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A Century Of War: Anglo-american Oil Imperialism

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A very interesting article reviewing the book "A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World World" by author and historian William Engdahl (also known as F. William Engadhl)



A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order

Review of F. William Engdahl's Book

by Myron Stagman


A CENTURY OF WAR: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order, William Engdahl. London: Pluto Press, revised 2004 (orig. 1992)

The distinguished economist and historian William Engdahl provides must reading with this book. A Century of War once again proves Santayana's dictum, "Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it." (And proves George Bernard Shaw's corollary, "We learn from history that we learn nothing from history.")

The theme running throughout the book is the ruthless corporate and governmental pursuit of the magic moneymaker, Oil. And the unremitting subversion and wars to seize black gold. Engdahl describes the US and UK corporations and governments as international predators, occasionally as rivals (in earlier times), but normally as an axis of financial and military power bent on capturing the petroleum resources of the world.

Let us go through portions of the book in outline, paraphrasing fashion (although sometimes quoting), showing its thrust and sweep. [Bracketed comments will be mine; emphases also mine]:

early 20th century -- Serbia as the first line of defense of UK eastern possessions. [hence the strategic position of the Balkans, and the unfortunate position of Serbia -- see 1990's US-UK subversion and war against Yugoslavia, and demonisation of the excellent nationalistic leader, Milosevic, who refused the IMF's kiss-of-death funding]

By 1902, large reserves of petroleum believed to exist in Iraq and Kuwait, soon to be validated

1913 -- British Government secretly buys up a majority share ownership of Anglo-Persia Oil (later called British Petroleum). "From this point, OIL was the core of British strategic interest.”

World War I -- Petroleum began to effect a military revolution. "In the last phase of the War, a staggering 12,000 barrels of oil per day were used in the final British-French-American offensives."

In the Middle East, Britain falsely promised independence to Arab leaders if they revolted against the Ottoman empire. [T.E. Lawrence knew this at the time, unlike in the film Lawrence of Arabia.] 100,000 Arabs lost their lives in the successful revolt. Britain took over much of oil-rich

Middle East, reneging on promises.

Britain, covertly owning Royal Dutch Shell as well as BP, moves for oil supremacy in a petroleum world hitherto dominated by the USA Rockefeller family's Standard Oil corporations

The Anglo-American corporations/governments close ranks against all comers. [see the notorious Lockhart Plot, the assassination of German Foreign Minister Walter Rathenau, etc., plots and mysterious deaths over the decades]

A secret pact between US-UK corporations creates the world's most powerful economic syndicate which agrees to set a secret world cartel price for oil [of course, at an astronomically high price relative to cost; and of course the number of criminal felonies involved in this are as high as the prices]

American oil corporations [Rockefeller Standard Oil group plus the Mellon family's Gulf Oil, which is today controlled by the Rockefellers] secured Saudi Arabian oil. [a State Department official called this "one of the greatest material prizes in history".] late 1940s:

America uses the Marshall Plan to enrich US oil corporations, and establish them [and other US big businesses] in Europe.

"Anglo-American oil companies controlled incredibly cheap Middle East supplies, and held captive markets in Europe, Asia, Latin America and North America."

Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh took on Anglo-American Oil
[seeking to exploit Iranian oil for the benefit of the Iranian people].

Two years of unrelenting Anglo-American economic warfare against the country [as would be done with Iraq prior to the US-UK invasion, and earlier in Yugoslavia], and the
subversion of key support
for the parliamentary government,
ended in a CIA-British secret service coup d'etat in 1953.

They installed [the brutal and feared regime of] Reza Shah Pahlevi.

Italy: Oil Minister Enrico Mattei
[anticommunist resistance hero and "the most important individual in Italy", responsible more than anyone for the "Italian economic miracle" --New York Times]
also sought to make his country independent of the Anglo-American Cartel.

In October 1960, Mattei blew fuses inside offices of US-UK Oil Cartel and in the White House and 10 Downing Street. "Mattei was in Moscow… Moscow and the vast Russian petroleum resources became [reminiscent of the assassinated German Minister Rathenau 's situation in the 1920s] the focus of European negotiations."

Once again the Anglo-Americans stood dead opposed to success of negotiations with Moscow [and the collapse of their illicit cartel].

"On Oct 27, 1962, under circumstances which to this day stir speculation and charges of sabotage, the private airplane carrying Mattei crashed after taking off from Sicily en route to Milan, killing all three on board."

"Perhaps it was merely a coincidence that CIA chief John McCone, at the time of Mattei's suspicious death, held more than $1 million in shares in Standard Oil of California (Chevron)."

At the time of his death, Mattei had been preparing for a trip to meet with President Kennedy who was then pressing the US oil companies to reach an agreement with Mattei.

Nov 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. "New Orleans Judge Jim Garrison years later continued to insist that the murder was carried out by the CIA, with the aid of selected organized crime figures." [The CIA are essentially Rockefeller interest employees, only serving the U.S. government when Washington’s aims do not divurge significantly from Rockefeller interests. Such divergence has rarely if ever happened, however, except when Kennedy was president.]

“Kennedy, in issue after issue, ran at odds with the East Coast's powerful financial and political interests.”

Ecological Agenda
--- "The American oilman present at the May 1973 Saltsjobaden meeting of the Bilderberg group, Robert O. Anderson, was a central figure in the implementation of the ensuing
Anglo-American ecology agenda. It was to become one of the most successful frauds in history

Anderson and his Atlantic Richfield Oil Co. [related to the Standard Oil corporations] funneled millions of dollars through their Foundation into select organisations to
target nuclear energy
[which was considered a threat to oil at that time -- now it appears to be controlled by the oil corporations, or President Bush would not have promoted it].

"One of the prime beneficiaries of the largesse was a group called
Friends of the Earth
which was organized in this time with a $200,000 grant from Anderson.

One of the earliest actions of Anderson's Friends of the Earth was an assault on the German nuclear industry through such antinuclear actions as the anti-Brockdorg demonstrations in 1976.

"FoE had 'friends' in very high places in London and Washington."
"By the time of the Kissinger
oil shock
of 1973-74 [a 400% price increase], a massive antinuclear propaganda offensive could be launched."

[see George Monbiot's very important article in the Guardian, 4 September 2001, "Sleeping with the Enemy: Consumer and environmental groups are getting into bed with big corporations". In the case of Friends of the Earth, the organization was actually founded by a big oil-cartel corporation, and its board of directors habitually reflect the control of planet earth’s premier polluters. From my own personal experience as well, it can be asserted that Friends of the Earth can be an extremely deceptive and dangerous NGO.]

Who really controlled OPEC
? Only the politically naive could believe that Arab countries would suddenly be allowed to exercise independence on issues of such importance to British and American interests."

India and Pakistan: nationalistic prime ministers Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
, their policies sought to extricate their countries from the grip of Western cartels, particularly Oil [Gandhi sought to accordingly organise much of the Third World --- both die violently. [Rathenau, Mattei, Gandhi, Bhutto, President Kennedy, his brother Robert, Martin Luther King – not to mention untold millions of names unknown to us who are victims in Oil wars – all of these U.S.-UK Oil cartel opponents (or incidental victims) die violently.]


Imposing the NEW WORLD ORDER
--- "Thatcher's 'economic revolution' intended the beneficiaries to be the international financial interests of the City of London, and the powerful companies grouped around Shell, BP and their allies."

Third World Debt ---
IMF funding for the
Third World
is the Kiss of Death
. IMF, global policeman enforcing payment of "usurious debts through the imposition of the most draconian austerity in history.";
crucial voting bloc of IMF firmly controlled by an American-British axis [banks interlocked with the Oil corporations]

Debtor nations caught in a death trap, only way out is "surrender national sovereign control over their economies, especially valuable resources".

IRAQ, 1990s --
manufactured pretext
by Thatcher and Bush governments to establish direct military presence at the choke point of world's, particularly Europe's, petroleum supplies. [As George W. Bush would engineer a pretext to invade Iraq as did his forbear, 9/11 this time.]

US ambassador in Baghdad, April Glaspie, enticed Iraq to invade Kuwait, after which came the US-UK attack on Iraq which resulted in their firm military presence in the Middle East.

Earlier, Washington had
secretly encouraged Saddam Hussein
, feeding false information about the 'ease' of victory.

must be brought into the IMF version of free-market reform. NATO would secure the deal that an economic destabilisation campaign had begun.

"Full spectrum domination"
, the U.S. military's phase for
American global domination goal
, including cyber space and outer space, to establish "the New World Order" [the term very probably adapted from Adolf Hitler's "the New Order" ]


Long before September 11, Bush Government decided to target
, "anti-Terrorism" to replace the now defunct "anti-Communism" as the excuse for aggressive military interventions.

Iraq War, 2003 --- years of economic destabilisation prior to outright military invasion, as with Yugoslavia. [Given the history of the US-UK Oil Cartel and their enforcing Governments, this war was quite predictable.]

In short, A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order by William Engdahl (be sure it's the
revised 2004 edition
) is
reading. Very good history, and finally we have an author who comprehends both history and economics !!

[Footnote from M.S. Incessant U.S.-UK Oil Cartel wars for oil are not always just to capture more oilfields for exploitation. The Cartel fears an independent source of oil which might put petroleum on the market at a price well below the Cartel’s astronomically-high price.]

end quote.
Edited by Basra

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Another interesting book to read on this topic is the book "Confessions of an Economic Hit Man" by the real life (former US government agent) John Perkins.




John Perkins gives especially interesting insights on both Iraq and even more fascinatingly in my opinion on Saudi Arabia. Perkins says he was personally involved with the US fatcat corporations/government that came to an agreement in the mid-1970s with the Saudi monarchy. The Amerikkkans were angry with King Faisal of Saudi Arabia for the 1973 oil embargo (during the 1973 Middle East War), so the CIA and Zionist "Israeli" Mossad had King Faisal of Saudi Arabia assassinated by his half-brothers' son (who just happened to have been in Amerikkka before hand! and who was also apparently involved in a romantic relationship with a female Mossad agent in Amerikkka as well). The US had threatened King Faisal's Saudi Arabia during the 1973 War and the oil embargo of 1973; see this interesting information: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saud/etc/script.html


NARRATOR: Kissinger began working on a peace plan, but progress was slow. The oil embargo remained. The Pentagon started to consider military options.

HERMANN EILTS: Kissinger gave an interview in which he said the United States cannot stand having its oil supplies disrupted. This will hurt the entire economy. And if it should become necessary, the United States would be prepared to invade, to intervene in Saudi Arabia to take over the oil fields.

[www.pbs.org: Read this interview]

NARRATOR: Kissinger's statement was taken as a verbal warning. But a recently declassified secret British intelligence memorandum reveals that five months into the embargo, the military option was a reality.

JAMES SCHLESINGER: Dr. Kissinger said, "No great power will allow itself to be strangulated." And he called me up and said, "Jump in behind me," and I did. I was asked at a press conference whether we had the military capacity to move in the Middle East, and I said, "We indeed have that military capability."

HENRY KISSINGER: Both Schlesinger and I used hard language. We tried to make clear that there was a point at which we would have to look after the requirements of national security. And so we implied that if we were pushed absolutely against the wall, we might secure the oil by our own means.

JAMES SCHLESINGER: Oh, yes, we were— we were quite capable, and we were thinking about a possible move into the Persian Gulf on a contingency basis. But if we were ordered to move, we would have moved.

Prince AMR AL FAISAL, Great-Grandson of King Abdul Aziz: King Faisal answered back that, you know, "We come from the desert. We have been living on camel milk and dates. And we can easily go back and live in the desert again." He was not impressed.

HENRY KISSINGER: We did not get a telegram from King Faisal congratulating us on those statements.

end quote.

A very interesting PBS documentary on the Saudi monarchy and its relationship to (and subservience to) Amerikkkan imperialism.


And also a good series of videos on King Faisal of Saudi Arabia (the only Saudi king that had any amount of backbone and spine whatsoever)

John Perkins notes that after King Faisal of Saudi Arabia was eliminated by the CIA (and likely the Zionist "Israeli" Mossad as well) and assassinated on March 25, 1975 the US imperialist government/regime sent fatcat US businessmen (like Perkins was at that time he calls himself and others "economic hit men" for the US government) to make a "bargain" with the Saudi monarchy: the new Saudi king that succeeded King Faisal was King Khalid http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khalid_of_Saudi_Arabia.

The "bargain" the US imperialist regime and fatcat Amerikkkan business elite (from evil US businesses like exploitative Halliburton, Bechtel, etc) concluded with the Saudi monarchy was the following. The imperialist US agreed to give the Saudis the following: 1) The Amerikkkans stated they would always protect the Saudi monarchy and ensure the Al-Saud family remained on their throne in Saudi Arabia (see the 1991 Gulf War against former US ally Saddam Hussein of Iraq), 2) in going with point number one the US agreed to sell high quality US military hardware and equipment (like US tanks, US fighter jets, US armored personnel carriers, etc) to the Saudi military, but of course this would never be as good as the stuff the US gives the Zionist "Israelis" often for free via US "aid" to Zionist "Israel" and the Saudis themselves are useless militarily only deploying recently to smash the civilian Shi'a Muslim protesting majority in the island nation of Bahrain home to the US puppet Al-Khalifa monarchy and home to the US Navy's Fifth Fleet, and 3) and the US generally just agreed to make sure again the Saudi monarchy remains on the throne in Saudi Arabia.

In return for this the Saudi monarchy made the following promises to the United States government: 1) the Saudis would make sure Amerikkkka had unfettered access to Saudi oil and the Saudi's would make certain never to repeat the oil embargo of 1973 against the West/Amerikkkans, 2) the Saudis agreed to only sell their oil for US Dollars. This was/and is HUGE as Saudi Arabia is a world oil superpower and them agreeing to sell their Saudi oil only in US Dollars gives a huge artificial boost to the US Dollar currency. Currently in OPEC we see a divide between two blocks: one led by the Islamic Republic of Iran and Hugo Chavez led anti-imperialist Venezuela and the other being led by Saudi Arabia. The Iran and Venezuela alliance wants OPEC to trade in a basket of currencies (including the Euro, Japanese currency, Chinese currency, etc in addition to the US Dollar) whereas the Saudis serving their US masters demand that oil trading from OPEC only be carried out in US Dollars. Note Saddam was also talking about selling Iraqi oil in Euros rather then US Dollars before he was invaded by the imperialist Amerikkkans illegal imperialist invasion in 2003. 3) The Saudi monarchy agreed to reinvest their oil profits back into the United States and the US economy, this was and is chiefly done by the Saudi monarchy investing heavily in US businesses and especially by the Saudis buying US backed securities (i.e. government securities, US banks, etc). And 4) the Saudi monarchy agreed to be a political puppet of US imperialist foreign policy and to carry out Amerikkkan dictates against regional anti-imperialist nations in the Middle East like the Islamic Republic of Iran (today that extends to Saudi opposition to Hamas in Palestine, Hezbollah in Lebanon, Resistance supporting Syria under the government of President Bashar al-Assad, etc)


A great video (he starts a great talk about Saudi Arabia starting at 3:10).

Also good articles on Western imperialism related to oil:




See raging start of British colonialist oil stealing under evil Winston Churchill starting in early 1900s as colonialist Britain was switching its colonial British Navy over from coal to oil (read about coal and steam engines leading up to European colonialism and oil at the start of the 1900s, automobiles, etc).


Quote- Anglo-Persian began pumping oil in 1908, making Iran the first country in the Middle East where oil was commercially exploited on an industrial scale, but it was World War 1 that established oil’s centrality to empire in the modern age. At the time, navies were the prime instruments of global reach and power; oil-fueled ships were faster and ranged farther than the older coal-fired models. In 1912 Britain’s First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill converted the British fleet to oil, making oil vital to British naval supremacy and global hegemony. After the defeat of Germany in World War 1, Britain’s Lord Curzon declared that the Allies had “floated to victory upon a wave of oil.” (Everest, p. 31)

end quote.

Western big oil imperialists


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