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In the Name of God بسم الله
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peace seeker

Aspects Of Fitnah

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Salam Alaikum

 

 

In the modern Arab world the word fitna is used as religious divisions, or sectarian strife.

 

The word 'fitnah' in the Quran is used in different ways to refer to trial, temptation, or simply a punishment. Sometimes it's not totally clear what the word truly means, but let us look at examples of how it is mentioned.

I divided Fitna in the Quran into Fitna from God, and Fitna from others than God:

 

 

 

I. Fitna From God:

  • Fitnah is truly a scary dangerous thing:

 

وَ مِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ائْذَن لِّي وَ لَا تَفْتِنِّي ۚ أَلَا فِي الْفِتْنَةِ سَقَطُوا ۗ وَ إِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ

 

And among them is he who says, "Permit me and do not put me to fitna ." Unquestionably, into fitnah they have fallen. And indeed, Hell will encompass the disbelievers. 9:49

 

واتقوا فتنة لا تصيبن الذين ظلموا منكم خاصة واعلموا أن الله شديد العقاب
 
And fear fitna which will not strike those who have wronged among you exclusively, and know that Allah is severe in penalty. 82:5

 

 

  • Fitna as Gods' punishment:

 

إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاهَا فِتْنَةً لِّلظَّالِمِينَ

 

(Tree of Zaqqum) Indeed, We have made it a fitna for the wrongdoers. 37:63

 

 

إِنَّهَا شَجَرَةٌ تَخْرُجُ فِي أَصْلِ الْجَحِيمِ

 

Indeed, it is a tree issuing from the bottom of the Hellfire, 37:64

ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُن فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلَّا أَن قَالُوا وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ

 

Then there will be no [excuse upon] fitna/trial except they will say, "By Allah , our Lord, we were not those who associated." 6:23

 

يَوْمَ هُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ يُفْتَنُونَ

 

the Day they will be placed into fitna over the Fire 51:13

 

ذُوقُوا فِتْنَتَكُمْ هَـٰذَا الَّذِي كُنتُم بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ

 

"Taste your fitna. This is that for which you were impatient." 51:14

 

وَمَا جَعَلْنَا أَصْحَابَ النَّارِ إِلَّا مَلَائِكَةً ۙ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا عِدَّتَهُمْ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا  لِيَسْتَيْقِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَيَزْدَادَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِيمَانًا ۙ وَلَا يَرْتَابَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۙ وَلِيَقُولَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْكَافِرُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَـٰذَا مَثَلًا ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ جُنُودَ رَبِّكَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَمَا هِيَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَىٰ لِلْبَشَرِ

 

And We have not made the keepers of the Fire except angels. And We have not made their number except as a fitna for those who disbelieve - that those who were given the Scripture will be convinced and those who have believed will increase in faith and those who were given the Scripture and the believers will not doubt and that those in whose hearts is hypocrisy and the disbelievers will say, "What does Allah intend by this as an example?" Thus does Allah leave astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And none knows the soldiers of your Lord except Him. And mention of the Fire is not but a reminder to humanity. 74:31

 

يَوْمَ هُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ يُفْتَنُونَ

 

[it is] the Day they will be put into fitna over the Fire (annariyuftanoon) 51:13

 

ذُوقُوا فِتْنَتَكُمْ هَـٰذَا الَّذِي كُنتُم بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ

 

"Taste your fitna! This is what you were seeking to hasten."51:14

 

 

  • Persecution is fitna / trial:

 

ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا مِن بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوا ثُمَّ جَاهَدُوا وَصَبَرُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِن بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

 

Then, indeed your Lord, to those who emigrated after they had been put into fitna and thereafter fought and were patient - indeed, your Lord, after that, is Forgiving and Merciful 16:110

 

 

  • Moses put into fitna, which is a hard time and trial from God:

 

وَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا فَنَجَّيْنَاكَ مِنَ الْغَمِّ وَفَتَنَّاكَ فُتُونًا ۚ فَلَبِثْتَ سِنِينَ فِي أَهْلِ مَدْيَنَ ثُمَّ جِئْتَ عَلَىٰ قَدَرٍ يَا مُوسَ

 

And you killed someone, but We saved you from retaliation and tried you fitna. And you remained years among the people of Madyan. Then you came at the decreed time, O Moses. 20:40

 

 

  • Moses' 40 day absence was a trial/fitnah, which they failed:

 

وَلَقَدْ قَالَ لَهُمْ هَارُونُ مِن قَبْلُ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّمَا فُتِنتُم بِهِ ۖ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ فَاتَّبِعُونِي وَأَطِيعُوا أَمْرِي

 

And Aaron had already told them before, "O my people, you are only being caused fitna by it and indeed, your Lord is the Most Merciful, so follow me and obey my order." 20:90

 

 

  • Prophet Solomon put into fitna by God:

 

وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا سُلَيْمَانَ وَأَلْقَيْنَا عَلَىٰ كُرْسِيِّهِ جَسَدًا ثُمَّ أَنَابَ

 

And We certainly put Solomon into fitna and placed on his throne a body; then he returned.. 38:34

 

قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَهَبْ لِي مُلْكًا لَّا يَنبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِي ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

 

He said, "My Lord, forgive me and grant me a kingdom such as will not belong to anyone after me. Indeed, You are the Bestower." 38:35

 

 

  • Pharaoh put into Fitna

وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَجَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ كَرِيمٌ

 

And We had already placed into fitna before them the people of Pharaoh, and there came to them a noble messenger, 44:17

 

 

  • Fitna of enjoyment and glamour of the different financial classes:

 

وَلَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَيْنَيْكَ إِلَىٰ مَا مَتَّعْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجًا مِّنْهُمْ زَهْرَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا لِنَفْتِنَهُمْ فِيهِ ۚ وَرِزْقُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَىٰ

 

And do not extend your eyes toward that by which We have given enjoyment to categories of them, the splendor of worldly life by which We cause fitna to them. And the provision of your Lord is better and more enduring. 20:131

 

وَإِنْ أَدْرِي لَعَلَّهُ فِتْنَةٌ لَّكُمْ وَمَتَاعٌ  إِلَىٰ حِينٍ

 

And I know not; perhaps it is a fitna for you and enjoyment for a time." 21:111

 

 

  • The necessity of being put into fitnah:

 

أَحَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَن يُتْرَكُوا أَن يَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَهُمْ لَا يُفْتَنُونَ

 

Do the people think that they will be left to say, "We believe" and they will not be put through fitna? 29:2

 

 

  • Fitna being method of filtering out truthful ones:

 

وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۖ فَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الْكَاذِبِينَ

 

But We have certainly made fitna for those before them, and Allah will surely make evident those who are truthful, and He will surely make evident the liars. 29:3

 

 

  • Prophet David being tried/exposed to fitna:

 

قَالَ لَقَدْ ظَلَمَكَ بِسُؤَالِ نَعْجَتِكَ إِلَىٰ نِعَاجِهِ ۖ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْخُلَطَاءِ لَيَبْغِي بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَقَلِيلٌ مَّا هُمْ ۗ وَظَنَّ دَاوُودُ أَنَّمَا فَتَنَّاهُ فَاسْتَغْفَرَ رَبَّهُ وَخَرَّ رَاكِعًا وَأَنَابَ ۩ 

 

[David] said, "He has certainly wronged you in demanding your ewe to his ewes. And indeed, many associates oppress one another, except for those who believe and do righteous deeds - and few are they." And David became certain that We had made fitna for him, and he asked forgiveness of his Lord and fell down bowing and turned in repentance [to Allah ]. 38:24

 

 

  • Remembrance of God key to success in matters of trial

 

لِّنَفْتِنَهُمْ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَن يُعْرِضْ عَن ذِكْرِ رَبِّهِ يَسْلُكْهُ عَذَابًا صَعَدًا

 

So We might make fitna for them therein. And whoever turns away from the remembrance of his Lord He will put into arduous punishment. 72:17

 

 

  • Magic as a trial / fitna:

 

وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ  فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚوَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

 

And they followed what the devils had recited during the reign of Solomon. It was not Solomon who disbelieved, but the devils disbelieved, teaching people magic and that which was revealed to the two angels at Babylon, Harut and Marut. But the two angels do not teach anyone unless they say, "We are a fitna, so do not disbelieve." And they learn from them that by which they cause separation between a man and his wife. But they do not harm anyone through it except by permission of Allah . And the people learn what harms them and does not benefit them. But the Children of Israel certainly knew that whoever purchased the magic would not have in the Hereafter any share. And wretched is that for which they sold themselves, if they only knew. 2:102

 

 

  • One clearly needs to stay clear of fitna, and one way is by not trying to please good and bad people

سَتَجِدُونَ آخَرِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَأْمَنُوكُمْ وَيَأْمَنُوا قَوْمَهُمْ كُلَّ مَا رُدُّوا إِلَى الْفِتْنَةِ أُرْكِسُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَعْتَزِلُوكُمْ وَيُلْقُوا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ وَيَكُفُّوا أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ ۚ وَأُولَـٰئِكُمْ جَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا

 

You will find others that wish to have security from you and security from their people. Every time they are sent back to fitna, they are cast back in it.  If they withdraw not from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, take (hold) of them and kill them wherever you find them. In their case, We have provided you with a clear warrant against them. 4:91

 

 

  • Fitna is completely in the hands of Allah:

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ لَا يَحْزُنكَ الَّذِينَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ مِنَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَلَمْ تُؤْمِن قُلُوبُهُمْ ۛ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا ۛسَمَّاعُونَ لِلْكَذِبِ سَمَّاعُونَ لِقَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ لَمْ يَأْتُوكَ ۖ يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ مِن بَعْدِ مَوَاضِعِهِ ۖ يَقُولُونَ إِنْ أُوتِيتُمْ هَـٰذَا فَخُذُوهُ وَإِن لَّمْ تُؤْتَوْهُ فَاحْذَرُوا ۚ وَمَن يُرِدِ اللَّهُ فِتْنَتَهُ فَلَن تَمْلِكَ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا ۚأُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُرِدِ اللَّهُ أَن يُطَهِّرَ قُلُوبَهُمْ ۚ لَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ ۖوَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

 

O Messenger, let them not grieve you who hasten into disbelief of those who say, "We believe" with their mouths, but their hearts believe not, and from among the Jews. [They are] avid listeners to falsehood, listening to another people who have not come to you. They distort words beyond their [proper] usages, saying "If you are given this, take it; but if you are not given it, then beware." But he for whom Allah intends his fitnah - never will you possess [power to do] for him a thing against Allah . Those are the ones for whom Allah does not intend to purify their hearts. For them in this world is disgrace, and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment. 5:41

 

 

  • Thinking that we can be exempt from fitna is wrong:

 

وَحَسِبُوا أَلَّا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ فَعَمُوا وَصَمُّوا ثُمَّ تَابَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ عَمُوا وَصَمُّوا كَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ

 

And they thought there would be no fitna, so they became blind and deaf. Then Allah turned to them in forgiveness; then [again] many of them became blind and deaf. And Allah is Seeing of what they do. 5:71

 

 

  • fitna as a means of guiding or sending people astray:

 

وَاخْتَارَ مُوسَىٰ قَوْمَهُ سَبْعِينَ رَجُلًا لِّمِيقَاتِنَا ۖ فَلَمَّا أَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ قَالَ رَبِّ لَوْ شِئْتَ أَهْلَكْتَهُم مِّن قَبْلُ وَإِيَّايَ ۖ أَتُهْلِكُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَّا ۖ إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا فِتْنَتُكَ تُضِلُّ بِهَا مَن تَشَاءُ وَتَهْدِي مَن تَشَاءُ ۖ أَنتَ وَلِيُّنَا فَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۖ وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ الْغَافِرِينَ

 

And Moses chose from his people seventy men for Our appointment. And when the earthquake seized them, he said, "My Lord, if You had willed, You could have destroyed them before and me [as well]. Would You destroy us for what the foolish among us have done? This is not but Your fitna  by which You send astray whom You will and guide whom You will. You are our Protector, so forgive us and have mercy upon us; and You are the best of forgivers. 7:155

 

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ حَرْفٍ ۖ فَإِنْ أَصَابَهُ خَيْرٌ اطْمَأَنَّ بِهِ ۖوَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ فِتْنَةٌ انقَلَبَ عَلَىٰ وَجْهِهِ خَسِرَ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةَ ۚ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ هُوَ الْخُسْرَانُ الْمُبِينُ

 

And of the people is he who worships Allah on an edge. If he is touched by good, he is reassured by it; but if he is struck by trial, he turns on his face [to the other direction]. He has lost [this] world and the Hereafter. That is what is the manifest loss. 22:11

 

 

  • fitna affects good and bad people:

 

وَاتَّقُوا فِتْنَةً لَّا تُصِيبَنَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنكُمْ خَاصَّةً ۖ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

 

And fear tumult or oppression/ fitna, which affecteth not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong:and know that Allah is strict in punishment. 8:25

 

 

  • All our belongings and families are but a fitna:

 

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ

 

And know that your properties and your children are fitna and that Allah has with Him a great reward. 8:28

 

إِنَّمَا أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَأَوْلَادُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عِندَهُ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ

 

Your wealth and your children are fitna, and Allah has with Him a great reward. 64:15

 

 

  • both good and bad in worldly life is fitna:

 

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ ۗ وَنَبْلُوكُم بِالشَّرِّ وَالْخَيْرِ فِتْنَةً ۖ وَإِلَيْنَا تُرْجَعُونَ

 

Every soul will taste death. And We test you with evil and with good as fitna; and to Us you will be returned. 21:35

 

 

فَإِذَا مَسَّ الْإِنسَانَ ضُرٌّ دَعَانَا ثُمَّ إِذَا خَوَّلْنَاهُ نِعْمَةً مِّنَّا قَالَ إِنَّمَا أُوتِيتُهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ ۚ بَلْ هِيَ فِتْنَةٌ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

 

And when adversity touches man, he calls upon Us;then when We bestow on him a favor from Us, he says, "I have only been given it because of [my] knowledge." Rather, it is a fitna, but most of them do not know. 39:49

 

 

  • We must help believers, otherwise Allah will send great fitna to earth, such as the current situation:

 

وإن استنصروكم في الدين فعليكم النصر إلا على قوم بينكم وبينهم ميثاق والله بما تعملون بصير

 

And if they seek help of you for the religion, then you must help, except against a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty. And Allah is Seeing of what you do. 8:72

 

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ إِلَّا تَفْعَلُوهُ تَكُن فِتْنَةٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ  وَ فَسَادٌ كَبِيرٌ

 

And those who disbelieved are allies of one another. If you do not do so, there will be fitnah on earth and great corruption. 8:73

 

 

  • Running away from fitna isn't the solution. one has to face it! At the same time trying to avoid fitna is itself falling into a fitna:

 

وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ائْذَن لِّي وَلَا تَفْتِنِّي ۚ أَلَا فِي الْفِتْنَةِ سَقَطُوا ۗ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ

 

And among them is he who says, "Permit me and do not put me to fitna. "Unquestionably, into fitna they have fallen. And indeed, Hell will encompass the disbelievers. 9:49


 
  • Result of disobeying Prophet:

 

لَّا تَجْعَلُوا دُعَاءَ الرَّسُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَاءِ بَعْضِكُم بَعْضًا ۚ قَدْ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ يَتَسَلَّلُونَ مِنكُمْ لِوَاذًا ۚ فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَن تُصِيبَهُمْفِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

 

Do not make [your] calling of the Messenger among yourselves as the call of one of you to another. Already Allah knows those of you who slip away, concealed by others. So let those beware who dissent from the Prophet's order, lest fitnah strike them or a painful punishment. 24:63

 

 

 

II. Fitna By creatures:

 

 

  • The devil tempting and fooling is a form of fitna:

 

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا  يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ 

 

O children of Adam, let not Satan cause fitna you as he removed your parents from Paradise, 7:27

 

 

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ وَلَا نَبِيٍّ إِلَّا إِذَا تَمَنَّىٰ أَلْقَى الشَّيْطَانُ فِي أُمْنِيَّتِهِ فَيَنسَخُ اللَّهُ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ ثُمَّ يُحْكِمُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

 

And We did not send before you any messenger or prophet except that when he spoke, Satan threw into it. But Allah abolishes that which Satan throws in; then Allah makes precise His verses. And Allah is Knowing and Wise. 22:52

 

 

لِّيَجْعَلَ مَا يُلْقِي الشَّيْطَانُ فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْقَاسِيَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ

 

[That is] so He may make what Satan throws in a fitna for those within whose hearts is disease and those hard ofheart. And indeed, the wrongdoers are in extreme dissension. 22:53


  • Purposefully putting others into fitna = crime punishable by hell

 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَتَنُوا الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَتُوبُوا فَلَهُمْ عَذَابُ جَهَنَّمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابُ الْحَرِيقِ

 

Indeed, those who caused fitna to the believing men and believing women and then have not repented will have the punishment of Hell, and they will have the punishment of the Burning Fire. 85:10

 

 

  • Fitna is worse than killing! 

 

وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ ۖ فَإِن قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ

 

And kill them wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you, and fitnah is worse than killing. And do not kill them at the al- Haram Mosque until they kill you there. But if they kill you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. 2:191

 

 

  • Fitna from people by people is a hurdle to realizing religion of Allah:

 

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّهِ ۖ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ

 

Kill them until there is no fitnah and worship is for Allah . But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors. 2:193

 

 

  • Standing in the way of peoples faith, and preventing access to the holy mosque is fitna, and fitna is worse than killing.

 

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ ۖ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ ۖ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُوا ۚ وَمَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

 

They ask you about the sacred month - about killing therein. Say, "Killing therein is great (sin), but averting [people] from the way of Allah and disbelief in Him and al-Haram Mosque and the expulsion of its people therefrom are greater [evil] in the sight of Allah . And fitnah is greater than killing." And they will continue to kill you until they turn you back from your religion if they are able. And whoever of you reverts from his religion [to disbelief] and dies while he is a disbeliever - for those, their deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter, and those are the companions of the Fire, they will abide therein eternally. 2:217

 

 

  • People who misinterpret Quran do so to seek fitna for others:

 

هُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ آيَاتٌ مُّحْكَمَاتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشَابِهَاتٌ ۖ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ رَبِّنَا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

 

It is He who has sent down to you, the Book; in it are verses precise - they are the foundation of the Book - and others unspecific. As for those in whose hearts is deviation, they will follow that of it which is unspecific, seeking fitna and seeking an interpretation [suitable to them]. And no one knows its interpretation except Allah . But those firm in knowledge say, "We believe in it. All is from our Lord." And no one will be reminded except those of understanding. 3:7

 

 

  • The goal of jihad is to remove fitna from creatures, therefore fitna is the enemy of our religion:

 

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَ يَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

 

And kill them until there is no fitnah and [until] the religion, all of it, is for Allah . And if they cease - then indeed, Allah is Seeing of what they do. 8:39

 

 

  • Integrating hypocrites in an Islamic task force ends up with them causing fitna (in relation to fake believers who refuse to join Islamic endeavors):

 

لَوْ خَرَجُوا فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمْ إِلَّا خَبَالًا وَلَأَوْضَعُوا خِلَالَكُمْ  يَبْغُونَكُمُ الْفِتْنَةَ وَفِيكُمْ سَمَّاعُونَ لَهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ

 

Had they gone forth with you, they would not have increased you except in confusion, and they would have been active among you, seeking you fitnah. And among you are avid listeners to them. And Allah is Knowing of the wrongdoers. 9:47

 

لَقَدِ ابْتَغَوُا الْفِتْنَةَ مِن قَبْلُ وَقَلَّبُوا لَكَ الْأُمُورَ حَتَّىٰ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ وَهُمْ كَارِهُونَ

 

They had already desired fitna before and had upset matters for you until the truth came and the ordinance of Allah appeared, while they were averse. 9:48

 

 

  • Asking Allah to stop us from being a fitna to wrongdoers (by Moses's people & by Abraham):

 

فَقَالُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً  لِّلْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

 

So they said, "Upon Allah do we rely. Our Lord, make us not fitna for the wrongdoing people 10:85

 

 

رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا رَبَّنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

 

(Abraham said) Our Lord, make us not fitna for the disbelievers and forgive us, our Lord. Indeed, it is You who is the Exalted in Might, theWise." 60:5

 

 

  • Even though the fitna is from people, it is still traced back to Allah

 

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا إِنَّهُمْ لَيَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشُونَ فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ ۗ وَجَعَلْنَا بَعْضَكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ فِتْنَةً أَتَصْبِرُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ رَبُّكَ بَصِيرًا

 

And We did not send before you, any of the messengers except that they ate food and walked in the markets. And We have made some of you as fitna for others - will you have patience? And ever is your Lord, Seeing. 25:20

 

 

  • Placing oneself into fitna:

 

يُنَادُونَهُمْ أَلَمْ نَكُن مَّعَكُمْ ۖ قَالُوا بَلَىٰ وَلَـٰكِنَّكُمْ فَتَنتُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَتَرَبَّصْتُمْ وَارْتَبْتُمْ وَغَرَّتْكُمُ الْأَمَانِيُّ حَتَّىٰ جَاءَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ وَغَرَّكُم بِاللَّهِ الْغَرُورُ

 

They will be calling out to them, "Were we not with you?" They will say,"Yes indeed, but you placed yourselves into fitna, and you awaited, and you were suspicious, and fancies deluded you until the Command of Allah came, and the Deluder deluded you concerning Allah. 57:14

 

 

 

III. Narrations Concerning Fitna:

 

 

 

Most Muslims use the term Fitna to be in relation to causing division in the Muslim world; therefore, there is a famous event that is usually referred to as "the First Fitna". This was a battle, where a wife of the prophet, and daughter of the the first self-proclaimed caliph Abu Bakr, attacked the followers of Imam Ali, in the "Battle of the Camel". It was the first time in Islamic history, that muslims openly and shamelessly attacked and killed other muslims. 

 

Interestingly enough, this event has been discussed clearly in suni hadiths, even though they have an open and strong bias towards the Aisha camp. The Prophet predicted this fitna to occur in their books as well:

 

 

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا جُوَيْرِيَةُ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ قَامَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَطِيبًا فَأَشَارَ نَحْوَ مَسْكَنِ عَائِشَةَ فَقَالَ  " هُنَا الْفِتْنَةُ ـ ثَلاَثًا ـ مِنْ حَيْثُ يَطْلُعُ قَرْنُ الشَّيْطَانِ ".

 

Narrated `Abdullah:

The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointing to `Aisha's house, he said three times, "Here is the Fitna," and, "from where comes out the horn of Satan."

Book 57, Hadith 13 Bukhari

 

 

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ آدَمَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ عَيَّاشٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو حَصِينٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مَرْيَمَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ زِيَادٍ الأَسَدِيُّ، قَالَ لَمَّا سَارَ طَلْحَةُ وَالزُّبَيْرُ وَعَائِشَةُ إِلَى الْبَصْرَةِ بَعَثَ عَلِيٌّ عَمَّارَ بْنَ يَاسِرٍ وَحَسَنَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ، فَقَدِمَا عَلَيْنَا الْكُوفَةَ فَصَعِدَا الْمِنْبَرَ، فَكَانَ الْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ فَوْقَ الْمِنْبَرِ فِي أَعْلاَهُ، وَقَامَ عَمَّارٌ أَسْفَلَ مِنَ الْحَسَنِ، فَاجْتَمَعْنَا إِلَيْهِ فَسَمِعْتُ عَمَّارًا يَقُولُ إِنَّ عَائِشَةَ قَدْ سَارَتْ إِلَى الْبَصْرَةِ، وَوَاللَّهِ إِنَّهَا لَزَوْجَةُ نَبِيِّكُمْ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ، وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى ابْتَلاَكُمْ، لِيَعْلَمَ إِيَّاهُ تُطِيعُونَ أَمْ هِيَ.

 


Narrated Abu Maryam `Abdullah bin Ziyad Al-Aasadi:

When Talha, AzZubair and `Aisha moved to Basra, `Ali sent `Ammar bin Yasir and Hasan bin `Ali who came to us at Kufa and ascended the pulpit. Al-Hasan bin `Ali was at the top of the pulpit and `Ammar was below Al-Hasan. We all gathered before him. I heard `Ammar saying, "`Aisha has moved to Al-Busra. By Allah! She is the wife of your Prophet in this world and in the Hereafter. But Allah has put you to test whether you obey Him (Allah) or her (`Aisha).

 

Bukhari Book 92, Hadith 51

 


  • What we can conclude is that Fitna from God is unstoppable, and that us causing others fitna is a crime.

The word fitna itself is not the most clear cut word in Islam, making the word fitna itself a fitna for mankind. a trial and a test for us all. 


  • Let me conclude with a Shia Narration that contains fitna caused by people while using their beauty, including falling into adultery, as well as blaming affliction for falling into the fitna trap:


H 14739 –Humeyd Bin Ziyad, from Al-Hassan Bin Muhammad Al-Kindy, from Ahmad Bin Al-

Hassan Al-Maysamy, from Aban Bin usman, from Abdul A’la a slave of progeny of Saam who said:

 

I heard Abu Abdullah saying: ‘On the Day of Judgement, they will bring abeautiful woman who had done Fitna (mischief) due to her beauty. So she will say,‘O Lord! You Created me beautiful until I did what I did. So they will come withMaryam (Mary) and say to her, ‘Are you more beautiful or her? She had beauty in her but did not do Fitna’.

َ

And they would come with the handsome man who had done Fitna due tohis beauty. So he will say, ‘O Lord! You Created me with beauty until I did withthe women what I did. So they will bring Yusuf and say, ‘Are you more handsomeor he is? He had beauty but did not do Fitna’.

 

And they will come with the afflicted person who had been involved in Fitna due to his afflictions. So he will say, ‘O Lord! The intensity of theafflictions upon me were such that I did Fitna’. So they would come withAyyub (Job). So they would say, ‘Were your afflictions more severe or his afflictions?He was in afflictions but did not do Fitna’

 

Al Kafi Vol 8

 

 

May Allah remove all Fitna through us in sha Allah,

 

walaikum salaam

 

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