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A Brother sent me that. What does the Akhbari say about that?     ANSWERS TO THE Akhbari Questions.

1. What is the name of first mujtahid?

Answer: Aban ibne tagleeb

مستدركالوسائل ج 17 ص 315

قَالَ وَ قَالَ لَهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع اجْلِسْ فِي مَسْجِدِ الْمَدِينَةِ وَ أَفْتِ النَّاسَ فَإِنِّي أُحِبُّ أَنْ يُرَى فِي شِيعَتِي مِثْلُكَ

Imam BAQAR as : you sit in the masjid of madinah and give FATWA…I like to see in my shias like you.

2. Before getting the degree of ijtehad, whose taqleed the first mujtahid did?

Answer: He was a follower of Imam as and Imam himself gave him the degree and before he reached the degree Imam as asked him to verify everything he say BUT when Imam as saw that he has the knowledge of rivayat and the nasikh ane mansukh of rivayat, muhkam and mutashabeh from the rivayat…what to do when there is a contradiction (there cannot be any contradiction in rivayat…at times people think there is a contradiction and ordinary people cannot understand..Imam asked Aban ibn e tagleeb to explain these things from the rivayat.

THE VERY THING IS DONE BY OUR MUJTAHEED.

3. Quote an Ayat or Hadees in favour of Ijtehad?

وسائلالشيعة 27 131 10- باب عدم جواز تقليد غير المعصوم

ْ فَأَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنَ الْفُقَهَاءِ صَائِناً لِنَفْسِهِ حَافِظاً لِدِينِهِ مُخَالِفاً عَلَى هَوَاهُ مُطِيعاً لِأَمْرِ مَوْلَاهُ فَلِلْعَوَامِّ أَنْ يُقَلِّدُوه

Answer: When laymen must do taqleed, there must be mujtahedeen (Foqaha) who would give fatwa to them.

4. Give an Ayat or Hadees in the praise of mujtahid who is not an infallible?

الصراطالمستقيم 3 236 فصل ..... ص : 232

فقد ذكر في الجمع بين الصحيحين أن النبي ص قال من اجتهد فأصاب فله أجران و من أخطأ فله أجر واحد

Answer: This hadith is quoted by a shia aalim ali bin younoos bin nabati al bayazi in Serat e mustaqeem.

(I have some more explanation regarding this at some other place)

5. If the mujtahid gives a legal decision (fatwa) based on Quran and Ahadees then why do the

mujtahids say “when a mujtahid dies then his legal decision is null and void”.

(matal mufti matal fatwa) ?

Answer: First of all who said this? The correct form is اذا مات المفتی مات فتواه

Means his fatwa dies not the real fatwa..

Secondly, our foqha (mujtahedeen ) allow us to do taqleed if u have followed him in his life…many of our elders even now follow ayatollah khoe

Lastly, this verdict can be wrong not the concept of ijtehad….you have problem with this fatwa and not with the concept..

6. Why a person can’t do taqleed of a dead mujtahid?

Answer: If u can derive it from the ahadees that one can do a taqleed of a dead mujtahid where QURAN OR HADITH may have asked us to do, we all would welcome it and will follow Sheikh Kulayni or Sheikh Tusi or Allama Hilli…

The main problem is that a dead mujtahid would not be able to convince us while a present mujtahid would defence his fatwa…That the point my dear brotherSee More

7. On reaching puberty, can a boy do taqleed of a dead mujtahid?

Answer: Refer answer to Q 6.

8. Is it lawful to interpret (tafseer) Quran through ones own intellect/opinion?

Answer: NEVER….Naozobillah…..Maazallah

...Imam says : الكافي 8 311 حديث الفقهاء و العلماء ..... ص : 7

ْ فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع وَيْحَكَ يَا قَتَادَةُ إِنْ كُنْتَ إِنَّمَا فَسَّرْتَ الْقُرْآنَ مِنْ تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِكَ فَقَدْ هَلَكْتَ وَ أَهْلَكْت

Whoesoever do the tafseer according to his own opinion he is perished and he perishes others too.

Normally philosophers (some of them) do that not Mujtahedeen.

9. Is taqleed of a mujtahid lawful?

Answer: Yes it is….BUT normally we get satisfied by a aalam (the most knowledgeable person of ahadeeth.

10. What is the procedure for appointing the so-called naib-e-Imam and its lawfulness?

Answer: Not anything special…If u have enough knowledge to know the best among the scholars of Thaqalain then u will sure follow him…If u do not have enough knowledge of that..u should have enough knowledge about those aalims who can recognize those mujtahedeedn…Normally we donot fall in these catagories…Because we r not very familiar about aulamas…rather we see who is the best orator he has all knowledge…illiteracy…!!!!!!!!!!!!!

We need to gain enough knowledge to choose aulamas for our deen and day today life and to hear the majalis…. We lag in this matter ……..we r so far to reach to a status where we can recognize a mujtahid!!!!!!!!!!!!

11. If the legal decisions (fatwas) of mujtahids were given according to the Quran and

Traditions, then why do they differ on the same issue?

Answer: We r least concerned with other mujtahid’s fatwa…when we came to know (after having enough knowledge) about a particular mujtahid that he knows the Thaqlain in the best way…we do the taqleed…If some one give a contradictory fatwa we considered it as a ordinary statement as he is not the most learned person according to our research

Secondly, in the time of occultation there will be difference of opinion ….nothing could be done except to prepare ourselves for the appearance of our beloved IMAM(ATFS).

12. Did any Imam categorize the traditions (istelahat-e- Hadees) such as hasan, qavi, mursal,

zaiif, etc.?

Answer: NO…It was first done by sayyed ibn e tawoos…and these categories seem to be difficult in the view of scholars.

YES, Imam as has classified various ahadeeth which motivate us to to understand ahadeeth in a proper way rather blindly accepting everything which is written on paper or is referred to Aemmah’s tradition…We need to prove that the hades is from a masoom and when it reaches to masoom we need to bow in front of it.

بحارالأنوار 2 249 باب 29- علل اختلاف الأخبار و كيفية

فَإِنَّ الْمُغِيرَةَ بْنَ سَعِيدٍ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ دَسَّ فِي كُتُبِ أَصْحَابِ أَبِي أَحَادِيثَ لَمْ يُحَدِّثْ بِهَا أَبِي فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَ لَا تَقْبَلُوا عَلَيْنَا مَا خَالَفَ قَوْلَ رَبِّنَا تَعَالَى وَ سُنَّةَ نَبِيِّنَا مُحَمَّدٍ ص

Read also the chapter of ikhtelaful hades of uslool e kafi

13. Can any fallible person’s reasoning (aql) be an authority?

Answer: NO….NEVER…..ONLY THAQALAIN AND NOTHING ELSE.

14. Give a proof on giving khums only to a mujtahid or so-called naib-e-Imam?

Answer: No proof except centralizing it…Foqaha derives it from traditions that centralizing it and to create a unity is the topmost priority…secondly they know the best places to use it because they r aware of the traditions which describes where to use

If u can derive (assuming that u r a mujtahid, faqeeh) that a person can use his khums in its proper way …u can issue that verdict.

Dear brother, the only thing is how to derive it from the traditions. Its very very very difficult…Foqaha (mujtahedeen) are those who have immense knowledge of Quran and Ahlul bayt as (thaqalain) and so they understand this way.

15. What are the characteristics of shekhein (seerat-e-shekhein), which Hazrat Imam Ali ../../../public/style_emoticons/default/as.gif r ejected?

Answer: They used to give fatwas not according to the teachings of prophet pbuh. Shia foqha are bound to give fatwas from the Thaqalain.

17. Why usoolies are called as usoolies ?

Answer: There is not so called term each faqeeh is usooli and each usooli is Akhbari and each Akhbari is usooli and so on….The difference is the extent they use usool and fiqh and….The best thing related to this matter is the introduction of the great akhbari..a great faqehi Ayatullah sheikh mohaddes e Bahrani..his book which is entitled with : Alhadeequn nazerah”

18. Shah Abdul Aziz Mohadis Dahalvi (sunni) in the book

Tohfa-e-Ithna Ashari says, “The way

the shias has their deputy of Imams (naib-e-Imams) by the same proof we have the

deputies of Prophet (S.A) (khalifa- e-Rasool)”. Explain its lawfulness?

Answer: The writer can describe what he says….I do not see that the comparison is lawful.

19. The theory that the deputy should be equal in all aspects as the head. (AlNaibo kal Muneeb) Is it right or wrong?

این التراب و رب الارباب

Answer: There is a proverb : where the sand and where the lord of the lords…

Cannot compare at all….no way….my dear…no way

20. In a period where freedom of religion is there, can anybody remain shia after boycotting

those who support Aliun Waliullah and mourning of Imam Hussain (A.S)?

Answer: No one is boycotted our nafs is boycotted from all the good deeds and the teachings of ahlula bayt as….try to free ourselves from the lust of nafs and shaytan and then we can gain the devine teachings of ahlul bayt as…no one can stop us from wilayat and azadari..

21 .Practicing religion according to Hadees-e-Saqlain (Quran and Traditions of infallible) and

reject practicing on Intellect (Aql) and Consensus (Ijmah) makes one go to Heaven or Hell?

Answer: Allah will lead everyone to jannah who follow Thaqalain...., Inshallah..I previously emphasised in each answer that without thaqalain nothing can be done….

Those terms..aql and Ijmah , if not mentioned in hadeeth it carry no importance…

Brother there is not a single fatwa from any Mujtahid (faqeeh) which is based on only aql issue…This matter needs a lengthy answer…If interested I can give in a discussion.

Regarding Ijamh sheikh Ansari said it is not our base…it’s the base of sunnis…Ayatullah khoe used to say if u drop alif from ijmah it becomes Jimah (intercourse)

Dear…the ijmah which is proved by Shia mujtahedeen (foqaha) is which is approved by Imam atfs. If not approved it carry no importance….just go through sheikh tussis books and u will feel the real interference of Imam atfs. Ultimately it becomes a rivayat.

There are 14 types of Ijmah…refer kashful qena an vujuh hujjiyatil ijmah……we need to learn a lot…

22 .Why does so-called Naibe Imam, always write a footnote as “Gods knows better” (Wallah-

o-aalam) while answering any query?

Answer: This reminds me like the question which many people ask that why we say Inshallah. Answer : because quran says.

Why Mujtaheed ..faqeeh…say or write allaho aalam..because its mentioned in rivayat that aulama when they are not sure they must say allaho aalam….Brother…mujtaheed is a person who has a immense knowledge of ahadeeth..in better words Thaqalain.

Read this rivayat…

الكافي 1 42 باب النهي عن القول بغير علم .....

عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ لِلْعَالِمِ إِذَا سُئِلَ عَنْ شَيْءٍ وَ هُوَ لَا يَعْلَمُهُ أَنْ يَقُولَ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ وَ لَيْسَ لِغَيْرِ الْعَالِمِ أَنْ يَقُولَ ذَلِكَ

Moreover its there humbleness that they write this even if they are sure to some extent…same way as we say Inshallah even if we r sure to do a particular work

23. Is it lawful to do taqleed (unconditional surrender and follow) of 14 infallible (A.S)?

Answer: I would like to raise a question : Is it lawful to do taqleed (unconditional surrender and follow) of mujtahedeen?

YES it is lawful to do that prior to this condition that mujtaheed (faqeeh) does ijtehad throw those methods prescribed by Imams as, as our current mujtahedeen do it.

This taqleed is not unconditional and it should not be unconditional…mujtaheed faqeeh is bound to do ijtehad throw those methods mentioned by thaqalain. If he gives fatwas not on the basis of these methods..he is rejected…BUT the authority to judge this is an aalim who has studied the shariat near to ijtehad level.

This is a paradox that some people say that taqleed of mujtaheed is better or of Imam as. Obviously everyone follow the teachings of ahlul bayt as. So every one is muqaleed of them. The only matter is that we r children in the school of ahlul bayt as and we donot understand the traditions with all its branches…nasikh and mansukh…mohkam and mutashabeh…which one is said in taqeyyah …which one is temporary ruling….which is mutlaq and which is muqayyad…which is amr bad al hazar..and so on. So we need to follow a person who is aware of these teachings which those methods which imam as has described.

I would like to give an example : we do taqleed of mujtahedeen BUT our children practically follow us and they do not know the concept of taqleed. So they do our taqleed. In the same way we r like children and we do not have even a little knowledge of traditions. So we follow and do taqleed of those who r the real muqaleeds of imam as. We cannot call ourselves the muqaleed of imam as unless we try to gain knowledge of their teaching by reading Kafi, al faqeeh, tahzeeb, istebsar, basaerud darajat, behar, vasel, vafi and hundreds of books.

Lastly , why we do taqleed? Try, try and try to become mujtaheed who is the real muqaleed of imams as

A bitter reality….The time we spend to earn our livelihood is far much than we spend to gain knowledge of Thaqalin. And those who start to gain the knowledge of thaqalain leave it without completing it or those who complete it do not understand the essence of those teachings. And this is the real mazlumiyat of Ahlul Bayt as.

Basic information on taqleed

http://www.al-islam.org/laws/taqlid.html

Dialogue on Taqleed

...http://www.al-islam.org/jurisprudence-made-easy/7.htm

FAQ on Taqleed.pub [PDF]

www.al-islam.org/nutshell/redirect.asp?urll=/nutshell/files/taqlid.pdf

Detailed explanation - Ijtihad: Its Meaning, Sources, Beginnings and the Practice of Ra'y by

Muhammad Ibrahim Jannati

http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/ijtihad/

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Why do you post this in the "other sects" section? Akhbari's are 12ers or have they been excommunicated by your Marjaa?

 

Are you aware of the traditions by the A'immah (as) prohibiting the use of ijtihad? So what's the point of arguing about it? Just hear and obey.


Btw:

 

My mind bobbles at this one:

 

 

20. In a period where freedom of religion is there, can anybody remain shia after boycotting
those who support Aliun Waliullah and mourning of Imam Hussain (A.S)?

Answer: No one is boycotted our nafs is boycotted from all the good deeds and the teachings of ahlula bayt as….try to free ourselves from the lust of nafs and shaytan and then we can gain the devine teachings of ahlul bayt as…no one can stop us from wilayat and azadari..

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  • 6 months later...

Akhbari's = Another fitna or 'news paper sellers/Akhbar Bechne Wala.'.


They perform salam with third testimony and they say saying Aliun Waliullah in salam is wajib which makes the whole namaz batil.


Edited by Ali Dhe Malang
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  • 3 weeks later...
  • Advanced Member

Where can I find more information on Akhbaris, Usoolis and related subjects?

(salam)

 

You could read the books Inevitable Doubt and Scripturalist Islam by Robert Gleave. 

 

This is a link you could learn from:

 http://www.scribd.com/doc/3729886/Abdall%C4%81h-al-Sam%C4%81hij%C4%AB-s-Munyat-al-Mum%C4%81ris%C4%ABn

 

Furthermore, this might be somewhat helpful (I have not read this one), written by Shiekh Muhsin aal-`Asfoor, an Akhbari scholar:

http://www.makhtootatbh.com/Books/AL-Fiqh.Al-Muqaran.pdf

 

Akhbaris themselves are not all the same. If you want to learn about the regular moderate ones like Sheikh Yusuf al-Bahrani and such, then I recommend visiting http://al-asfoor.com/ and  . If by "Akhbaris", you mean the more extreme Astarabadi and Sheikh Hurr al-`Amili style, then you could read their books. I personally read parts of "al-Fawa'id al-Toosiyya" by Sheikh Hurr al-`Amili . The Hubeali website is also a major propagator of the extreme type of "Akhbarism", though I do not advise you take them too seriously. 

 

I'm sure the Maraji` have some works written on these issues, so check on their websites anything you can find regarding it. 

 

(wasalam)

Edited by Abe
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  • Veteran Member

(bismillah)

(wasalam)

Thanks for this information. But if one was still relatively new to 12'erism, what would be the best route? I feel as if this is pretty advanced stuff.

JazakAllah

Check out the links in my signature.

(Wasalam)

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What is our opinion and response to Akhbaris?
 
Concise answer
 

The principles of the Akhbari faith can be divided into two cognitive categories. In fact, what the Akhbaris accept as the only cognitive source is the narrations (revayāt). They claim that the entire narrations in the four hadith books (Al-Kutub al-Arb'ah) are authentic and reliable. They are also opposed to any kind of ijtihand and taqlid as shall be explained below.

The question which can be put to them is: How do they claim that all the narrations of the four books are authentic whereas they know for sure that the tyrant rulers in the early period of Islam were bent on destroying Shia traditions and fabricating new ones to suit their political ends. Hence, there must be a way to distinguish the authentic traditions from unauthentic ones.

Moreover, the Quran is Muslims' most important and most authentic written document that is accepted by all Islamic sects but the Akhbaris are of the view that the Quran is understandable and comprehendible by the Infallible (Ma'sum) alone whereas we know that such a conviction on the part of the Akhbaris is tantamount to destroying or denying the most authoritative and the most authentic source.

When it comes also to ijtihad and taqlid, it should be said that the necessity of taqlid is the result of a rational conclusion based on the need for divine guidance, through the Qur'an and the traditions. Thus, taqlid has its jurisprudential evidence in addition to reason which also admits that a person who is ignorant of religious rules should refer to a qualified mujtahid. Mujtahid is a jurist competent enough to deduce precise inferences regarding the commandments from the holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of the holy Prophet by the process of Ijtihad. Ijtihad means making deductions in matters of law, in the cases to which no express text is applicable. Gaining such a competence is not possible for all; it is difficult and even impossible for all to become mujtahids.

 
Detailed Answer
 

 At the beginning of the eleventh century a movement called Akhbarism was founded by Mullah Muhammad Amin Astarabadi, who expounded his beliefs in his famous book Fawa'id al-Madaniyyah. Astarabadi died in the year 1033 A.H.

The Akhbari movement tried to confront the extreme intellectualism of the Mu'tazalis, the dry derivations of philosophy, and the fanaticism of some Sunnis, but turned into an ideology that was in opposition to the intellect and to ijtihad.  This movement availed itself of the propitious atmosphere that was created during the Safawid period benefitting from the relaxation and also from the invasive thinking of the early Akhbari generations to influence religious seminaries and Shia's ijtihadi thinking. The following Akhbari generations began to be moderate to some extent as they no longer had the early extremist approaches. Finally, in the end of the twelfth hegira century, the ijtihadi thinking overcame the Akhbari and pushed it out of Shia's scientific arena. Late Wahid Behbahani (who died in the year 1205 A.H.) was the pioneer of combat and struggle against Akhbari thinking. The ijtihad thinking gained momentum and strength after the emergence of the author of Jawaher al-Kalama (Shaykh Hasan Najafi) and it reached its peak with Shaykh Murteza Ansari, the greatest scholar of his time (1281 A.H.).

The emergence and development of Akhbarism as a hadith school came as a result of the efforts made by Muhammad Amin Astarabadi. One of his teachers named Mirza Muhammad Amin Astarabadi (1028 A.H.), a famous biographer of his time had a profound influence on him. Mirza Muhammad advised him to revive the past Imamiyah scholars' method in relying the tradition (hadith).

Astarabadi maintains that the Akhbari thinking is the ancient method of Imamiyah School. Some scholars have also accepted this opinion as it can be understood from the writings of Allamah Muhammad Taqi Majlisi (first Majlisi).[1] Some other great scholars following Taqi Majlisi were inclined to this method. They were Mulla Mohsen Fayz Kashani (1091 A.H.), Shaykh Hurr Amili (1104 a.H.), Sayyid Hashem Bahrani (1107 A.H.), Sayyid Ne'matullah Jazaeri (1112 A.H.) and Shaykh Yusuf Bahrani (1186).

The Akhbari attitude, being rigorous and rigid, was not going to endure because it could not meet and fulfill the needs of the time nor was it able to adapt itself to the temporal circumstances. Therefore, it could not resist in the face of the Usooli thinking.

Most likely, what led to the emergence of Akhbari movement was extreme intellectualism or lack of attention to the text from the eighth to the tenth hegira centuries giving rise to the extremist Akhbari ideology because one extremist approach results in another.[2]

In order to criticize the Akhbari thinking, we must get acquainted with some of its features. The main idea of the Akhbaris is that the only way to attain salvation and felicity are to turn to the narrations of the infallibles. It is necessary to stay away from other cognitive sources. Contrary to the jurisprudents, they only accepted the sunnah out of the four methods of derivation (intellect, consensus, Quran, and sunnah). The rest of them were criticized on the ground that they cannot be understood or relied upon without the interpretation of the Infallible (A.S.).[3]

Some of the features of the Akhbari thinking are as under:

1. Most of the Akhbaris do not consider the Quran to be understandable. They maintain that the only people who can understand it are the Ahl al-Bayt or the Imams (A.S.). Therefore, it is not correct to make any legal inferences from the Quran. This view of the Akhbaris was not accepted later on by moderate Akhbari thinkers.

2. All the theoretical and practical matters, which man is in need of, are available in the hadith legacy of the Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.).

3. They consider the intelligence to be faulty because it makes mistakes and therefore should not be used at all in religious issues.[4]

4. They criticized the consensus as being an innovation brought by the Sunnis. It cannot be a valid tool for deciphering Islamic laws. If all the jurists agree on a matter, it will not be authoritative because none of them is inerrant and infallible. Therefore, the existence and non-existence of consensus would be equal. [5]

5. They claimed that the only source which should be used to obtain religious rulings is traditions. They claimed that all of the traditions narrated in the 'four books' namely, Kafi, Man La Yadarahu al-Faqih, Tahdhib, and Istibsar, are correct, rather are certain. They are of the view that sorting out the traditions into four categories such as sahih, muwathaq, hasan and dha'eif which became common from the time of Allamah Hilli is incorrect and faulty.[6]

6. The school of the Akhbaris took its stand against the school of ijtihad and taqlid. They denied the legal competence, jurisdiction and technical expertise that the mujtahids believed in saying that this kind of ijtihad did not exist in the time of the infallibles and has been introduced to the Shia community by Ahl al-Sunnah.  The Imams' companions also did not know anything about ijtihad methodology and their only scientific source was the narration of the Infallibles. They acted upon them and the Imams never called on them to practice ijtihad. In fact, they forbade them from qiyas [reasoning by analogy] and istihsan ["finding the good" by one's own deliberations]. This method has been the method of the previous scholars as well. Ijtihad and theoretical discussions on jurisprudential matters began among Shia scholars from the time of Ibn Aqil and Ibn Junaid.[7] Therefore, ijtihad and deduction are haram and it is also not permissible for the laity to follow the Mujtahideen.

It is due to the same approach that when Shaykh Hurr Amili discusses the following narration

"فاما من کان من الفقهاء صائنا لنفسه، حافظا لدینه مخالفا علی هواه، مطیعا لامر مولاه، فللعوام أن یقلدوه"

'Whoever from the fuqaha is preserving of himself, guarding his religion, opposing his desires, obeying the command of his master, then it is (allowed) for the commoners to do taqlid to him', he says that taqlid in this narration means to accept his narration, not to follow his self-formed view, deduction and conjectures…[8]

7. All Shiites are the followers of the Imams (A.S.); therefore, the relationship of scholars with the laity as Mujtahids and followers is not in order.

8. It is deduced from the previous feature that it is permissible to follow a dead Mujtahid.

9. The practical rational principles are not authoritative because the intellect does not have eligibility to enter precise Shari'ah discussions.

10. Since rational exemption (bara'at aqliyah) is not acceptable, therefore wherever we suspect whether or not something is permissible or forbidden, it is necessary that we exercise precaution.

11. What is known as Usool Fiqh (lit. the principles of jurisprudence) has been introduced by Ahl al-Sunnah who have detached themselves from the Infallibles, the sources of knowledge. This method of deducing laws has not been accepted by the Infallibles (A.S.) as they have overtly and explicitly expressed their opposition to some of those notions e.g. qiyas (analogy). Therefore, relying on Usool Fiqh amounts to relying on corrupt and baseless principles.[9]

With this introduction which to some extent acquaints us with Akhbari thinking, we can divide the Akhbari principles into two categories:

1. Cognitive principles

2. Method of achieving religious doctrines

When it comes to the cognitive principles, they introduce the transmitted traditions from the imams as the cognitive source. They do not consider the Book, intellect and consensus as the sources of knowledge. As for the method, they criticize the ijtihadi method and reject ijtihad and taqlid as well as the theoretical science (Usool Fiqh) and practical principles (Usool Amaliyah).

In a nutshell, we will now study and criticize some of their most important principles. This study will help you criticize Akhbaris' other pre-suppositions.

A) Abandonment of the Quran which is the most important and most authoritative source of religious knowledge. This is the most important and most dangerous method in the Akhbari thinking. The Holy Quran is the most reliable and most trustworthy written document and indeed, it is the only authentic source of Muslim which is acceptable to all Islamic sects.

The Quran introduces itself as the book of guidance and its verses as 'plain' and 'lucid'. It says:

"هَذَا بَیانٌ لِّلنَّاسِ وَ هُدًى وَ مَوْعِظَةٌ لِّلْمُتَّقِین"[10]

Here is a plain statement to men, a guidance and instruction to those who fear Allah!

 "وَ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَیکَ الْکِتَابَ تِبْینًا لِّکلُ‏ِّ شىَ‏ْءٍ وَ هُدًى وَ رَحْمَةً وَ بُشْرَى‏ لِلْمُسْلِمِین"[11]

And We have revealed the Book to you explaining clearly everything, and a guidance and mercy and good news for those who submit.

More importantly, the Quran calls on all people to meditate, reflect and ponder over the verses of the Quran:

"أَ فَلَا یتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْءَانَ أَمْ عَلىَ‏ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا"[12]

Will they then not meditate on the Qur'an, or are there locks on the hearts?

The Holy Quran has even challenged the people that doubt the divinity of this book to bring a book similar to it. A challenge would be rational only when understanding the Quran and its comparison with other texts are possible for people.  Moreover, there are numerous traditions which clearly instruct Muslims to compare a hadith with the Quran to find out whether it is coherent and consistent with the Quran or not. Such hadiths stand witness to the fact that the Quran can be understood.[13] That is because if the Quran were not understandable by people, let alone the scholars, then it would have been meaningless and futile to compare it with the Quran.

B) The human intellect is a source of knowledge and it is the only means through which the meaning of the verses and traditions can be understood. It seems that the Akhbaris, seeing the verses that denounce qiyas (analogy), sought to completely deny the role of reason as a source or means of understanding and cognition. But the fact is that those narrations which negate the role reason refer to incorrect use of reason in Shari'ah laws. Additionally, the Shari'ah laws are enacted or considered by the Law Giver (Divine Legislator) and their philosophy and wisdom are not known to the human intellect.[14] This does not mean that the intellect cannot shed light on all the said cases.[15]

C) When it comes also to ijtihad and taqlid, it should be said that the necessity of taqlid is the result of a rational conclusion based on the need for divine guidance, through the Qur'an and the traditions. Thus, taqlid has its jurisprudential evidence in addition to reason which also admits that a person who is ignorant of religious rules should refer to a qualified mujtahid. This method is consistent with what the wise men and women do in their daily lives. And if this principle that an ignorant person should refer to a learned person is negated, then it would mean that all are required to fulfill their Shar'ei needs by turning to Usool Amaliyah, something that has never happened and is normally not possible.

D) The Akhbaris' saying about ijma (consensus) is acceptable. The jurisprudents are also not opposed to it. In fact, the Shia jurisprudents do not consider consensus to be authoritative or a conclusive proof by itself; rather they consider it as a proof not by itself but because it originates in the sayings of the Infallibles (A.S.).[16]

E) The claim that the narrations of the 'four books' are certain and authentic is undocumented, unreasonable and indemonstrable. Although the four categories of hadiths (traditions) can be reduced to two (authentic and inauthentic traditions), there are many unauthentic traditions in the 'four books'. On the other hand, we know for sure that the tyrant rulers were bent on destroying Shia traditions and fabricating new ones to suit their political ends. Hence, many of the traditions available in these books are forged hadiths and they are invalid.

F) It is not possible for all people to follow the infallible Imams without any intermediaries because we do not have access to them.  Taqlid without intermediaries undeniably means that an ignorant person should refer to a knowledgeable person. 

In conclusion, we must say that although the Akhbari School is not a progressive and dynamic movement and we do not accept it as a true school for deriving and deducing Islamic laws, its influence on the Shia community cannot be denied. This thinking continued for nearly two centuries leaving positive and negative impacts behind.

Extremist views, downplaying the importance of reflection on the Quran, intellectual rigidness, antagonism to innovation, heedlessness towards meditation, contemplation and ijtihad are among the negative traits of Akhbarism. On the other hand, the tendency to textual doctrines and profuse attention to hadith as a cognitive source and compiling hadith collections, contemplation and reflection on hadith texts and training a new generation of Shia traditionists are some of the services rendered by this group to the Shia sciences, though this thinking all alone cannot meet the needs in religious matters.

For further information in this regard, see:

The Akhbaris and Usoolis, 6740 (site: en6802).

 

 

[1] - Majlisi, Muhammad Taqi, Lawame' Sahibqurani, vol.1, p. 16, Ismailiyah Printing and Publication Institute, Qom, 1414 A.H.

[2] - Boroujardi, Muhammad Hussein, Hashiyah Alaa al-Kifayah, vol.1, p. 36, Ansariyan Publication, Qom, 1412 A.H.

[3] - Astarabadi, Muhammad Amin, Al-Fawaed al-Madaniyyah, pg. 104, Jame'ah Mudarresin, Qom, 1426 A.H.

[4] - Al-Fawaed al-Madaniyyah, p. 471.  Astarabadi relies on the sayings of the Imams in rejecting Qias (analogy). He seeks to prove that the intellect does not have the right to interfere in the area of religious laws because it cannot throw light into such matters. Finally, he rejects the role of 'aql  (intelligence) in all Shari'ah related matters. Al-Fawaed al-Madaniyyah, p. 77, Jame'ah Mudarresin, Qom, 1426 A.H.

[5] - Al-Fawaed al-Madaniyyah, pg. 57.

[6] - Ibid, p. 30, Astarabadi's viewpoint towards Allamah Hilli is very harsh.

[7] - Ibid, p. 78.

[8] - Hurr Amili, Wasail al-Shi'ah, vol.27, p. 131 and 132, Aalul-Bayt Institute, Qom, 1409 A.H.

[9] - See: Mulla Mohsen, Fayz Kashani, Al-Wafi, vol.1, preface, Amirul Momeneen Library, Esfahan, 1370 A.H.

[10] - Aal-e Imran: 138.

[11] - Nahl: 89

[12] - Muhammad: 24.

[13] - Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol.1, pg. 69,  (Bab al-Akhz bis-Sunnah wa Shawahid al-Kitab), Dar al-Kutub al-Islamiyah, Tehran, 1365 (1986).

[14] - Jurisprudential qiyas is different from logical deduction. The jurisprudential qiyas is the logical allegory that suggests an equality or close similarity between two things simply they are similar to each other. Thus the rule which applies to one of them applies to the other as well. What has been narrated in the name of qiyas from Abu Hanifa falls in this category of qiyas. The difference between this type of qiyas and the logical deduction is very clear. One of the examples of logical deduction is qiyas awlawiyah (analogy by priority).  For example, when it comes to respecting parents, the Quran says, "Do not say to them "fie on you". We understand by analogy that showing any kind of disrespect or beating is haram and sinful. There is nothing to indicate that Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.) rejected this.

[15] - Such as qiyas awlawiyah (priority analogy).

[16] - This is what is known in Fiqh as Ijma' Dukhuli.

 

http://islamquest.ir/en/archive/question/en11817

Edited by PureEthics
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