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Rohani

A question: what does marfu‘ manner mean?

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(salam)

I was wondering if someone could explain to me in depth this saying i see in the chains of narrators often "marfu' manner" what is that referring to? Thank you in advance and jazaka allahu khair, i seen it so many times but never stopped to ask what it is but maybe i thought it meant something that it may not.

(wasalam)

Edited by theunknownpreacher

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(salam)

I was wondering if someone could explain to me in depth this saying i see in the chains of narrators often "marfu' manner" what is that referring to? Thank you in advance and jazaka allahu khair, i seen it so many times but never stopped to ask what it is but maybe i thought it meant something that it may not.

(wasalam)

Marfu' means the hadith is traced directly to the Prophet (S) or an Imam (A)(as opposed to some statements that might be ambiguous where they came from). Regardless of whether the chain of narration is missing narrators or not.

To Sunnis, of course, marfu' only includes hadith from the Prophet (S).

There is a good introductory book on Shi'a hadith sciences called _Introduction to Hadith_ by 'Abd al-Hadi al-Fadli. It is currently out of print but you can get used copies on Amazon and hopefully it will be reprinted soon. It defines all these terms. Of course there are books in other languages as well.

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(wasalam)

While Bint's definition is one correct one, usually in isnads, if you say it is marfu` it means that it is not directly traced to the Ma`sum (as) it is quoting from. It's like mursal in that there's a missing link(s) except that while with mursal we will know how much of a gap there is (e.g. from A from B from C from a man from E) with marfu` we don't (e.g from A from B rafa`a to the Imam). That rafa`a could be a number of different narrators, one or more, but we don't know how many or who they are.

Here's an example:

محمد بن يعقوب عن عدة من أصحابنا عن أحمد بن محمد رفعه عن أبي عبدالله (عليه السلام) قال: يكره السواد إلا في ثلاثة: الخف، والعمامة، والكساء

Muhammad b. Ya`qub from a group of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad going up (rafa`a) to Abu `Abdillah (as). He said: Black is disliked but in three: the khuff, the `amama, and the kisa’.

Between Ahmad b. Muhammad and Imam Sadiq (as) we don't know how many narrators there are here, just by looking at it, or who they are.

Compare that to a narration with a mursal isnad:

[638] 8 ـ وعن علي بن محمد، عن ابن جمهور، عمن ذكره، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن سعد، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) قال: أذنان وعينان، تنام العينان ولا تنام الأذنان، وذلك لا ينقض الوضوء، فإذا نامت العينان، والأذنان، انتقض الوضوء.

8 – And from `Ali b. Muhammad from Ibn Jamhur from the one who he mentioned from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Sa`d from Abu `Abdillah ( عليه السلام ). He said: Two ears and two eyes, the two eyes sleep while the two ears do not sleep, and that does not break the wudu. So if the two eyes have slept, and the two ears, the wudu has been broken.

So we see that between Ibn Jamhur and Ahmad b. Muhammad there's a link in between, but who that link is, we don't know from just this.

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