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In the Name of God بسم الله

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referring to history signifies that several innovations have been recorded that we mention some of them as examples:

1- Innovation of Azan (call to prayer) in prayer of Eid Fitr (festival of fast-breaking) and Eid Qurban (sacrificial festival)

Shafi’i has quoted from Zuhri in book “al- Um”[1] that he said: “Azan was not recited in prayer of Eid at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, until Muawiyah innovated it in Damascus, and after that Hajjaj inovated it in Medina at the time of rulling over there.

Ibn Hazm writes in the book “al- Mahalli”[2] that: “the Umayyads innovated going late for prayer of Eid ,preferring oration to prayer and saying Azan and Iqama (declaration of standing for prayer) for prayer of Eid.

2- Innovation in Diya (blood-money)

Zahak quotes from Muhammad ibn Ishaq in the book “al- Diyat”[3] that he said: “I told Zuhri that: tell me about the amount of Diya of Dhimmi (non-Muslim citizen) heathen at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), because we have disputed with each other about it, he said: “there is no one wiser than me in this case from the east to the west, it was one thousand Dinar (gold currency unit) at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, until Muawiyah gave five hundred Dinars to family of murdered person and kept five hundred Dinars for Bayt al- Mal”.

Ibn Kathir writes in “al- Bidayah wa al- Nihayah”[4] that: “Zuhri says that: “according to the tradition of the Prophet (s.a.w.) Diya of Dhimmi and Muslim was the same and Muawiyah was the first person who divided it and kept half of it for himself”[5].

It is necessary to mention that contrary to the saying of Zuhri Diya of Dhimmi heathen was not one thousand Dinar at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and from among the Sunni leaders just Abu Hanifah has mentioned this amount, and Uthman was the first person who set it.[6]

By the way, there are three innovations in the act of Muawiyah:

1- He set Diya one thousand Dinar.

2- He divided it between inheritors of murdered person and Bayt al- Mal.

3- He took half of it as Bayt al- Mal’s share, holding that the amount of Diya is one thousand and a part of it is chargeable to Bayt al-Mal.

3- Innovation of leaving recommended Takbirs (magnification of Allah) of prayer

It is mentioned in the book “Sharh al- Muwatta`” that: “Tabari quotes from Abu Harirah that he said: “Muawiyah was the first person who left Takbirs of prayer”. And Abu Ubayd has quoted that: “Ziyad was the first one”.

Ibn Hajar has written in “Fath al- Bari”[7] that: “these two matters are not inconsistent with each other, because Ziyad, following the example of Muawiyah, did not say Takbirs, and Muawiyah following the example of Uthman left Takbirs[8]. But a group of scholars believes that it has been said quietly”.

It is mentioned in the book “al- Wasai’l Ila Musamirah al- Awai’l”[9] that: “Muawiyah was the first person who did not say Takbirs after reciting

"ÓãÚ Çááå áãä ÍãÏå"

Allah hears the one who praises Him”, he prostrated without saying Takbir”.

Shafi’i quotes from Ubayd ibn Rufa’ah in the book “al- Um”[10] that he said: “Muawiyah came to Medina and he did not say "ÈÓã Çááå" “in the name of Allah” in his prayer and did not say Takbirs in movements of prayer, after recitation of Taslim (final part of prayer) Muhajir (Emigrants) and Ansar (Helpers) shouted at him:

"íÇ ãÚÇæíÉ! ÓÑÞÊ ÕáÇʘ¡ Çíä ÈÓã Çááå ÇáÑÍãä ÇáÑÍíã¿! æ Çíä ÇáʘÈíÑ ÇÐÇ ÎÝÖÊ æ ÇÐÇ ÑÝÚÊ¿!"

“O Muawiyah! Did you steal from your prayer? Why did not you say “in the name of Allah”?! Why did not you say Takbirs while bending down and rising?!” he said his prayer again and recited whatever he had not said before”.

4- Innovation of preferring oration to prayer of Eid

Abdul-Razaq has quoted from Ibn Jarih from Zuhri that he said[11]: “Muawiyah was the first person who said oration of prayer of Eid before prayer it”. Ibn Munzar has quoted from Ibn Sirin that he said: “Ziyad was the first person who innovated that in Basra”. Ayaz says that: “there are no differences between these two sayings and the saying that considers Marwan as the first person, because Marwan and Ziyad were Muawiyah’s agents, therefore, first, Muawiyah did this act and they followed him”[12].

[1] - Kitab al- Um, vol. 1, p. 208 and vol. 1, p. 235.

[2] - al- Mahalli, vol. 5, p. 82.

[3] - al- Diyat, p. 50.

[4] - al- Bidayah wa al- Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 139 and vol. 8 p. 148, events of the year 60 A.H.

[5] - the part in the bracket has been quoted from the original source.

[6] - refer to: al-Um, Shafi’i, vol. 7, p. 293 and vol. 7, p. 321; refer to: al- Ghadir, vol. 8, p. 240-248.

[7] - Fath al- Bari, vol. 2, p. 215.

[8] - Ahmad quotes this narration from Umran in Musnad, vol. 5, p. 579, tradition no. 19380.

[9] - al- Wasai’l Ila Musmirah al- Awai’l, p. 15.

[10] - Kitab al- Um, vol. 1, p. 94 and vol. 1, p. 108.

[11] - al- Musnaf, vol. 3, p. 284, tradition no. 5646.

[12] - Shafi'i Shahrudi, A comprehensive selection of Al- Ghadir, p. 982-986-987-992.Text

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