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In the Name of God بسم الله

Was Abu Bakr Merely Implementing The Will- Part 2

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Continued from part I........

Reply Three

The claim that Abu Bakr that income from the orchard should be given to foreign ambassadors, to visitors, guests and travellers is destroyed by the very Hadith he cited to deny Sayyida Fatima (as) her inheritance rights. The Nasibi suggested:

Ahmad Jawdat Pasha al-Lofji writes in his Qisas-e-Ambiya:

“… He advised in his will that income from the orchard should be given to foreign ambassadors, to visitors, guests and travellers. Hadhrat Abu Bakr, Radhi Allahu ‘Anhu implemented this will during his Khaleefat”.

The supposed Hadith that Abu Bakr cited, ‘Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqah (to be used for charity) ” would make the ability to implement this will impossible, since the entire contents of the orchard would not be Abu Bakar’s to distribute. It would be in the possession of the poor and needy – it would have been their right as Sadaqa, and it would be their discretion to decide on how they disposed of the income of Fadak, since (according to the Hadith of Abu Bakr) they were the beneficiaries of the Estate of Muhammad (s), it was them to decide where this went not Abu Bakr.

The means via which Sayyida Fatima (as) acquired Fadak

Allah declares in the Holy Qur’an:

And render to the kindred their due rights, as (also) to those in want, and to the wayfarer: But squander not (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift.

Al-Qur’an, Surah 17, Ayah 26, translated by Yusufali

Note:

Allah who owns every thing has provided a means for His servants to acquire some of these things. Land e.g that is acquired without fighting is Fay and the Prophet (s) is it’s sole owner. He could give it to whoever he pleased, either as a gift, or by any other mode. Accordingly, when this verse was revealed he (s) gave the land of Fadak to Fatima Zahra (as) under the order of Allah. This is proven from the following authority works of Ahl’ul Sunnah:

Tafseer Durre Manthur v4, p177

Kanzul Ummal, v2, p158

Lababul Naqool, p137, Sura Isra

Tafseer Mazhari, in Tafseer of above mentioned verse

Tafseer Ruh Al-Ma’ani

Jam’e Asbab al-Nazul, Surah 17 verse 26 by Shiekh Khalid

In the Tafseer of above mentioned verse we read:

“Abu Saeed al Khudri and Abdullah Ibn Abbas narrate that when the verse relating to giving rights to kindred was revealed, the Prophet called Fatima Zahra (as) and gifted the land of Fadak to her”.

Tafseer Dur al-Manthur, Vol. 4, page 177

Also see:

Jam’e Asbab al-Nuzul by Sheikh Khalid Abdurehman Makki (published in Karachi)

The deceitful Nawasib in their hatred for Sayyida Fatima Zahra (sa) often make feeble attempts to create doubts over the authenticity of the chain of this narration because of a narrator Atya al-Aufi by citing the criticism levelled at him by some people. What they never present is the authentication of Atya al-Aufi by some the famed Sunni scholars. For example Muhammad al-Nuhamisi in the foot note of Shaykh Taqiuddin Ahmad bin Ali bin Abdulqadir al-Moqrizi’s (d. 845 H) famed book Emta al-Asma, Volume 13 pag 16 stated: ‘According to me his hadith is not less than the grade of Hasan’. Ibn Hajar records that Imam Tirmidhi considered his hadith as Hasan (Nataj al-Afkar, v2 p414). Imam Ibn Hajar himself declared him ‘Seduq’ (Taqrib al-Tahdib, v1 p678). Imam Yahyah bin Moin said: ‘Nothing bad about him’ (Tarikh ibn Moin by al-Daqaq, p27) while Sunni scholar Mahmood Saeed Mamdoh said in his book Rafe al-Manara, page 163: ‘Yahya bin Moin declared that about whom he said ‘nothing bad about him’, it means that he is Thiqah.’ Imam Muhammad Ibn Saad said: ‘Thiqah’ (Tabaqat al Kubra, v6 p304). Allamah Umar bin Shaheen included him in the book of Thiqah narrators (Asma al-Thuqat, p172). Mahmoud Saeed Mamdouh rightly states in his book: ‘We conclude that Atya al-Aufi are authenticated by Yahya bin Saeed al-Qatan, ibn Saad, ibn Moin, al-Tirmidhi, al-Bazar, ibn Shaheen and some others.’ (Rafe al-Manara, p173). And most relevantly, on p144 of the same book, we read: ‘It is settled in the science of Hadith that if there is praise and criticism about a narrator and the reason for the criticism is unknown then (criticism) must be rejected and shall not be relied on and the praise about the narrator must be accepted. This is the correct (act) and that is what the scholars follow.’

Common objection raised by Abu Bakr’s defenders

One of the objections raised by the Sunni scholars to deny Sayyida Fatima’s right to the land of Fadak is that Sura Isra (also known as Sura Bani Israel) is a Makkan Sura which incorporates the verse on giving close relatives their rights, whereas Fadak was acquired in Madina. How is it that an incident that took place in Madina, is referred to in a Makkan verse?

Reply One

The present Qur’an was arranged during Uthman’s era, he didn’t arrange verses according to their revelation. As there is no specific proof (by any tradition) that this verse was revealed in Makka, it cannot be claimed as a Makkan verse.

Reply Two - Some verses were revealed in Makka as well as in Madina

There are several verses, which were revealed twice. Fakhrudeen Radhi for example stated that Surah Fateha descended in Makka and Madina. Similarly Ibn Hajar al Makki in Sawaiqh Muhriqa, page 102 writes:

“Akrama Khariji claimed that verse of ‘Muwaddah’ was revealed in Makka, but the great scholar of Tafseer Ibne Abbas said that it was revealed in Madina.

Comment

Ibn Hajr is in effect stating that if the position of Ibn Abbas is correct, then this verse was revealed twice. We shall likewise advance that the verse of ‘Dhul Qurba’ was revealed twice.

Reply Three - The Quran contains Madani verses in Makkan Surah’s

It is important to highlight here the legal position of the Quranic verses when it is to be decided whether a sura is Makkan or Madini.

While determining whether a Qur’anic Sura is Makkan or Madani it is seen whether it was revealed before the Hijra or after it. If a Sura has been revealed before Hijra it is designated Makkan no matter where the Holy Prophet was at the time of revelation. On the other hand if the Sura is revealed after the Hijra, it is considered Madani no matter where the Holy Prophet was at the time of its revelation. However a problem arose with some Qur’anic Suras whose revelation started in Makka (before Hijra) but which were completed after the Hijra (in Madina). To deal with such a situation, the unanimous agreement among the Sunni scholars is that such a Sura is to be considered Makkan as its revelation started before Hijra even though some of its portion has been revealed after Hijra. Acting on this accepted principle we can very safely say without any contradiction that the verse of Quraba in Sura Isra had been revealed in Madina though the Sura was first revealed before Hijra in Makka.

In Umdah’ tul Qari Sharh Sahih Bukhari is an esteemed Sunni work. In its Volume 9 page 202 we are told:

“These three Sunni scholars Maqatil, Qalabi and Ibn Abbas said that Surah Taghbun was a Makki Sura containing Madani verses.”

The same position with regard to another Quranic verse is highlighted in the authority work of Ahl’ul Sunnah Asbabul Nazool, page 280 where it is written:

“Sura Shura is a Makki Surah but verse of “Muwaddat” is a Madani verse.”

We shall accordingly advance that Sura Isra was a Makkan Surah that included “Dhul Qurba” a Madani verse.

Reply Four - The merits of Ayesha

In authority work of Ahl’ul Sunnah, Lababul Naqool, page 137 Sura Isra, it is written:

“Once the Prophet (s) asked Ayesha to spend all that they had. Ayesha replied then nothing would be left for them. After that this verse was revealed “Wala taj’al”. Allamah Suyuti writes that this verse is Madani”

Comment

The Verse of ‘Dhul Qurba’ is 26th verse of Sura Isra. And the above mentioned verse “Wala taj’al” is 29th verse of Sura Isra. Since this verse showed the merits of Ayesha and proves that Ayesha was in the house of the Prophet (s) in Madina, the Nasibis accepted that this verse (in a Makkan Sura) was Madani not Makki.

We appeal to justice, when it comes to the rank of Ayesha it can be accepted that some verses of a Makkan Surah were revealed in Madina, but when it comes to Fatima Zahra (as) her right is denied solely on the basis that the Surah is Makki, so the verse of “Dhul Qurba” could not have been revealed in Madina! Is this not a clear contradiction?

Reply Five

Even if we accept for the sake of argument that the verse ordering the Prophet(s) to give his relatives their rights is a Makkan verse and not Madani this still does not negate Syeda Fatima’s claim to the land of Fadak. We as Muslims believe that the Qur’an is a book whose every Ayah is valid and applicable till the Day of Judgment. If a verse is revealed in Makka, does it lose its validity when the Prophet moves to Madina? Of course any command by Allah to His Prophet holds good wherever the Prophet is and the Prophet is under an obligation to act upon it. If the Prophet gifted Fadak to his daughter in Madina, this was no doubt an implementation of the will of Allah.

The Prophet (s) also gave Fatima Zahra (as) a written instruction about Fadak

Following are the proofs from authority works of Ahl’ul-Sunnah:

Rauzat ul Safa as quoted in Tashdheed-ul-Mathaeen page 102

Ma’arij un Nabuwwah, page 321

Habeeb us Siyaar, vol 1, Dhikr of Ghazwa Khayber

The texts read as follows:

“Jibrael (as) came to Prophet Muhammad (s) and told him that Allah (swt) had ordered that he give the Dhul Qurba (close relatives) their rights. Rasulullah (s) asked who was meant from Dhul Qurba and what is meant from ‘right’. Jibrael (as) replied that Dhul Qurba refers to Fatima Zahra ®, and from ‘right’ it is meant the property of Fadak. The Prophet (s) called Fatima and presented Fadak to her giving her a written paper as a proof. This paper was presented to AbuBakr after the death of Rasool Allah (saww) by Fatima and she said that it was the paper which the Prophet (s) wrote for her, Hasan and Husayn”

The contents of the written paper

In Fatawa Azizi, page 165, (published Karachi) al Muhaddith Shah Abdul Aziz sets out the contents of the written document:

Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf has given this piece of land, whose premises are known, to his daughter Fatima Zahra. And after her, this land is entrusted to her children. And anyone who denies it after hearing it, then it’s sin is on his head. And Allah is “Sami” and “Aleem”.

Comment

We have proved from 10 Sunni works that the Prophet (s) presented Fadak to Fatima Zahra (as) as a gift by the orders of Allah (swt) and it was in her possession. But the same Shah Abdul Aziz in “Tuhfa Ithna Ashari”, “Shah Wali Ullah” in “Quratul Ain” and Ibn Taymeeya in “Minhaj-us-Sunnah” and their modern day apprentice al Khider in ‘Fadak’ continue to lie by denying this fact. May Allah’s curse be upon these liars!

Edited by hesham102001
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