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In the Name of God بسم الله
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avjar7

Test Women to See if they are Believers

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(salam)

O ye who believe! When there come to you believing women refugees, examine (and test) them: Allah knows best as to their Faith: if ye ascertain that they are Believers, then send them not back to the Unbelievers. They are not lawful (wives) for the Unbelievers, nor are the (Unbelievers) lawful (husbands) for them. But pay the Unbelievers what they have spent (on their dower), and there will be no blame on you if ye marry them on payment of their dower to them. But hold not to the guardianship of unbelieving women: ask for what ye have spent on their dowers, and let the (Unbelievers) ask for what they have spent (on the dowers of women who come over to you). Such is the command of Allah. He judges (with justice) between you. And Allah is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom.

According to the ahlul bayt (as), what is the meaning of this verse? How were the women tested to ascertain if they are believers? Aren't people judged to be Muslims based on their shahada, and belief is inward? What is the tafsir of this from the ahlul bayt (as)?

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Aren't people judged to be Muslims based on their shahada, and belief is inward?

Nowhere in the Quran does it say that the "Shahada" is proof of one's faith. Faith is best proved by one's actions and deeds. Not by a phrase he or she recites.

The truly faithful are those who strive in the cause of God with their money and their selves, spend on the poor, and serve God's creation to the best of their ability.

However, since only God knows what is truly in the hearts of people, as the verse is clearly telling us: {....God is best aware of their faith.....}, The Muslim men are to do what they can to try to discover what these women believe. Once their faith has been established, the Muslim men can marry them, because these women are considered "mulk -yameen" . The correct translation is {...if you establish that they are believers,...} . Not "if you ascertain". Only God can know for certain.

There is a connection between the above verse and the verse of "Muharramat al-Nikah" (the women forbidden for marriage).

{Forbidden for you are your mothers, and your daughters, and your sisters, and the sisters of your father, and the sisters of your mother, and the daughters of your brother, and the daughters of your sister, and your foster mothers who suckled you, and your sisters from suckling, and the mothers of your women, and your step-daughters who are in your lodgings from your women with whom you have already consummated the marriage; if you have not consummated the marriage then there is no sin upon you; and those who were in wedlock with your sons who are from your seed, and that you join between two sisters except what has already been done. God is Forgiving, Merciful. * And the already married (muhsanat) from the women, except those maintained by your oaths; the book of God over you; and permitted for you is what is beyond this, if you are seeking with your money to be protected and not for unlawful sex. As for those whom you have already had joy with, then you shall give them their dowries as an obligation. There is no sin upon you for what you agree on after the obligation. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.}....[4:23,24]

You see the phrase outlined in red which mentions the "already married women"?? These are the same women mentioned in 60:10.

They are already married, but since they embraced the faith and their husbands remained "kafirs", they are no longer lawful for their husbands, as the verse is clearly telling us. So what should these women do? Who is to spend on them? The Quran gave them a solution: The women would seek assylum with Muslim men. The men are to try to establish that they are truly faithful. Once they have established this, they can marry them, but they have to repay the dowry back to their "kafir" husbands. So basically, the Muslim man swears an oath ("yameen") to marry one of these women. This is why they are called "malakat aymanukum".

The word "aymanukum" is the plural of "yameen", which appears over 20 times in the Quran and means "OATH"

This is the ONLY instance in the entire Quran, where God allowed Muslim men to marry an already married woman, as is clear from 4:24.

It also proves, beyond any doubt, that "malakat aymanukum" DOES NOT mean female war captives or sex slaves. It means people who have no one to spend on them, so they seek assylum with a Muslim man who takes them under his wing and swears an oath to take care of them.

The reason why they have no one to spend on them could be:

1- They lost their husbands.

2- Their parents / guardians are poor.

3- They embraced the faith, and escaped from their husbands who remained "kafirs" (which is the case being mentioned in 60:10).

Note: I said "people" because "malakt aymanukum" could be both males or females. But in marriage terms they are always females, because women are not allowed to have multiple husbands in Islam.

Proof of male "malakat aymanukum" : {And tell the believing women to lower their gaze, and to be mindful of their modesty. They should not let their charms be apparent beyond what is normally apparent. Hence, let them cover their chests with their shawls (khimar). And let not their charms be apparent to any but their husbands or fathers or husbands’ fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons or sisters’ sons, or their womenfolk, or their close dependants (malakat aymanuhunna) or those men as are beyond all sexual desire. Or, children that know nothing of women’s personal concealments......}....[24:31]

______________________

The fact that God told the men to "try to establish" that these women are faithful, proves that the "Shahada" cannot be proof of faith, as the HADITHS and traditions claim. If it was indeed so simple, (Just say the "Shahada" and BINGO! you're one of the faithful), then there would be no need to try to "establish" anything. This is why the Surah #60 is called "al-Mumtahana" The word means "the woman under a test"

Subhanallah..The QUran always has the answer to everything. If only you would let it speak for itself.

__________________________

Peace..

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There is a good website with a bunch of shia commentaries on the Qur'an, they are very easy to use, just see www.holyquran.net and got to tafseer al-quran.

Here is one short commentary in English:

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 60:10]

Under the treaty of Hudaybiya [see Fat-h: 1 clause (ii) and (iii),] whosoever wished to join the Holy Prophet had the liberty to do so, but if claimed back by the guardian should be returned. A party of men and women came to the Holy Prophet and embraced Islam among whom was Saba daughter of Harith. Her husband came and demanded her return under clause (iii). But as the Quraysh had already broken the treaty, some instructions were necessary as to what should be done in such circumstances. Muslim women married to pagan husbands were oppressed for their faith and some of them came to Madina as refugees. After this verse, they were not to be resumed to the custody of their pagan husbands, as the marriage of believing women with non-muslims is held to be dissolved if the husbands do not accept Islam. In order to give no room of complaint to the pagans, the dower they had given on marriage should be repaid to the husband.

Islam recognises the change of faith as one of the causes of separation.

The believers are told to examine women who come to them as fugitives from the idolaters and find out their real and inner motives that they are prompted by the sole desire of serving Islam and of saving their faith, and are not pretenders. The examination should be directed, among other things, to the points mentioned in verse 12. They were required

(i) not to worship any god save one true God, Allah;

(u) not to steal;

(iii) not to indulge in sex outside the marriage tie;

(iv) not to commit infanticide,

(v) not to disobey the laws and principles of Islam.

Ma arjulihanna literally means "not to utter slander which they have forged between their hands and feet", which implies the practice of ascribing their spurious (illegitimate) children to their husbands.

La yaqtulna awladahunna (not to kill their children) also refers to abortion.

http://www.al-islam.org/quran/

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