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In the Name of God بسم الله

Good Shia Twelver Islamic Philosophers?

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You mean we have to name just one?

Of course Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a) was said to be a great philosopher himself, but I imagine you're asking for people more famous in the secular fields of life so I'll just name one of my personal favorites: Shaykh Nasir al-Din Tusi. A crater in the moon and an asteroid belt in space is named after him. Some people also attribute the discovery of the law of sines to him as it appears in one of his works.

Another extremely famous one is Jaabir ibn Hayyan who is said to be a student of Imam Ja'far (a).

(salam)

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(salam)

Perhaps the most prominent and influential shi'i philosopher is Sadr al-Din Mohammed Shirazi, famously known as Mulla Sadra, founder of the school of transcendant philosophy - al hikma al muta'aliyah.

Of the recent shi'i philosophers whose works can also be obtained, Allameh Tabatabaei and his student Shaheed Mortadha Motahhari.

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As the dear members mentioned before me, you have characters such as Shirazi, Mulla Sadra, Tabatabaei, Shaheed Motahari. But if you want someone who is still living i recommend Ayatollah Mizbah Yazdi.

They say that those that didn't get to see and learn from Shaheed Motahari should go see Mizbah Yazdi.

Here is the link to his introduction book on Philosophy: http://goaloflife.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/philosophicalinstructions.pdf

Be warned, your brain will go kaput after reading the first couple of pages.

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You mean we have to name just one?

Of course Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a) was said to be a great philosopher himself, but I imagine you're asking for people more famous in the secular fields of life so I'll just name one of my personal favorites: Shaykh Nasir al-Din Tusi. A crater in the moon and an asteroid belt in space is named after him. Some people also attribute the discovery of the law of sines to him as it appears in one of his works.

Another extremely famous one is Jaabir ibn Hayyan who is said to be a student of Imam Ja'far (a).

(salam)

Philosophy uses logic and reason in trial to answer questions related to human nature and morality. Imam Sadiq teachings were not the product of his reason, they were divine teachings that he inherited from his grandfather, prophet Mohamad.

Imam Baqir said in a narration عن الامام الباقر (ع) قال: لو كنا نفتي الناس برأينا وهوانا لكنا من الهالكين ولكنا نفتيهم باثار من رسول الله (ص) واصول علم عندنا نتوارثها كابراً عن كابر نكنزها كما يكنز هؤلاء ذهبهم وفضتهم.

"If we gave rulings to people according to our own opinions, then we would have been among the losers, but we teach them the rulings according to what we inherited from prophet.." not literal translation

I am not arguing against philosophy, in fact Imams had used textual proofs with muslims and logical proofs with non muslims. Their words were divine, thus cannot be labeled as philosophy. Shia scholars had adopted this method of dealing with non believers from their Imams, but since shia scholars are not Imams nor infallible, their reasoning cannot be labeled as divine teaching but it is a philosophy.

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Here is the link to his introduction book on Philosophy: http://goaloflife.fi...nstructions.pdf

Be warned, your brain will go kaput after reading the first couple of pages.

(salam)

Philosophical instructions is a detailed book and cannot really be understood alone without a teacher ideally. It is very useful syllabus that can be adopted when beginning the philosophical study.

For Arabic speakers, there are Arabic lessons explaining this book - Philosophical Instructions - in over 150 lessons if anyone is interested. I am sure the same can be found for Farsi speakers.

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Here are a few that come to mind, most of the popular ones are already mentioned.

1) Jamshīd al-Kāshī (Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Masʾūd al-Kāshī

2) Mir Fendereski

3)Mir Damad (Mir Mohammad Baqer Esterabadi)

4) Mulla Sadra (Ṣadr ad-Dīn Muḥammad Shīrāzī)

5) Murtaza Motahhari aka Ustad Motahhari

6) Grand Ayatollah Abdollah Javadi-Amoli (his specialty is transcendent theosophy make sure you are fully caffinated and alert when reading his works.. he's very deep i had to read each page twice...)

7) Hossein Nasr ( i had the pleasure to meet with him and talk with him for qutie a while, came to CT, USA for Imam Ali Conference.. guy is amazing..)

8) Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr

9) Geydar Dzhemal

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Abū 'Alī al-Ḥusayn ibn 'Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā - aka 'ibn Sīnā' or '

Avicenna' in Arabic. Referred to in various books of logic and philosophy as 'Shaykh al-Ra'

ī

s'.

Though it should be mentioned, there seems to be doubt in matter of his being an Ithna Asheri Shia.

also, Mohsin Faydh Kashan

ī. He was the son-in-law of Mulla Sadra.

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(salam),

Their words were divine, thus cannot be labeled as philosophy.

Perhaps not. But that is what it appears to be to the layperson. One could argue that even these modern day philosophers aren't capable of independent thought on their own without God's power, help and will and hence whatever of substance comes from them, comes from God himself.

So my point is philosophy is philosophy after all, regardless of its origin. Something that immediately comes to mind is Tawhid al-Mufaddal [i'm aware of all the severe criticism of it but despite all that it certainly is a wonderful work]. Moreover, Shaykh Saduq (rh) had to write an entire book regarding the logic and meanings of traditions (and other things). So to say that the Aimmah (a) were not philosophers and the greatest thinkers of their times would be doing injustice to them.

(salam)

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(salam),

Perhaps not. But that is what it appears to be to the layperson. One could argue that even these modern day philosophers aren't capable of independent thought on their own without God's power, help and will and hence whatever of substance comes from them, comes from God himself.

So my point is philosophy is philosophy after all, regardless of its origin. Something that immediately comes to mind is Tawhid al-Mufaddal [i'm aware of all the severe criticism of it but despite all that it certainly is a wonderful work]. Moreover, Shaykh Saduq (rh) had to write an entire book regarding the logic and meanings of traditions (and other things). So to say that the Aimmah (a) were not philosophers and the greatest thinkers of their times would be doing injustice to them.

(salam)

There is no doubt that Aql holds a high position in Islam, the mo'tazelah made the Aql as a litigator on its own, similarly the Ismai'lis hold a higher position for Aql in the aqeedah affairs more than the Ithna'Asharis do. Neveretheless, IthnaAsharis hold a more realistic view about the Aql (reasoning), it is limited by the human exposure and expiernce. To know something about the Truth (The Haq) who is not comprehended by human mind, you will need a stronger tool than the Aql no matter how much respect you hold for it.

Quraan is a divine book as well as prophet's sunnah! Prophet's sunnah in form of hadith (oral tradition), a fi'l (practical tradition) and taqrir ( an approval of a tradition) they are all divine, they al had been dictated by Allah.

There are many verses in Quraan which asks the humans to think, ponder, meditate and reflect. Quraan used many physical example to draw the human attention to use his aql to rethink his faith, rethink his fitra and rethink his powers and weaknesses including the limitations of his aql.

These Quraanic verses cannot be labelled as "philosophy", nor any of the prophet's sunnan because they were dictated by Allah. If you hold on this rope, you should see what I am aiming for, and if you have read the hadith that I brought in my previous post, you should not hold on your position. By claiming that Imam Sadiq tradition is a philosophy, i.e. human reasoning, then you are allowing these traditions to be subjected to human evaluation and examination, likeness and likeliness which at the end leads to relativity rather than absoluteness of these traditions. If you untied the knot of this rope then you will need the next knot, the prophetic traditions since they are the originals. Subsequently, the religion will ends up as a subjective matter to the humans rather than clear direct orders from their Creator.

I see you also mixing between philosophy and the general practice of applying logic and reasoning. They are not the same thing.

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(salam),

I see. Thank you for that elaborate insight Ibn Sohan.

I see you also mixing between philosophy and the general practice of applying logic and reasoning. They are not the same thing.

Could you perhaps expand on this point, that is, the general application of reasoning and the application of reasoning for philosophy?

(salam)

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Empirical fields of knowledge benefit from logic more than non empirical fields of knowledge. A famous example would be the case of the woman after her monthly period, she has to make up for her missed fasts but not for her missed prayers despite the hadith that says that prayer is the main pillar of religion.

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There is no doubt that Aql holds a high position in Islam, the mo'tazelah made the Aql as a litigator on its own, similarly the Ismai'lis hold a higher position for Aql in the aqeedah affairs more than the Ithna'Asharis do. Neveretheless, IthnaAsharis hold a more realistic view about the Aql (reasoning), it is limited by the human exposure and expiernce. To know something about the Truth (The Haq) who is not comprehended by human mind, you will need a stronger tool than the Aql no matter how much respect you hold for it.

Quraan is a divine book as well as prophet's sunnah! Prophet's sunnah in form of hadith (oral tradition), a fi'l (practical tradition) and taqrir ( an approval of a tradition) they are all divine, they al had been dictated by Allah.

There are many verses in Quraan which asks the humans to think, ponder, meditate and reflect. Quraan used many physical example to draw the human attention to use his aql to rethink his faith, rethink his fitra and rethink his powers and weaknesses including the limitations of his aql.

These Quraanic verses cannot be labelled as "philosophy", nor any of the prophet's sunnan because they were dictated by Allah. If you hold on this rope, you should see what I am aiming for, and if you have read the hadith that I brought in my previous post, you should not hold on your position. By claiming that Imam Sadiq tradition is a philosophy, i.e. human reasoning, then you are allowing these traditions to be subjected to human evaluation and examination, likeness and likeliness which at the end leads to relativity rather than absoluteness of these traditions.

(salam)

This is not completely true. To say that certain verses or traditions are not philosophical is wholly inaccurate. Your premise seems to suggest that because it is spoken from the Divine or an Infallible, it does not fall into the bounds of human philosophy because otherwise it can be contested or examined. In fact, I think this is more of a reason to call it philosophy! Certain traditions or verses follow the exact way of a philosophical argument and cannot be understood except by the the use of the intellect and by thorough examination. I do not see why we cannot as such call this philosophy.

To cite a similar example, one can call certain verses of traditions scientific, insofar as they deal with elements of that field. According to your reasoning, to call it scientific would be wrong because science as is obvious, is falsifiable and constantly changing.

I think one can most certainly call many aspects of the naql - hadith in particular - completely philosophical and there is no other way to escape from it. Rather one can say, unlike other philosophical thoughts, these narrations, because they are spoken by an infallible with a complete and perfect intellect, are going to be true (assuming one is certain the narration has been spoken by an infallible).

Now, I said at the start what you said is not completely true. There are elements of truth in your post. The truth - alhaqq - insofar as we speak of it in relation to God, cannot be fully comprehended - nor even a partial but proper understanding - by the intellect. Rather there is another path to obtain that truth. This is the path of the heart, and unveiling. It is the real seeing and unlike the intellect which only has a perception or a concept of the truth (which is created) this heart can see elements of the truth and witness it.

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(salam)

This is not completely true. To say that certain verses or traditions are not philosophical is wholly inaccurate. Your premise seems to suggest that because it is spoken from the Divine or an Infallible, it does not fall into the bounds of human philosophy because otherwise it can be contested or examined. In fact, I think this is more of a reason to call it philosophy! Certain traditions or verses follow the exact way of a philosophical argument and cannot be understood except by the the use of the intellect and by thorough examination. I do not see why we cannot as such call this philosophy.

To cite a similar example, one can call certain verses of traditions scientific, insofar as they deal with elements of that field. According to your reasoning, to call it scientific would be wrong because science as is obvious, is falsifiable and constantly changing.

I think one can most certainly call many aspects of the naql - hadith in particular - completely philosophical and there is no other way to escape from it. Rather one can say, unlike other philosophical thoughts, these narrations, because they are spoken by an infallible with a complete and perfect intellect, are going to be true (assuming one is certain the narration has been spoken by an infallible).

Now, I said at the start what you said is not completely true. There are elements of truth in your post. The truth - alhaqq - insofar as we speak of it in relation to God, cannot be fully comprehended - nor even a partial but proper understanding - by the intellect. Rather there is another path to obtain that truth. This is the path of the heart, and unveiling. It is the real seeing and unlike the intellect which only has a perception or a concept of the truth (which is created) this heart can see elements of the truth and witness it.

*Can you bring one hadith from any of the 14 masoum that praise philosophy or gives it some sort of approval?

*Do you know when was the philosophy first introduced to Islamic society? Who is the first philosopher? Who was encouraging philosophy to flourish and why?

*How many great companion is known to be a philosopher?

*Can you bring one hadith that the way to reach Allah is through heart? Do you know how many sects that claimed that Allah can be known and religion can be obtained through intellect and real seeing alone?

*How can you be so sure that labeling Ahlulbayt ahadiths as philosophical is not a great sin? Do you know that there are hadiths that are against philosophy?

*Why do we feel the urge to label our Imams hadith with greek word ? Do you find divine less appealing? Do you find philosophy more sophisticated?

*Do you think that Aql is higher than wahi?

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