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In the Name of God بسم الله

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"The world did not exist from eternity. It has come into existence after not being. Everything in it comes into existence, and then perishes, and it is obvious that this principle of transitoriness applies to the world as a whole. One has to seek for the cause of these changes, and, ultimately, for the primal cause of existence of world. It is impossible to think that certain portion of the world is quiescent, and is the source of the movement and of the changes in the other portion, because if the world is ultimately one, there cannot exist such a duality. Going up the chain of causation, one comes to a transcendent cause, the Primal Actor (Faa'il), whose production (Maf'ul) the world is. He is the one who has brought it into existence, while the world is something that has been brought into being.

No names, i.e. attributes, can be associated with Him. A name indicates some peculiarity by which one thing in its class differs from similar things. He, being beyond comparison, and transcending human comprehension, cannot possess any such peculiarities.

Negation of properties, which some people ascribe to the Creator, is a correct form of belief, because their recognition clashes with the idea of absolute unity of His nature. Properties can be either external, as in physical bodies (colour, weight etc.), or internal, as knowledge, or ignorance, etc. The nature of Creator does not permit application of idea of anything internal or external to it. His real properties, which He may possess, are beyond our comprehension. We can only postulate some of His abstract properties such as His being eternal, etc.

The proper form of the principle of tawheed is the negation of all attributes, or properties which the human mind attributes to the things created. Allah Himself proofs to mankind about Himself. His recognition forms the substance of the faith of all reasonable creatures. Proofs of His existence are laid in the innate religious instinct or sense, contained in the prototypal nature (fitrat) of the man. His miracles which He works are veils (hijaab) between the Creator and the created. There is no religiousness without the search for knowledge.

The visible world comes from the source (mabda') endowed with perceptible properties, sifaat . Allah, as shown above, is beyond human comprehension, and His real attributes or properties cannot be comprehended by the human mind or senses. Thus there must be an intermediary entity, brought into existence by Allah, that is, the first of created things, through which the perceptible and conceivable properties are introduced into the world. This is a great benefit bestowed by Allah upon mankind, who otherwise would not be able to understand the world around them. This first source,mabda', is the initiator of the world. This principle is that which came into existence first, and which occupies the highest position in the scale of creations. The evolution of the world received its relative reality (haqq) from the existence of mabda'. It is the limit of the possible intellectual ascension of the creations.

T
his would not have been possible if this
mabda'
were not a creature
(mawjood);
but while being the first creation, it has direct touch with Absolute Reality. And it cannot also be really the first
mawjood
unless it is one, and thus perfect in nature, as the first immediate cause
(‘illat)
of the created world. In this quality, the
mawjood
must be permanent and unchangeable, must be omniscient, omnipotent and possessing all the perfect attributes. The principle attribute or quality
(sifat)
of this principle
(mawjood)
is life
(hayaat),
which is fundamental. Life is the center; all other qualities originate, or radiate from it. All things follow it in existence through the existence of Life.

The Primal Source
(mabda')
of the world is infinite, but has a beginning in time. It is only one, has no rival, and is unchangeable. It acts in accordance with the principles of logic. It is perfect in its nature, and comes short of Divinity only in its being dependent for its existence on its Creator. This is the only imperfection which it possesses. Its substance is simple, free from plurality. Its properties
(sifaat)
become apparent only by comparison with something that is not itself.

There cannot be two primal sources; if they were, there would be a split and no balance in the world. There can be only one initial source, endowed with perfect attributes, free from imperfections in all that reached it from the Creator
(maajid)
, who is the only source of being, One after whom nothing can be imagined. This Primal Source of the universe is what the Rasulullah (SAWS) in his revelation symbolically calls the
Qalam,
or the Heavenly Pen.

The Primal Entity
(mawjood)
is not self-existing, and depends for its existence on the Most High. It is, in philosophy, called the Primal Conscious Principle. It cannot be recognized by the intellect, but can be perceived by intuition
(zameer),
and not by pondering over it."

[Taaj ul 'Aqaaid, from Alavi Bohras site]

I'm not trying to get into discussion of Bohras in and of themselves, just interested in how these concepts relate to the cosmology and metaphysics of our own tradition.

Masalama,

Ibrahim

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Assalamu Alaykum

The world did not come from eternity. It was created from nothingness. It is constantly changing, its wordily part and its heavenly part. When the servant performs tasbih in the dunyia, a house is built for him in heaven. When a servant practices hasad in dunyia, a fire burns his house in heaven.

Names are not the Named. There are 99 names for Him; if His names are He then there are 99 of Him. Names are used due to limitation of human intellect and his language. He cannot be comprehended.

Tanzih or negation of properties, which some people ascribe to the Creator, is a correct form of belief, because their recognition clashes with the idea of absolute oneness of His nature, Ahaddun Ahad Farddun Samad. We cannot postulate some of His abstract properties; our only mean to know Him is through Him, His fitra, books and messengers.

The first creation is the nour (divine light) of our prophet. From his nour the rest of the universe was created. Allah has created the human to serve Him and has created the rest of creation to serve the human. Prophet Muhamad is the reason behind the creation of the universe for he is the true servant of Allah. This first source,mabda', is the initiator of the world. This principle is that which came into existence first, and which occupies the highest position in the scale of creations. The evolution of the world received its relative reality (haqq) from the existence of mabda'.

I tried to avoid the philosophy of the sifat of this mabda’ as well as the philosophy of the intermediary entity between Allah and His creation. It is part of the Jewish aqeedah that Allah dose not intervene in His creation affairs (excluding miracles).

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