five. [Each one of the Five have their own levels and forms]

Tawhid and Shirk in  Essence of Allah [awj]

Tawhid and Shirk in Attributes of Allah [awj]

Tawhid and Shirk in Actions of Allah [awj]

Tawhid and Shirk in Obedience of Allah [awj]

Tawhid and Shirk in Worship of Allah [awj]

Your Thoughts?





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The biggest Idol is a false identity created by Satan and is his very uncleanness. In summarizing all idol worship the Quran "did I not take a covenant from you o offspring of Adam not to worship Satan for he is an open enemy. And worship me - that is a straight a path".

That uncleanness of Satan when it's valued over the pure word of God,  is belittling God's attributes, names, light, and when it's valued somewhat on par with God, we are unclean.

The reason why Nuh's people stuck to their idols was to stick to their leaders. And the reason to stick to their leaders, was to stick to the love of their people. And their love of their people over God stemmed from love of their identity. And that identity would not be a problem where it not that it was an unclean falsehood and darkness created by Satan and was Satan's spirit being inspired in people. 

Of course, there is nothing wrong with loving yourself or others, but it should be love for God's sake in so much it's loving them to the degree their nature is in line with God and his names. When we love the uncleanness of Satan within us over the light of Taha within us, we are in deep trouble.

When everything is about serving the delusional self that is inspired by Satan, we are worshipping Satan. Yes we are even deluded that we are worshipping ourselves when we make ourselves number 1, because that number 1 self preferred over God, is nothing but Satan spirit in us, and we are in fact, above it, while he afflicts us with his spirit and slowly makes us born of him while we don't realize it, till we are of illegitimate birth. 

Humans aren't that evil, they simply worship Satan because he deludes them into thinking they are him and he is them without realizing his influence. And his inner music which is influenced by outer music as well, makes you believe that unclean identity he wants you to value over everything else is you and he adorns that valuing that self over everything else.

On the other hand, Imam Mahdi is with believers, and their identity is born from him, and they are not of illegitimate birth.  They are taught to value God through him as the most valued thing and through him not seek anything other then the face of God.

We cannot value God as he deserved to be valued. But we can at least value in him to the extent we worship no one apart from him, valuing him more then anything else by a great degree.

When we obey Satan over time, he begins to take over our hearing and seeing. When we let the darkness overcomes the light, we must at this point, with all effort, seek refuge in God through his name. 

Do not go with the flow of dark forces inspiration, because, at the end, we realize, it wasn't us we even valued, we were never that dark, and we were never that unclean, but we valued Satan's spirit thinking it was us.









Edited by StrugglingForTheLight
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On 1/13/2016 at 4:40 PM, S.M.H.A. said:

If you can define, “ Shirk” and what actually constitutes Shirk, based on your understanding of the term Shirk.



My understanding of Shirk is when we set up idols or blindly follow celebrities and products and deify them:


Link/source: http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/coca-cola-sign.html


Link/source: http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-urban-energy-midtown-manhattan-new-york-city-hustle-bustle-modern-life-night-under-colorful-billboards-image40155275

Also people who treat science as some time of replacement of inner meaning, "look up at the stars and galaxies" and using these material entities as replacements of inner meaning and substitutions for God, when even stars will eventually have their expiration dates and are governed by forces of nature surpassing them.


Edited by Enlightened Follower
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What you both have pointed out is mentioned here by

Amir al-Muminin(Commander of the Faithful), Imam al-Muttaqeen(Leader of the Pious), Hujjah of Allah(awj)(Proof of Allah(awj), Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib(as).

In Sermon #7 in Nahjul Balagha [Peak of Eloquence]  : They have made Satan the master of their affairs...

About the hypocrites

ومن خطبة له (عليه السلام)

يذم فيها أتباع الشيطان

They1 have made Satan the master of their affairs, and he has taken them as partners. He has laid eggs and hatched them in their bosoms. He creeps and crawls in their laps. He sees through their eyes, and speaks with their tongues. In this way he has led them to sinfulness and adorned for them foul things like the action of one whom Satan has made partner in his domain and speaks untruth through his tongue.

اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيْطَانَ لاِمْرِهِمْ مِلاَكاً، وَاتَّخَذَهُمْ لَهُ أَشْرَاكاً، فَبَاضَ وَفَرَّخَ في صُدُورِهِمْ، وَدَبَّ وَدَرَجَ في حُجُورِهِمْ، فَنَظَرَ بِأَعْيُنِهِمْ، وَنَطَقَ بِأَلسِنَتِهِمْ، فَرَكِبَ بِهِمُ الزَّلَلَ، وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الخَطَلَ، فِعْلَ مَنْ قَدْ شَرِكَهُ الشَّيْطَانُ في سُلْطَانِهِ، وَنَطَقَ بِالبَاطِلِ عَلى لِسَانِهِ!




Shaytan[Iblis] was a superficial worshiper, not a True servant of Allah[awj]. Qur’an [ 3:31    ](above), Love is mentioned & in Qur’an [42:23].

قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَىٰ


"(O Prophet) tell (people) I don’t ask you any wage (in return for my prophethood) except to love my near kin. And if anyone earns any good We shall give Him an increase of good (in return for it)”

(Qur’an 42:23)

Because the best way to find out the truth about someone is to check their love and dislike system. If it is in line with the command/wish of Allah[awj]- They are on their way to achieve nearness to Allah[awj].

Shaytan[Iblis] even after worshiping for six thousand plus years would have continued till eternity, But he was checked for his love and dislike system. Shaytan[Iblis] failed. Shaytan[Iblis] only worshiped Allah[awj] as long as it served his purpose, he was not one who would love and dislike for the sake of Allah[awj].

Shaytan[Iblis] hatred Adam[as] and his progeny and wants to harm them. Adam[as] did not do any direct harm to Shaytan[Iblis]. Just because Shaytan [selfishness/Pride etc]

Love, manifests itself in emotions. If we are spiritually and emotionally connected with the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] and Ahlul Bayt[as]. We are happy and sad based on what makes them happy or sad. Azadari for the Son of Sayeda Fatima Az Zahra[sa] is one of  the manifestation of this love. Which only brings us closer to Allah[awj].

One of the way to look at it [Spiritual connection] - when we say, Ya Muhammad, Ya Ali, Ya Zahra, Ya Hasan, Ya Husayn[Peace be upon them All] not because we worship them or they are  as Divine. Its the command of Allah[awj] to Love them and to Love them is to follow them- and as a constant reminder

We want to keep the spiritual connection alive at all time[ 24/7/365].

Shaytan[Iblis] and his forces, want to twist and turn it and portray this as something else- as Shirk/Kufr.

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The Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp]  has said:

(1) I and Ali are of one and the same light.

(2) Ali is a part of me and I am a part of Ali.

(3) The root of Ali and me is the same, but all other people come from various other origins.

(Zaynul Fata; Ibna Maghazali; Shafa-i; Kanzul Ummal, Ahmad ibna Hanbal).

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:34]

The Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] said:

“Whoever dies, not knowing the Imam of his age, dies in ignorance.”

The Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] said:

“The first of us is Muhammad,  the middle of us is Muhammad,the last of us is Muhammad,everyone of us is Muhammad.”

Only men of understanding know that the same quality of divine energy which activated the prophethood was also manifested in imamat with equal force.

Below is part of the commentary of 2:255 al-islam.org. It may clarify few concerns.

“Prophet after prophet came and awakened man step by step and degree by degree. Finally the Holy Prophet, the brightest light, was sent to expose and explain the ultimate truth, as promised by Allah, to enlighten the human mind and heart with the knowledge through which man can become aware of the Lord God, but comprehends only what his power of contemplation can bear.

It is reported that there are three kinds of existence;


The self-existing existence. The primal cause. There can never be any effect without a cause. The universe, therefore, was created by the self-existing creator, the primal cause.


The creatures or created beings whose creation is possible only if the creator so wills.


The impossible existence. The existence of another being like Allah is not possible because there cannot be two equals in the sense of oneness. If there are two equals in this sense, then there is no meaning in their being two, separated from each other. They must be one. If there are two such beings then there must be a dividing factor which makes the two as two and maintains their two separate entities, in which case the dividing factor will be the wajib ul wujud, therefore, such an existence is neither possible nor real.

Wajib ul wujud, therefore, means the self-existing existence of the ever-living and self-subsisting creator. To maintain His self-existing existence He must be an omnipotent authority who not only owns absolute knowledge of the existence but also the will that does what it wills. His control is absolute. His attributes are His self, inseparable from Him from any point of view or in any imaginable meaning or sense, as the meaning is inseparable from a word or as equiangularity is inseparable from an equilateral triangle. As the limited knowledge of the finite being cannot conceive of anything without referring to its attributes, we give names to the attributes of Allah, with the help of our visualisation, to have a suggestive idea of His absolute existence. Therefore, the Shia school holds it as a cardinal doctrine of faith not to think of any of His attributes as a separate entity from His existence. All the attributes of Allah are one absolute unity, because, if they are not, then it would mean complexity, which negates the absolute independence of the omnipotent authority. His existence means His authority, His authority means His knowledge, and likewise all His attributes are so linked together that they are one indivisible unity. Allah is a transcendental reality. He is unknowable. He is an infinite being, beyond the conceivability of our finite consciousness. He is inconceivable. He is hayyul qayyum, the ever-living, the self-subsisting (Ali Imran: 2; Ta Ha: 111, Mumin: 65).

Imam Ali says:

O He! O He whom none knows what He is, nor how He is, nor where He is, nor in what respect He is; except He.

(Dua al-Mashlul)

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Qayyum is a magnified form of the adjective qayam - standing, lasting, enduring. It implies He who stands by Himself, and all others stand because of His (eternal) endurance. His relation to His creatures is like the source of light to the rays of the light, or like the mind to the concepts, not like the relation of an architect or a builder to a construction he builds. It is exactly as Ali ibna abi Talib has said-"Every thing stands by means of Him". He is the self-subsisting everlasting, therefore, He is the first and the last, and the apparent and the hidden (Hadid: 2 and 3); and He is the knower of all things, and He is with everything but is not computed with anything (Mujadilah : 7; Ma-idah: 73).

While trying to visualise His attributes, it is necessary not to be misled by the finite inferences. His activity does not at all mean movement to perform an act by employing energy as we do. Awareness of His attributes, based upon reason and contemplation, may appear pure and perfect to us, but, in fact, it remains a shadow of the reality which transcends all faculties of comprehension.

"Slumber does not overtake Him", means that He is not influenced by any change whatsoever. He is beyond time and states, for He encompasses time and all states. He is the ever vigilant, or the true and perfect vigilance itself.

"Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His" means that He is the creator of matter. If the "matter" is not created by Allah, and is said to be eternally existing as He is, then He is only a fashioner of things out of matter, in which case nothing belongs to Him. There is no propriety in this conjecture. It is unreasonable to say that there are two independent eternal equals. If matter is accepted as an independent and uncreated eternal, then Allah, to prove His existence, will need the matter to carry out His creative plan, otherwise the matter will remain idle. There is no meaning in the idea of two eternal equals, separated from each other. They must be one. If there are two such beings, then there must be a dividing factor which makes the two as two and maintains their two separate entities, in which case the dividing factor, superior in will and authority will be the ever-existing supreme being.

"Who can intercede with Him, except by His permission?" implies that though Allah is the almighty and the absolute sovereign but as He is also the merciful, the compassionate, He has given permission to "Muhammad and Ali Muhammad", the thoroughly purified, to intercede on behalf of the sinners. The issue of intercession has been dealt with in detail in the commentary of verse 48 of this surah. Please refer to it.

"He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they cannot comprehend anything out of His knowledge except what He pleases", means Allah's omniscience. The finite beings cannot hide anything from Allah. They cannot comprehend anything except what He pleases, no matter whatever knowledge and intelligence they possess. The facts which are unknown or unknowable to the finite beings are known to the infinite. Allah's knowledge is infinite and absolute. He is the knowing who knows ahead and in advance (in term of time and space) the origin and causality of knowledge. Although the ordinary human beings do not perceive that which is known to Allah only, but those who have been endowed with the divine knowledge are aware of the secrets of the universe.

In "His kursi (seat of authority and knowledge) extends over the heavens and the earth", although kursi literally means "chair", like arsh (used in other verses of the Quran) means "throne", but both these words have been used metaphorically. They refer to the divine knowledge and authority of the supreme, almighty and sovereign Allah, in relation to all that which has been created by Him. His "relation" with His creation, in time and space, remains unconditionally unaffected. His control over everything, created by Him, is perfect, complete and absolute. There is no limitation to the infinity of His existence, because the ever-existing existence is only His and it is He who gives existence to whom He wills. When we say "He is here, there and everywhere", we only make use of our limited and inadequate ability to understand and express His absolute infinity. He is the creator of time and space, therefore, His infinite existence cannot be conceived by the help of the knowledge derived from the system based upon experience and induction.

According to the Ahl ul Bayt kursi or arsh, not connected with any kind of matter, is the manifestation of His knowledge and authority in relation to all that which has been created. It includes all the heavens and the earth. Arsh refers to Allah's hold and sway over all creation. In other words, the creation as a whole is the kursi or the throne of Allah from which all His divine attributes of knowledge, wisdom, might and glory manifest.

"And the preservation of them does not tire Him" means the creation, as a whole, is sustained by Him, and its continued existence is maintained by Him. The laws (created by Him), governing the operation of creation, produce fatigue, therefore, He is independent of such laws. His absolute existence is eternal and everlasting.

"He is the most high, the great", according to the Holy Prophet, is one of the most important verses of the Quran, which deals with the unity of Allah, His attributes, His relation to His creatures, the position of man in the order of creation, his instinctive desire to turn unto Him, his means of salvation and the ultimate reward and punishment.

In order to prevent the total seizure of mind and heart by the greatness of the kursi, mentioned in this verse, it is made clear in the end that Allah alone is the most high, the greatest.”


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Audhu billahi min ash-shaitanir rajeem.

Bismillah, ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim

AsSalaamu Alaykum,


Keeping the above posts in mind, and looking at the verse below

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّابًا رَحِيمًا {64}

[Shakir 4:64] And We did not send any messenger but that he should be obeyed by Allah's permission; and had they, when they were unjust to themselves, come to you and asked forgiveness of Allah and the Messenger had (also) asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful.
[Pickthal 4:64] We sent no messenger save that he should be obeyed by Allah's leave. And if, when they had wronged themselves, they had but come unto thee and asked forgiveness of Allah, and asked forgiveness of the messenger, they would have found Allah Forgiving, Merciful.
[Yusufali 4:64] We sent not a messenger, but to be obeyed, in accordance with the will of Allah. If they had only, when they were unjust to themselves, come unto thee and asked Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah indeed Oft-returning, Most Merciful.
[Pooya/Ali Commentary 4:64]

"It is the will of Allah that people should obey the Holy Prophet. If the sinners approach the Holy Prophet, he will speak on their behalf to Allah, because He has given him the authority to intercede on behalf of the repentant sinners; and on his (and his Ahl ul Bayt's) recommendation. Allah forgives the sinners, as has been clearly mentioned in this verse. Refer to the commentary of al-Baqarah: 48."

Question that is raised, is why not Allah[awj] only, what we need to have a waseela?

Allah[awj] commanded us to do that, it's is a preferred method prescribed for Muslims.

Was Allah[awj] not approachable during the time of the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp]?

Shaytan[Iblis] had no issue prostrating to Allah[awj], issue was Allah[awj] command to prostrate to Adam[as].

Question now, is it still valid after the passing of the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp]

Here are few hadiths from the Muslims books ...

Sahih Muslim Book 030, Hadith Number 5858.

Chapter : Pertaining to the merits of Moses (peace be upon him).

“Anas b. Malik reported Allah's Messenger(may peace be upon him)as saying: I came. And in the narration transmitted on the authority of Haddib (the words are): I happened to pass by Moses on the occasion of the Night journey near the red mound (and found him) saying his prayer in his grave.”



Ibn Taymiyyah said: "The proof of dead awareness comes from two Sahih Books of Bukhari and Muslim in which Rasool Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said that when people have buried a dead person and leave for home, the dead can hear the thumps of sandaled feet of those who leave."

[Majmuaat-al-Fatawa by Ibne Taymiyyah, Volume 24: Page No. 362]]


Ibn Taymiyah writes: 'A group of people heard the answer of their salaam. And, in the days of Harrah, Sa'id ibn al- Musayyib heard the voice of our Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saying the adhan, from the grave. And there are more events like these and they are all true.

[ibn Taymiyya, Iqtidah Siratul-Mustakeem, Page No. 373]

A & B is there any issue with their Validity? [let me know]



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More on Qur'an 4:64 and its meaning and connection with Tawheed.


‘ibadah (servitude) to Allah and humbling before His infinite greatness and a muwahhid does so only at the command of Almighty Allah. And the same is also true of humbling before the Holy prophet (SA) and the Infallible Imams (AS).

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ…

“O you who believe! Be not forward in the presence of Allah and His Messenger… (49:1).”

Otherwise the person of the Holy Prophet (SA) and the Imams (AS), apart from their relation to Allah The Almighty and the respect in which Allah has held them, from the viewpoint of a muwahhid, should not in themselves be sanctified and before them one should not humble himself. This respect too in which the people hold the successors of the Imam (AS) and today for the esteemed leader of the Islamic Revolution is in fact servitude to Allah.

This respect is not out of family relations with him, nor is it because of greed for wealth or fear of punishment. This is a sentiment which stems from At- Tawhid, and since our people have acquired the love for Allah, they hold in greater respect anybody who is nearer to Allah and who endeavors more for the establishment of His rule and before such a person, they consider their lives of little values.

That some Sunni brother accuse the Shi’ahs and the other Muslims of shirk, it is out of the misunderstanding that has arisen from this very matter. They imagine that At- Tawhid in Allah’s Lordship and in His being the Worshipped (One demand that man holds no other one in respect, because if one does so and/or for example kisses the grave of the Prophet (SA) or the Imams (AS), he will be a mushrik.

Such accusations are due to unawareness of the fact that this respect is in fact the respect for Allah and for divine positions. Were it not for Allah’s command and were it not for the relation which Allah’s awliya’ (friends) have towards Allah - The exalted, this could be considered a stage of shirk, but now that it is done in obedience to Allah’s command and due to the relation of Allah’s awliya’ to Him, it is not only not the shirk, but is also the very At-Tawhid, It is Allah Who commands us to respect His Prophets (AS) and awliya’ and it is also Allah Who says: If anybody wants his sin to be forgiven (by Allah), he should go to the door of the house of the Holy prophet (SA) of Islam.

..وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذْ ظَلَمُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّابًا رَحِيمًا

“… And had they, when they were unjust to themselves, come to you and asked forgiveness of Allah and the Messenger had (also) asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Oft-returning (to mercy), Merciful (4:64).”

Allah says that for the forgiveness of your sins you should refer to the Holy Prophet (SA) of Islam, he asks (Allah for) forgiveness for you and you yourselves ask (Allah for) forgiveness, then Allah will forgive your sins, At that time too, the munafiqun (the hypocrites) said: "We will ask forgiveness before Allah Himself, then why should we also go to the Prophet?" They refused to go to the Holy Prophet (SA) of Islam, to express their want to him, to appeal to him and to request him to act as intercessor with Allah for them.

This refusal brought about their nifaq (hypocrisy) and deprived them of Allah’s favor and of the Holy Prophet (SA)’s asking Allah for forgiveness for them and it was because of this very disregard and hypocrisy that Allah said (to the Holy Prophet (SA) ): "Even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, they will not be forgiven (by Allah);" "Why? Because they rendered arrogance and disobedience towards Allah’s command and did not observe the respect which they should have paid towards the Holy Prophet (SA) of Islam. Since they disbelieved in Allah’s blessing, they are no longer deserving of Allah’s forgiveness, even if the Holy Prophet (SA) himself asks forgiveness for them:

…اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ أَوْ لَا تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ إِنْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً فَلَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ

“Ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them; even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah will not forgive them… (9:80).”

So, those who out of arrogance, refuse to pay respect to the Holy Prophet (SA) of Islam and to Allah’s awliya’ and feel scorned to be humble before Allah’s awliya’, will not deserve Allah’s Mercy. They are not only not muwahhidun, but have rather the worst kind of shirk, namely, the very kind of shirk which Iblis had, whereas, had they any shirk in Allah’s being the Creator, this would not cause so much degradation for them.

If those who have recognized the One God and who know that all things in the world arc in His hands disobey His command and arc arrogant before Him, they are then worse than those who have not known Him and hence Iblis is worse than the idolaters, though he had recognized Allah and had also worshipped Him, So, the one who has recognized Allah, has understood His greatness and still disobeys Him, is more deserving of fall and torment than the one who has not yet acquired any recognition of Allah and has not known Him.

Therefore, it should not be wrongly imagined that belief in At-Tawhid in Allah’s Lordship has any inconsistency with the belief of the Shi’ahs and of the majority of the Muslims about the Prophets (AS) and the Holy Imams (AS).

We do not regard anyone to be independently effective in the creation and management of the world besides Allah and alongside Him, However, we believe that Allah The Almighty has granted certain powers to some of His creatures and that He has willed that many of the works he fulfilled through the channel of their will-power, Allah fulfils miracles at the hands of His Prophets (AS) and even that He revives the dead at the hands of ‘Isa (Jesus Christ) (AS), it is by no means inconsistent with At-Tawhid in revival.

The true Reviver is Allah and it is He Who grants such a power to ‘Isa (AS), the son of Maryam (AS) and also grants any power to anybody He wills, as He has willed to grant such power to our Holy Imams (AS) and this belief has not only no inconsistency with At-Tawhid, but is also of the stages of At-Tawhid. Just as Allah tested Iblis through commanding him to obey Adam (AS) and be humble before him, so He will also test other creatures of His through commanding them to obey His Prophets (AS) and awliya’.

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ…

“And We did not send any Messenger but that he should be obeyed by Allah’s permission… (4:64).”

Thus, as Allah has commanded, it is incumbent upon all the people to obey the Prophets (AS) and the one who refuses to obey the Prophets (AS) has refused to obey Allah.

According to a riwayat, Iblis said to Allah: "I will worship you as much as you want, exempt me from prostrating to Adam." But Allah addressed him; "If you want to worship Me, worship Me the way I want you to." Otherwise, you have obeyed your own desire and worshipped your own passions. If you are a worshipper of Allah, you should step in the way which Allah has ordained, not the way which your own imperfect mind thinks, as some groups had invented some ways for worshipping Allah.

This kind of worship in fact traces back to worshipping oneself, not to worshipping Allah. Therefore, to believe that Allah’s awliya’ are endowed with certain levels of creational guardianship and bring about certain changes in this world by Allah’s permission is the same as At-Tawhid and to appeal to them and to ask them for intercession (with Allah) has no sort of inconsistency with At-Tawhid."


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Seeking Help From The Spirits of Awliya Allah

The most important issue with regards to seeking help from the awliya Allah (the friends or beloved of Allah) is when they have died or so to say, living in another world, whether this act of seeking help is in the form of du'a(invocation) or asking for some extraordinary acts to be performed. This is because the Muslims of today are not in the presence of the Holy Prophet (s) or an Imam so that they can approach them and ask them to do something in their presence. Rather, most often, their questions and requests are put before the pure spirits of the Prophets and awliya. For this reason, analysing the Islamic decree with regards to these two situations is very important.

Investigation on this matter depends on the analytical study of four topics and by becoming fully aware of them, one can acknowledge the correctness of such imploration and beseeching. These four topics are:

1. Eternity of soul and spirit of man after death

2. The reality of man is his very soul and spirit

3. Relationship with the world of souls is possible

4. The correct traditions which the Islamic traditionists have narrated bear witness to the authenticity of such implorations and the practise of the Muslims has been the same in all the ages. Now we shall describe each of these four topics.

1. Death is not Annihilation of Man

The verses of Qur’an bear a clear witness to the fact that death is not the end of life but a window for a new life. By passing from this passage, man steps into a new life, a world completely new to him and much superior than this material world.

Those who take death to be the end of life and believe that with death, everything of man is finished and nothing remains of him except one lifeless body which (even that) after some time is changed to soil and destroyed, follow the philosophy of materialism.

Such a reflection shows that a person with such a view thinks life to be nothing but a part of material effects of the organs of body and the physical and chemical reactions of the brain and nerves and with the subsiding of the heat of body and stoppage of the cells from activity and production, the life of man comes to a halt and he turns into an inanimate object. Soul and spirit in this school of thought is nothing but reflection of materialism and its properties and with the nullification of these properties and domination of reciprocal effects of the organs of body over each other, the soul and spirit become completely void and there no longer remains anything by the name of spirit, its eternity and a world related to spirits.

Such a view about the soul and spirit of man is inspired by the principles of Materialism. In this school of thought, man is nothing more than a machine where he is formed from different tools and implements and the reciprocal effects of those components give the power of thought and perception to the brain, and with the dispersion of these components the effects of thought, perception and in short, life gets completely destroyed at death.

The views of materialists about soul and spirit were completely discarded by the great philosophers of the world and the divine scholars. The theologians believe that apart from the material system of body, the nervous system and its reciprocal material reactions there exists for man, a real substance by the name of soul and spirit which remains with the body for some period and then cuts off its relation with the body and lives in a special world with a much more delicate body. The continuity of soul after the death of a person is not a matter which can be established and proved in these pages because today the eternity of soul and spirit has been proven by verses of Qur’an, precise philosophical reasoning and convincing spiritual experiences. We shall now narrate the verses of Qur’an that bear testimony to the matter of eternity of spirit after death.

Qur’an and Eternity of Spirits

Verses of the Qur’an clearly indicate that the spirit continues to live after its separation from the body. For the sake of brevity, we bring here only the text of the verses and postpone its analysis for some other proper time.

وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَنْ يُقْتَلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتٌ ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ وَلَٰكِنْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ

“And do not speak of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead, nay, (they are) alive, but you do not perceive. (Baqarah 2:154)”

وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتًا ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ

“And reckon not those who are killed in Allah's way as dead, nay, they are alive (and) are provided sustenance from their Lord. (Aal-Imran 3:169)”

فَرِحِينَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَيَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ

“Rejoicing in what Allah has given them out of His grace, and they rejoice for the sake of those who, (being left) behind them, have not yet joined them. (Aal-Imran 3:170)”

يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ

“They rejoice on account of favour from Allah and (His) grace. (Aal-Imran 3:171)”

إِنِّي آمَنْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ فَاسْمَعُونِ {25}

قِيلَ ادْخُلِ الْجَنَّةَ ۖ قَالَ يَا لَيْتَ قَوْمِي يَعْلَمُونَ {26}

بِمَا غَفَرَ لِي رَبِّي وَجَعَلَنِي مِنَ الْمُكْرَمِينَ {27}

“Surely I believe in your Lord, there for hear me. It was said: Enter the garden. He said: O would that my people had known of that on account of which my Lord has forgiven me and made me of the honoured ones! (Yasin 36:25-27)”

The Paradise which he is told to enter therein is the Paradise of barzakh and not of the Hereafter because he wishes that his people knew and were aware that God has forgiven and honoured him. Such a wish is not compatible with the world of the Hereafter, where the curtains will be removed from the eyes of the people and their condition will not be hidden from each other. Rather such unawareness is befitting with this world where the people of this abode are unaware of the condition of the people living in another world (barzakh) and the verse of Qur’an bears witness to this fact.

Moreover, the next verse clarifies that after his death, when man is forgiven and he enters the Paradise, the light of his people's life will be extinguished by one heavenly cry. As verse says:

وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ مِنْ جُنْدٍ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَمَا كُنَّا مُنْزِلِينَ {28}

إِنْ كَانَتْ إِلَّا صَيْحَةً وَاحِدَةً فَإِذَا هُمْ خَامِدُونَ {29}

“And We did not send down upon his people after him any hosts from heaven, nor do We ever send down. It was naught but a single cry, and lo! they were still. (Yasin 36:28-29)”

From these two verses we come to know that after entering Paradise, his people were still living in this world till death suddenly overtook them and, this Paradise cannot be anything other than Paradise of barzakh.

النار يُعرضون عليها عدًواً وعشياً ويوم تقوم الساعة ادخِلوا أل فرعون أشد العذاب

“The fire, they shall be brought before it (every) morning and evening and on the day when the hour shall come to pass: Make Firawn's people enter the severest chastisement. (Momin 23:46)”

By paying attention to the contents of the two verses, the matter of continuity of life in the world of barzakhbecomes clear and obvious because, before the approach of qiyama, the Fire will be presented to them morning and evening but after the qiyama they will be given the worst punishment.

If the later part of the verse ويوم تقوم الساعة was not there, then the beginning contents would not have been so clear. But by paying attention to the verse it becomes obvious that the objective is the same period of barzakh; otherwise the reciprocity of the two sentences would have been incorrect.

Moreover, the matter of morning and evening too bears witness that it does not refer to the world of the Hereafter since, mornings and evenings do not exist in that world.

So far, the first of the four topics has been made clear from the viewpoint of Qur’an. Now it’s time to refer to the second topic.

2. The Reality of Man is his very Spirit

Man in the outset seems to be formed of body and spirit. However, the reality of man is his same spirit which is accompanied with the body.

We shall not discuss this matter from the view point of philosophy and at present we are not concerned with the Greek and Islamic philosophy. Rather we shall discuss this matter only from the viewpoint of Qur’an.
By examining the verses that have come down with regards to man, this fact can easily be seen that the reality of man is his very soul and spirit. Here, we shall ponder over the contents of this verse:

قُلْ يَتَوَفَّاكُمْ مَلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِي وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ

“Say: The angel of death who is given charge of you shall cause you to die, and then to your Lord you shall be brought back. (Sajdah 32:11)”

Contrary to what we believe, the word of توفىّ does not mean ‘to cause to die’. Rather it means ‘to take’ or ‘to seize’. 1

Therefore, the purpose of the sentence يتوفاكمً is: “He will seize you all”. When the reality of man is his very soul and spirit, the interpretation of the verse will be correct.

However, if the soul and spirit forms a portion of man’s personality and the other half is formed by his external body, then in such a case such an interpretation will not be permissible because the Angel of Death never seizes our external body. Rather, the body remains in its same condition and what the Angel seizes is only our soul.

The verses which clarify the reality of soul and spirit with regards to man are not confined to this verse and as an example; we content ourselves with one verse.

This fact that ‘the reality of man and centre of his spiritual excellences is his very spirit and the body is (only) a covering which has been put over it’ becomes evidently clear by paying attention to the matter of eternity of spirit after death which was discussed in the first topic. Qur’an does not recognise death to be the annihilation of man and the end of his life.

Rather, it believes that life exists for the martyrs, the pious and the oppressors before the approach of qiyama, a life accompanied with joy and happiness, (or) accompanied with torment and punishment and if the reality of man is his fundamental body then, undoubtedly the body gets destroyed after a few days and changes to different elements and in such a case the matter of eternity of man or the life of barzakh becomes meaningless.

3. Qur’an and the Possibility of Connection with another World

Proving eternity of spirit is not enough for the purpose of recommending and proving (beseeching) to be useful. Rather, apart from its eternity, the possibility of establishing relationship with it should be proved from the viewpoint of reason and Qur’an.

We have talked about this matter in detail in the book ‘Originality of the Spirit’.

Here, we shall mention in brief, some of those verses which prove that the relationship of man continues with his past ones and is not yet disconnected.

A) Salih ('a) Speaks with the Souls of His People

فَعَقَرُوا النَّاقَةَ وَعَتَوْا عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِمْ وَقَالُوا يَا صَالِحُ ائْتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَا إِنْ كُنْتَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

“So they slew the she-camel and revolted against their Lord's commandment, and they said: O Salih! Bring us what you threatened us with, if you are one of the apostles. (Araf 7:77)”

فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ

“Then the earthquake overtook them, so they became motionless bodies in their abode. (Araf 7:78)” 2

فَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنْهُمْ وَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِسَالَةَ رَبِّي وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ لَا تُحِبُّونَ النَّاصِحِينَ

“Then he turned away from them and said: O my people, I did certainly deliver to you the message of my lord, and I gave you advice, but you do not love those who give advice. (Araf 7:79)”

Pay careful attention to the contents of these three verses.

The first verse shows that when they were alive they demanded the punishment of Allah.
The second verse shows that the divine punishment overtook and destroyed each one of them.
The third verse shows that Salih ('a) spoke to them after their death and destruction and said: “I presented you the divine messages but you disliked someone giving you advice.”

A clear witness to this fact that he spoke to them after their death are the following two points:

(1) The order of verses in the aforementioned form.

(2) The alphabet of فا in the word of فتولى which denotes an order. i.e. after their destruction, he turned towards them and spoke in such words.

The sentence of (ولكن لا تُحبون الناصحين) shows that they were so much sunk in obstinacy and wretchedness that even after death, they possessed wicked mentality so much so that they did not like people who gave advices and warnings.

The expression of Qur’an is in such manner that, he speaks to his peoples’ souls with sincerity and considers them as his audience, and reminds them of their permanent obstinacy which was present in them even after death and says: “Now too, you do not like an advisor.”

B) Shu'ayb ('a) Speaks with the Souls of the Deceased Ones

فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ

“Then the earthquake overtook them, so they became motionless bodies in their abode. (Araf 7:91)”

الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا شُعَيْبًا كَأَنْ لَمْ يَغْنَوْا فِيهَا ۚ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا شُعَيْبًا كَانُوا هُمُ الْخَاسِرِينَ

“Those who called Shu'ayb a liar were as though they had never dwelt therein, those who called Shu'ayb a liar, they were the losers. (Araf 7:92)”

فَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنْهُمْ وَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّي وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ آسَىٰ عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ

“So he turned away from them and said: O my people! certainly I delivered to you the messages of my Lord and I gave you good advice, how shall I then be sorry for an unbelieving people? (Araf 7:93)”

The method of reasoning in this verse is the same as the verses related to Salih (‘a).

C) The Holy Prophet (s) of Islam Speaks with the Souls of Prophets

وَاسْأَلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنَا أَجَعَلْنَا مِنْ دُونِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ آلِهَةً يُعْبَدُونَ

“And ask those of Our Apostles whom We sent before you: Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Beneficent God? (Zukhraf 43:45)”

This verse shows that the Prophet (s) can establish a connection from this very world with the prophets who live in another world till it becomes clear that the order of God in all the ages and to all the Prophets was not to worship anyone other than Allah.

D) Qur’an Sends Salutations Upon The Prophets

The Holy Qur’an has on occasions sent peace and salutations on Prophets and these salutations were not meaningless compliments or some kind of formalities.

Great! it is far from justice if we wish to put down the sublime meanings of the beloved Qur’an to the level that has taken the tinge of staleness. It is true that today, the materialists who do not believe in the validity of spirit, send in their speeches, peace and salutations upon their leaders and founders of this school of thought as a form of respect and honour. But is it fair that we put aside the sublime meanings of Qur’an which reveals facts and realities and bring them down to low level and say that all these salutations which Qur’an has sent upon the prophets (and we Muslims too recite them day and night) are just some dry and meaningless compliments? The Holy Qur’an says:

(1) Peace be upon Nuh, in the Universe.

(2) Peace be upon Ibrahim.

(3) Peace be upon Musa and Harun.

(4) Peace be upon Aal Yasin.

(5) Peace be upon the Messengers. 3

Salutations upon the Holy Prophet (s) in the State of Tashahhud:

All the Muslims of the world irrespective of the differences which they have in the principles of jurisprudence address the glorious Messenger of Allah in the tashahhud of their salat every morning and night and say:

السلام عليك أيها النبيّ ورحمة الله وبركاته

The only thing is that the Shafi'ites and some others reckon this to be obligatory in tashahhud whereas other sects think it to be mustahab (recommendable). However all of them are unanimous in their opinion that the Holy Prophet (s) has taught the Muslims as such and the sunnah of the Prophet (s) remains the same during life and death.

If really our link and connection with the Holy Prophet (s) is cut-off and disconnected, then such a salutation and that too in the form of address (to the Prophet) is of what benefit?

The proofs of possibility of such connections and their occurrences are not confined to what we have said till now. Rather, we have other verses too in this regard which, for the sake of brevity, have not been discussed. For a more detailed discussion, interested readers can refer to the book of ‘Originality of spirit from the viewpoint of Qur’an’. In this book, a section of verses dealing with the topic are mentioned.

In the end, we remind you that the rationalization of salam in tashahhud was discussed due to its decisiveness among the verses. 4

Conclusion of Our Discussion

For the first point, it was proved that death is not the end of life and the destruction of man. Rather, it is a window for getting transferred to another world.

On the second point, it was clarified that the reality of man is his very soul and spirit and his body is a dress covering his spirit. And if his soul and spirit remain, then naturally his reality, personality and all the other abilities (not the type of ability which is related to the material body) too remain. Therefore, if in this world his soul had the power to pray and eulogize or had the ability to perform some extraordinary actions by the Will of God, his holy nafs possesses by the Will of God, the same power and ability in that world and except for those acts which require the material body, it is capable of performing all the other actions.

On the third point, it was proved that it is possible for the people of this world to have relationship with the people of the next world and that the holy spirits can hear our words and sayings.

By paying attention to these three points, the philosophical possibility of the matter is proved i.e. it has been proved that the awliya Allah can listen to our talks and also reply to them by the Will of Allah. However, whether such a thing is lawful from the viewpoint of Islamic regulations or not, will be discussed in the fourth point to which we shall now refer.

4. Muslims and Asking for the Fulfilment of Their Needs from the Holy Spirits

Ibn Taymiyya and his followers with their unusual trait of opinionated judgements, deny the fact that the companions of the Holy Prophet (s) and those after them had asked the Prophet (s) for their needs to be fulfilled. Regarding this matter they say:

ولم يكن أحد من سلف الأمة في عصر الصحابة ولا التابعين ولا تابعي التابعين يتخيرون الصلاة والدعاء عند قبور

الأنبياء ويسألونهم ولا يستغيثون بهم لا في مغيبهم ولا عند قبورهم.

“No one from the past ummah either at the time of the Companions nor the period after the tabi'in (disciples of companions) have performed salat and du'a near the graves of prophets. Never has anyone asked anything from them nor has anyone beseeched them either in their absence or near their graves.” 5

Perhaps a person unacquainted with the history of the Companions (of the Holy Prophet) and the tabi'in may imagine such an attribution to be true. However, referring to history will prove contrary to that. As an example, we narrate some instances:

أصاب الناس قحط في زمان عمر بن الخطاب فجاء رجل إلى قبر النبيّ فقال يا رسول الله استسق الله لأمتك فإنهم قد

هلكوا فأتاه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وأله في المنام فقال: أنت عمر ، فاقرنه وأخبره إنهم مسقون.

“During the Caliphate of ‘Umar, when there was a famine, a person came near the grave of the Holy Prophet (s) and said: ‘O Prophet, ask water for your people as they are being destroyed.’ Thereafter the Holy Prophet (s) appeared in his dream and told him as such: ‘Go to ‘Umar and send salam upon him and, inform him that all will soon be satiated with water.’” 6

(A) Al-Samhudi continues as such:

ومحل الإستشهاد طلب الإستسقاء منه صلى الله عليه وأله وهو في البرزخ ودعاؤه لربه هذه الحالة غير ممتنع

وعلمه بسؤال من يسأله قد ورد فلا مانع من سؤال الإستسقاء وغيره كما كان في الدنيا.

This incident shows that though the Prophet (s) is in barzakh, one can ask him to pray for us. This matter is of no objection because he (i.e. the Prophet) is aware of the requests of the people. Thus there is no hindrance if one requests him to pray for us just as he was doing in this life.” 7

(B) al-Samhudi narrates from al-Hafiz Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa bin al-Nu'man with the chain of narrators ending in 'Ali bin Abi Talib (‘a) that three days had passed after the burial of the Holy Prophet (s) when an Arab from outside Medina came and sprinkled the soil of the Prophet's grave over his head and said:

يا رسول الله قلت فسمعنا قولك ووعيت عن الله سبحانه ما وعينا عنك ، وكان فيما انزل عليك (ولو أنهم إذ ظلموا

أنفسهم جاؤك فاستغفروا الله...) وقد ظلمت وجئتك نستغفر لي

“O Prophet! you spoke and we listened to your sayings. You received from God what we received from you. Among those things which was revealed upon you is this particular verse. 'If among them anyone who has done injustice upon themselves comes to you and seeks forgiveness from Allah and you too seek forgiveness for them, then they will find Allah most -Merciful and Forgiving.' I have done injustice upon myself and I have come to you (so that) you seek forgiveness for me.” 8

The writer of Wafa' al-wafa', at the end of chapter eight, narrates many incidents which show that pleading and asking for one's need from the Holy Prophet (s) has been the constant practise of the Muslims. He even mentions that Imam Muhammad bin Musa bin al-Nu'man has written a book in this regard under the title ofMisbah al-zalam fi al-mustaghithin bi khayr al-'inam.

(3) Muhammad bin Munkadar says:

“A man gave my father 80 dinars as a trust while he was leaving for jihad and said: “You may spend this money if you fall in need”. Incidentally due to high cost of living, my father utilised that money. Finally its owner came and demanded back his money. My father told him to come the next day and the same night my father went to the mosque and pointing to the grave and pulpit of the Prophet (s), he implored and pleaded till the early dawn. At that moment, a man appeared from the dark and said “O Aba Muhammad take this.” He gave a purse to my father which contained 80 dinars.” 9

(4) Abu Bakr al-Muqri says:

Hunger overtook al-Tabarani, Abu al-Shaykh and myself and we were close to the grave of the Holy Prophet (s). When night approached I went near the grave of the Prophet (s) and said:

يا رسول الله الجوع...

Moments later, a person from the Alawites entered the mosque with two young men and each of them was holding a bag full of food…. When we finished eating the 'Alawi man said.... "I saw the Holy Prophet (s) in my dream and he commanded me to bring food for you.” 10

(5) Ibn al-Jallad says:

“Poverty-stricken, I entered Medina and went near the grave of the Holy Prophet (s) and said: O Prophet I am your guest. Suddenly I fell asleep and saw in my dream that the Holy Prophet (s) gave bread in my hands." 11

Right now we are not concerned with the verity or inaccuracy of those incidents. Our point is that these incidents whether true or false prove that such an affair was a common one and if it was innovation or forbidden or polytheism and blasphemy than the fabrication and the enactors of such matters would not have narrated such matters which would lower them in the eyes of the people.

We have narrated in the book Asalat al-ruh (The originality of Spirit) in the section of ‘Connection (with) Spirits’, traditions that prove the authenticity of asking the holy spirits to pray.

Here, we are bound to mention a few points:

(1) In as much as these kinds of decrees and incidents are incompatible with the temperament of a group, they therefore declare all to be unknown without investigating into their references and narrations. Does such inadmissible denial bring harm to our reasoning?

Answer: Such an encounter with the historical events becomes the cause of interpolation of history because the number of these kinds of pleadings for fulfilment of needs is so numerous that one cannot consider all of them to be false and baseless. If someone intends to collect such narrations or stories he will be able to compile a thick book.

Now let us suppose that these stories and narrations are false and baseless. But these same baseless claims in the entire history inform us of one fact and it is as follows:

If these implorations and beseeching were unlawful, they would not have been fabricated and enacted such unlawful action in the form of honour and glorification as otherwise, their status would be lowered and they would be subject to the wrath and anger of the people.

The fabrication and enactors of tradition and history strive to fabricate and enact those things which suit the taste of the common people. If such an action was against Qur’an and Sunnah, then it would be considered as polytheism and 'ibada by the Muslims and the fabricators would never have enacted them and lowered their status in the eyes of the people.

(2) Seeking help from the holy spirits either in the form of request for du'a or in the form of fulfilling an action (Curing the sick, returning the lost one, etc.) is without any objection considering the four principles which we have discussed.

The thing which was in vogue among the Muslims at the time of seeking tawassul of the holy spirits was the very request for du'a or so to say, requesting the holy spirit of the Prophet to seek forgiveness for them from Allah and pleading for the fulfilment of their worldly and heavenly affairs. From the viewpoint of logic, request for fulfilment of actions like curing of the sick, freeing of the captive; solving of problems in life is the same as request for du'a.

(3) By paying attention to the measure which we reminded you about 'ibada, such requests and pleadings are never considered as 'ibada of the holy spirits. This is because the person making the request neither believes in their divinity nor in their lordship and neither considers them as God nor as the one who manages the world or part of it. He also does not believe that some of the actions of God have been entrusted to them. Rather, they consider them to be the pure servants of Allah who have never committed the least offence in their worldly life.

By paying attention to the four basic facts, one cannot doubt their power and barzakhi ability in fulfilling the requests of the pleaders. They are living creatures and our relation with them is well established. The only point is that every action and affair either in the form of dua’ or other than that it is dependent on the Will of Allah and they are clear evidence to:

ما تشاءون إلا أن يشاء الله

Just as in this world, 'Isa (‘a) could pray to God for goodness for someone or could cure by the Will of Allah, those who were born blind and those who suffered from leprosy, in the same manner, considering the fact that these powers and abilities are related to his soul and spirit and not his body, he can perform these same two actions (even) after his transfer to another world. However, in both the stages, the permission of Allah and His will is a necessary condition for receiving Grace through this channel.

(4) Even though such humility and humbleness in connection to the inerrant leaders are apparently for paying attention to them, yet if we tear open the inner portion of this attentiveness and the tawassul, we will find which really is desired and demanded by God Himself. In reality, paying attention to the cause is like paying attention to the ‘Causer of the causes’ and those who are having a firm step in the matter of behaviour and dealing with the people are aware and conscious of this reality with a conscious and enlightened heart.

Those who seek tawassul do not believe in the originality and independence of these causes and agents. Rather, they are means which God, the Causer has made them a channel and a route for receiving His Grace and Mercy and He, Himself, has ordered the believers for attaining as such. As verse says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَابْتَغُوا إِلَيْهِ الْوَسِيلَةَ وَجَاهِدُوا فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to) Allah and seek means of nearness to Him and strive hard in His way that you may be successful. (Maida 5:35)”

If salat, fasting and all the divine duties are وسيلة means, then in the same manner, the pure du'a of Prophets and awliya too, by decree of the previous verse (verse related to asking for forgiveness), is وسيلةmeans and paying attention to these means is like paying attention to the Creator of these means and our action is in accordance to the command of the afore-mentioned verse.


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Shirk is attributing partners to Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta 'aala) and that is the literal meaning of the word Shirk as well. This is repeated in the Qur'an multiple times such as 9:17 6:88 4:48 5:72 

Edited by Ibn Matta
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7 hours ago, Ibn Matta said:

Shirk is attributing partners to Allah (Subhaanahu wa ta 'aala) and that is the literal meaning of the word Shirk as well. This is repeated in the Qur'an multiple times such as 9:17 6:88 4:48 5:72 

Audhu billahi min ash-shaitanir rajeem.

Bismillah, ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim

AsSalaamu Alaykum,

In order to clarify your understanding. Kindly, classify the Qur’anic verses you mentioned in the following category.

1] Shirk in  Essence of Allah [awj]

2] Shirk in Attributes of Allah [awj]

3] Shirk in Actions of Allah [awj]

4] Shirk in Obedience of Allah [awj]

5] Shirk in Worship of Allah [awj]




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2 hours ago, S.M.H.A. said:

Audhu billahi min ash-shaitanir rajeem.

Bismillah, ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim

AsSalaamu Alaykum,

In order to clarify your understanding. Kindly, classify the Qur’anic verses you mentioned in the following category.

1] Shirk in  Essence of Allah [awj]

2] Shirk in Attributes of Allah [awj]

3] Shirk in Actions of Allah [awj]

4] Shirk in Obedience of Allah [awj]

5] Shirk in Worship of Allah [awj]




Shirk is not categorised in this way according to the Qur'an and Sunnah, rather it is categorised into Shirk al-Akbar (Major Shirk), Shirk al-Asghar (Minor Shirk) and Shirk Khafee (Hidden Shirk).

Shirk al-Akbar renders all the persons deeds baatil and condemns them to the naar. This is the type of Shirk the verses I listed refer to. It is essentially the more blatant and outright shirk such as calling upon idols and deifying other than Allaah as partners to him.

Shirk al-Asghar is less blatant Shirk and includes riyaa' and swearing by other than Allaah. This does not make one an apostate nor does it guarantee them eternity in the naar. It just makes them deficient in Tawheed. 

Shirk Khafee can be found in both the previously mentioned categories and is found in Shirk al-Akbar like the Shirk of the Munafiqoon as they hide their real beliefs.

As I explained Shirk is only Shirk in worship so s[Edited Out] all the other categories you made. All that is just Ilhaadi and Kufri beliefs about Allaah (Subhaanahu wa ta 'aala). You can't set up a partner in essence or actions so linguistically that makes no sense. 

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There are many different forms/levels of Tawhid and Shirk, but the most prominent and pertinent here are at least Five. [Each one of the Five have their own levels and forms]

Tawhid in  Essence of Allah [awj]

Tawhidin Attributes of Allah [awj]

Tawhid in Actions of Allah [awj]

Tawhid in Obedience of Allah [awj]

Tawhid in Worship of Allah [awj]

Do you agree? If not, your understanding of Tawhid and if there are any clarifications/levels/forms/categories?

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11 hours ago, S.M.H.A. said:

There are many different forms/levels of Tawhid and Shirk, but the most prominent and pertinent here are at least Five. [Each one of the Five have their own levels and forms]

Tawhid in  Essence of Allah [awj]

Tawhidin Attributes of Allah [awj]

Tawhid in Actions of Allah [awj]

Tawhid in Obedience of Allah [awj]

Tawhid in Worship of Allah [awj]

Do you agree? If not, your understanding of Tawhid and if there are any clarifications/levels/forms/categories?

akhi I don't know who is telling you this but this is not how Tawheed and Shirk are categorised. You seem to be confusing Shirk as meaning Polytheism in general which is not what it is. Shirk is a very specific type of action, it is simply creating partners with Allaah (Subhaanahu wa ta 'ala) so you can only have shirk in worship.

Tawheed is not categorised like this. Tawheed is categorised into

Tawheed al-Rububiyyah: Believing he is the unique Creator, Sustainer, Lord and Master of the whole of the universe and creation

Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah: Singling him out in worship

Tawheed al-Asma wa Sifaat: Believing in all his names and descriptions as they come down to us

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Salam Alaikum

Shirq means partnering.

Of course it is in reference to partnering with Allah.

We are guilty of partnering others with Allah each time we do anything that is not 100% in line with the commandments. For instance when we watch a movie instead of praying on time, we are suddenly setting up a partner with Allah. When we hurt others while Allah tells us not to be wrong-doers (zalemeen) we also do something that competes with the pure rules of Allah.

Hence i believe that we all commit shirq all the time, and it is impossible to have pure 100% tawheed (oneness in action and mentality towards Allah).

Some might wonder why Allah talks so harshly about those who commit shirq if we are all mushriqs. Well, that is because there are different levels of shirq and zulm as well. We all commit zulm and shirq to a certain level, but there are some of us who will not be forgiven by Allah in the end. That is where taqwa or fear comes in. We may never be sure that our zulm or shirq or akhta (mistakes) will be forgiven. 

At the same time we may never be sure that we are not guilty of any of these. 

That is my opinion, and remember me as a slave of Allah who is afraid of his shirq not being forgiven by Allah. Each time i took anything or anyone else as a priority other than Allah. Oh God!

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2 hours ago, Ibn Matta said:

Shirk is a very specific type of action, it is simply creating partners with Allaah (Subhaanahu wa ta 'ala) so you can only have shirk in worship.

Tawheed al-Uluhiyyah: Singling him out in worship

What is your complete  understanding of the concept of Worship?

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