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In the Name of God بسم الله

Irfan/Tasawwuf and Tariqahs within Twelver Shiism

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(salam)

I'm currently doing some exploratory research with regards to an idea I have for a PhD thesis on the subject of sufi tariqahs/orders within Twelver Shiism. A lot of modern scholarship has been produced on the subject of Tasawwuf and sufi tariqahs/orders within Sunni Islam (e.g. the works of Annemarie Schimmel and Hamid Algar). My desired goal is to produce an academic work specifically on the subject of Tasawwuf/Irfani based tariqahs within the rubric of Ithna Ashari Shiism.

A little about myself before I pose my questions: I'm from a Sunni Muslim background (although heavily leaning towards Twelver Shiism) and originally from Russia. I'm planning to begin a three year Graduate Programme in Islamic Studies and Humanities (GPISH) with the Insitute of Ismaili Studies in London in 2009, leading eventually to a PhD (inshallah).

Now for my questions which are aimed both at Shia laymen and students of knowledge (any Shias really, whether pro or anti Irfan/Tasawwuf):

i) What is your opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan?

ii) Do you see Irfan as a Shia phenomenon separate from Tasawwuf? Do you perhaps see Tasawwuf as a Sunni phenomenon?

iii) If you have a negative opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan, is this informed by a legal opinion from your Marja? If you could provide a link to or copy of your Marja's fatwa I'd be very grateful.

iv) Again, if you have a positive opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan, is this informed by a legal opinion from your Marja? Again, if you could provide a link to or copy of your Marja's fatwa I'd be very grateful.

v) If you are positively minded towards Irfan/Tasawwuf, have you ever studied Irfani concepts, practices and texts with an Ithna Ashari alim? The name and background of your teacher would be appreciated

vi) Have you personally come across organized groups of Shia Sufis/Irfanis in the form of a tariqah? Are you perhaps initiated into one of these orders?

Thanks in advance to anyone who takes the time to answer my questions.

(wasalam)

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i) What is your opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan?

I think it is very good. Its ascetism is exaggerating in the eyes of islam. Because it is 'not good'.

And it is not good pushing yourself. God does not want us to exaggerate.

But, for an advanced practitioner of tasawwuf, or a firm beliver in sufism. I can only think it is good.

As you can see. There is a bridge which has to be crossed in order to reach the 'goodness' of sufism.

How does one cross that bridge? Through effort and patience. One does not like it in the beginning but it becomes easier as time goes.

And are not the good symbols of islam 'ascetic'? I head that Imam Ali is more fair that the fairness itself. And that he used to sit on the ground. Not an 'elevated' place.

Wasnt he practising the core idea of sufism?

Sufism is similar to buddhism.

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Sufism is similar to buddhism.

I believe this to be the point, sufism has nothing to do with islam and it goes against all we believe.

yes there is the esoteric and the exoteric in the religion but you have to learn both within the confines of the religion and by looking to other religions and introducing innovations therein you have completely left Islam. To study the esoteric aspects of the religion it can easily and beautifully be done with our own scholars without once leaving Islam to gain knowledge.

sufism is in no way shape or form condoned within 12er shi'ism however, I am sure there are plenty of ignorants out there that might think so. but again, ignorants is the key word!

Ya Ali Madad

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(wasalam)

i) What is your opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan?

Shortly, it is for those who do not see the path of Ahlul Bayt (as) as enough.

ii) Do you see Irfan as a Shia phenomenon separate from Tasawwuf? Do you perhaps see Tasawwuf as a Sunni phenomenon?

Yes to the first. 3irfan is from Ahlul Bayt (as) and their Shi3a only. I wouldn't call tasawwuf a 'Sunni phenomenon' seeing as how the origins of this as an organized movement cannot really be called Muslim. I see it as an Abbaside phenomenon, for they are the ones who truly aided and funded this movement in Khurasan. They took the zuhd of Ahlul Bayt (as) and particularly Imam al-Ridha (as) and turned it to tasawwuf. You will notice for yourself that before the Abbaside caliphs there was no tasawwuf. That having been said about it's origins (which of course has a longer history, but this is important I think), we cannot deny that the fact remains that by the ijma3 of Shi3i 3ulama' Sufism is forbidden and a deviation.

iii) If you have a negative opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan, is this informed by a legal opinion from your Marja? If you could provide a link to or copy of your Marja's fatwa I'd be very grateful.

Actually I once joined them and was a "Sufi" but I faced a dilemma while being one. I just simply could not practise Sufism alongside Shi'ism and I had to make a choice. Praise to Allah who guides who He wants.

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(salam)

I'm currently doing some exploratory research with regards to an idea I have for a PhD thesis on the subject of sufi tariqahs/orders within Twelver Shiism. A lot of modern scholarship has been produced on the subject of Tasawwuf and sufi tariqahs/orders within Sunni Islam (e.g. the works of Annemarie Schimmel and Hamid Algar). My desired goal is to produce an academic work specifically on the subject of Tasawwuf/Irfani based tariqahs within the rubric of Ithna Ashari Shiism.

A little about myself before I pose my questions: I'm from a Sunni Muslim background (although heavily leaning towards Twelver Shiism) and originally from Russia. I'm planning to begin a three year Graduate Programme in Islamic Studies and Humanities (GPISH) with the Insitute of Ismaili Studies in London in 2009, leading eventually to a PhD (inshallah).

Now for my questions which are aimed both at Shia laymen and students of knowledge (any Shias really, whether pro or anti Irfan/Tasawwuf):

i) What is your opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan?

ii) Do you see Irfan as a Shia phenomenon separate from Tasawwuf? Do you perhaps see Tasawwuf as a Sunni phenomenon?

iii) If you have a negative opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan, is this informed by a legal opinion from your Marja? If you could provide a link to or copy of your Marja's fatwa I'd be very grateful.

iv) Again, if you have a positive opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan, is this informed by a legal opinion from your Marja? Again, if you could provide a link to or copy of your Marja's fatwa I'd be very grateful.

v) If you are positively minded towards Irfan/Tasawwuf, have you ever studied Irfani concepts, practices and texts with an Ithna Ashari alim? The name and background of your teacher would be appreciated

vi) Have you personally come across organized groups of Shia Sufis/Irfanis in the form of a tariqah? Are you perhaps initiated into one of these orders?

Thanks in advance to anyone who takes the time to answer my questions.

(wasalam)

I appreciate what Gonabadis are doing in Iran. I welcome their stances. The question of whether Tasawwuf is a Sunni phenonmenon should be placed in the historical context. Historically speaking, were all Sufi Tariqas Sunni? Lets say, especially in Iran?

Imam Ghazali radialAllahu anhu was from present day Iran. And It would not be an exagerration, but at least 70% of the most major ones, and the biggest proportion of them were from present day Iran, or its immediate neighbours and had relations in Iran or visited Iran or attended school in Iran or lived there. I can go on and on with their names.

One example, Syedina Imam al-Maybudi radiAllahu anhu. Another, Syedina Imam al-Tustari radiAllahu anhu

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I'm currently doing some exploratory research with regards to an idea I have for a PhD thesis on the subject of sufi tariqahs/orders within Twelver Shiism.

You wouldn't get very far:

In view of this distinction the gnostics, when referred to as belonging to a certain academic discipline, are called 'urafa' and when referred to as a social group are generally called Sufis (mutasawwifah).

Of course, there are and have always been 'urafa' - particularly amongst the Shi'ah - who bear none of these external signs to distinguish them socially from others; yet, at the same time, they have been profoundly involved in the spiritual methodology of 'irfan (sayr wa suluk). It is these who are the real gnostics; not those who have invented for themselves hundreds of special mannerisms and customs and have brought innovations into being.

In this series of lectures, in which we are taking a general look at Islamic sciences and disciplines, we will not be dealing with the social and sectarian aspect of gnosis, that is to say, tasawwuf (sufism). We will limit ourselves to an examination of 'irfan as a discipline and branch amongst the branches of Islam's scientific culture. To look thoroughly at the social aspects of sufism would require us to examine its causes and origins, the effects - positive and negative, beneficial and detrimental - it has and has had upon Islamic society, the nature of the relations between the sufis and other Islamic groups, the hue it has given to the whole of Islamic teachings, and the role it has played in the diffusion of Islam throughout the world. This is far beyond the range of these lectures, and here we will consider the tradition of 'irfan only as a science and as one of the academic disciplines of Islam.

i) What is your opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan?

You ask a bad question. Before this one, you should have asked for, or defined yourself, a definition for either word as they can both take several meanings in different contexts, depending on the reader.

But in general, if we were to go along with the most commonly modern accepted usage of either word: Irfan good, Tasawwuf bad.

ii) Do you see Irfan as a Shia phenomenon separate from Tasawwuf?

There is no doubt that Irfan is contained within Shi`a Islam, but it is not right to limit it's scope to only Shi`a Islam as it appears in many religions. And yes, it is seperate from tasawwuf, but the two do bear some similarities.

Do you perhaps see Tasawwuf as a Sunni phenomenon?

No, most Sunni's reject the sufi's anyway.

iii) If you have a negative opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan, is this informed by a legal opinion from your Marja? If you could provide a link to or copy of your Marja's fatwa I'd be very grateful.

A have a negative opinion regarding tasawwuf, and this view is backed up by the majority of scholars and especially the marajae`..

iv) Again, if you have a positive opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan, is this informed by a legal opinion from your Marja?

I have a positive opinion regarding Irfan, and this view is backed up by the majority of scholars when what is meant by Irfan is clarified..

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The main twelver sufi order is the nematalah order which has around 5 million members in Iran. Im not sure if sufism is accepted by orthodox shia but im begining to look into it and some things make sense already. sufis believe all sects of islam can make it to god (heaven) . i could never understand how other muslims who believe in Allah pray fast read koran and are good people etc can fry in hell forever it doesnt make sense . Its only early days but im liking what im seeing from sufism. Allah knows best.

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The main twelver sufi order is the nematalah order which has around 5 million members in Iran. Im not sure if sufism is accepted by orthodox shia but im begining to look into it and some things make sense already. sufis believe all sects of islam can make it to god (heaven) . i could never understand how other muslims who believe in Allah pray fast read koran and are good people etc can fry in hell forever it doesnt make sense . Its only early days but im liking what im seeing from sufism. Allah knows best.

I suggest you first learn what Shi'ism is about instead of dismissing it and favoring Sufism as the solution to all of life's problems.

The Shi'i view on hell:

And our belief concerning Hell is that it is a place of degradation or that of revenge on unbelievers and sinners. None but the polytheists will reside therein permanently. As for those monotheists (ahlu't-tawhid) who are sinners, they will be taken out of it by the mercy of Allah and the intercession which they obtain. It is related that no pain shall afflict a single one among the monotheists in Hell when they enter it: but they will only be afflicted with pain at the time of their exit from it; and these ills will be the requital of their own actions, and Allah is not "unjust towards the slaves" [41, 46].

http://www.sicm.org.uk/index.php?page=suduk/Suduk29

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i) What is your opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan?

Erfan is the goal of every abed ( worshipper): it is about getting close to the divine essence itself.

ii) Do you see Irfan as a Shia phenomenon separate from Tasawwuf? Do you perhaps see Tasawwuf as a Sunni phenomenon?

I don't see any real difference. Tasawwuf is an invented name, I believe.

iv) Again, if you have a positive opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan, is this informed by a legal opinion from your Marja? Again, if you could provide a link to or copy of your Marja's fatwa I'd be very grateful.

Allamah Tabatabaei and Ayatollah Mutahari are the two greatest scholars on erfan in recent times.

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(bismillah)

Mysticism/Sufism/Gnosis/Irfan is found in almost every creed because it is the essential core, intention and real objective of every divine religion and hence at this level it’s no surprise that we find the greatest coalescence between religions that otherwise casually appear disparate and clearly demarcated vis a-vis one another.

Although certain Shi'ahs are opposed to mysticism and deny its validity, there are still many that follow it and uphold it as the real nature and objective of Islam and the surest path to the Divine. Naturally Shi'ism doesn't fully accept nor fully reject Sufi practises but instead adheres to its own reading of Islamic mysticism based on the profound raw material found in the traditions of the Prophet [pbuh] and the Infallible Imams [as]. In fact most Sufi orders (ex. Naqshabandi) are said to trace their roots and lineage to the Shi'ah Imams Ali and Jaffar al-Sadiq [as]. In contrast to the classical Sufi Muslims which got “carried away”, if you like, and have hence distinguished themselves as a sect that has invented certain groundless customs and practises, the Shi'i Gnostics have not isolated themselves as a distinct social class following bizarre practises. In fact they've always existed and they are in reality the true Gnostics.

The following chapter discusses Shi’i Irfan and its roots as well as Sufism and the differences:

An Introduction to 'Irfan by Ayatulllah Murtada Mutahhari

http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/irfan.htm

I hope the following online resources will also be of some benefit in your research:

Glimpses of Nahj al-Balagha by Ayatullah Murtada Mutahhari

http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/glimpses

Islamic Gnosis ('Irfan) and Wisdom (Hikmat) by Ayatullah Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi

http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/islamic_gnosis_wisdom/

Light Within Me by Ayatullah Mutahhari, Allamah Tabataba'i, Imam Ruhollah Khomeini

http://www.al-islam.org/LWM/

Asrar al-Shari’ah (Inner Secrets of the Path) by Sayyid Haydar Amuli

http://www.al-islam.org/innersecretsofthepath/

Awsaf al Ashraaf (Attributes of the Noble) by Nasir al Din al-Tusi

http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/awsaf/

Adab al-Suluk: A Treatise on Spiritual Wayfaring by Shaykh Najm al-Din Kubra

http://al-islam.org/al-tawhid/adab_al_suluk/

Risaleh-e Sayr wa Suluk: A Treatise on Wayfaring by Bahr al-Ulum

http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/sayrsuluk/

Uswat al-Aarifeen: A Look at the Life of Ayatullah Bahjat by Yasin Jibouri

http://al-islam.org/uswat_alarifin/

APBA

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Actually I once joined them and was a "Sufi" but I faced a dilemma while being one. I just simply could not practise Sufism alongside Shi'ism and I had to make a choice. Praise to Allah who guides who He wants.

Dear Don,

(salam)

I seem to recall in a previous thread that you were an active proponent and satisfied member of the Alawiyya Sufi Order. Now you take a firm position against Sufism as incompatible with Shi'ite Islam. I would like to inquire as to what events or realizations came about to change your thinking and position on this matter.

I have been a muslim for two years now. I made Shahada in the presence of Hanifi Muslims and initially learned their forms of prayer though I subsequently applied myself to the Maliki school under the instruction of friends. I have long taken an interest in Shi'ite Islam and possess a great love and reverence for the family of the Prophet. The first and only mosque that I have actively attended was a Shi'ite mosque and I generally appreciate the greater emphasis on intellectuality in Shi'ite discourse. Having recently moved, I am considering becoming an active participant in the local Shi'ite community, possibly even learning the prayer forms of the Jafari school.

I have also taken a great interest in some of the teachings of Sufism and am eager to learn if there is a significant conflict of interest or orientation between the traditional teachings of Shi'ism and those of Sufism.

I also invite others to answer this question as well.

In Peace,

Desmond

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My desired goal is to produce an academic work specifically on the subject of Tasawwuf/Irfani based tariqahs within the rubric of Ithna Ashari Shiism.

....

Now for my questions which are aimed both at Shia laymen and students of knowledge (any Shias really, whether pro or anti Irfan/Tasawwuf):

...

vi) Have you personally come across organized groups of Shia Sufis/Irfanis in the form of a tariqah?

...

Salaam

I can not say I know much about Irfan though you have opened the discussion to anyone I think I could help in the question quoted above. The meeting of Sufism and Shi'ism has been common and I have listed them below, though these categories are meaningless they simply serve to organize specific instances where there has been an amalgamation or a synthesis of both of these traditions:

1)"Home Grown" Sufism in Shi'i Iran. The Nimatullahi come to mind specifically the Nurbakshi and Gonabadi. I do not know much about Nurbakshis but I have gotten the impression they have become less and less "Shi'i" in their inclinations especially since their growth outside of Iran(they might even use a modern Guitar in their worship). The Gonabadi Nimatullahi order of which I have some good idea of, since my grandparents are very much affiliated with them, are much more "Shi'i" and of the Ahlul Bait than the former(or atleast that is my impression) infact if my memory serves me correct they have a "Hoseyniyeh" in Tehran and in Hyderabad India. There are other branches of Nimatullahi, though I do not remember much about them or their names but I remember one of the branches is very much strict in the Shariah (Law).

2)There is also the case where Shi'is have adopted Sufism of a 'Sunni flavor' in the west. Shaykh Fadhlallah Haeri and Seyyed Hossein Nasr come to mind. In the book "Son of Karbala" by Haeri, Nasr writes in the foreword something along the lines of 'in both Haeri and myself there is a rare meeting of Shadhili Sufi spirituality and Shi'ism.' Haeri is a shaykh of the Shadhili tariqa in South Africa and he frequently perfumes his Sufi books with Shi'i spirituality. See "Elements of Sufism," "Begining's End," and "Leaves of a Sufi Journal." Also a more older instance of this "phenomenon" is the case of Haydar Amuli, who also sought to integrate Sufism and Shi'ism.

3)Bektashis: The Bektashis are not Usooli or 12ver per se, but they greatly revere the 12 Imams to the point that they cannot be called anything other than 12ver Shias. They have similar pictures of the Imams, and commemorate Ashura by mourning, and live in Turkey, Macedonia, and Albania. You can wikipedia them, but I remember vaguely that their writings are very much similar to Sufi metaphysics.

4)Irfani "tariqa" of the non-khanaqahi(non-Institutional) type in Qum. I do not know wish to dispense any information on this tariqa on this forum but an excellent book to look into (not the one from al-islam) is "Kernel of the Kernel" translated by Faghfoory. There is some rare additional material in the edition translated by Faghfoory that are not available on al-Islam.com's Kernel of the Kernel, regarding this "tariqa."

I hope that helps you and Philalethes.

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i) What is your opinion of Tasawwuf/Irfan?

necessary part or dimension of Islam. Islam is composed of three parts. 1) practices or rituals 2) imaan or belief 3) ihsan (which is about worshiping God as if you see Him)

tasawwuf or Irfan is all about developing Ihsaan.

ii) Do you see Irfan as a Shia phenomenon separate from Tasawwuf? Do you perhaps see Tasawwuf as a Sunni phenomenon?

i think in essence they are the same. but in terms of form, at face value, they both have different styles. I dont believe one is more correct than the other. I think it depends on the individual what he feels is best. Proof of them being the same in essence is that the works of Rumi and Ibn Arabi both of whom are very well known as being sufis are studied by shia scholars of Irfan as essential readings.

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(salam)

I think it is a very interesting topic for a PHD research. Gnosis Irfan and Sunni sufism has always interest people due to its mysticism (the magical nature of it).

Some book states that these knowledge originates from the Holy Prophet(sa) and the ahlul bayt.

Also, they are many controversial aspect of the sufism that gets all muslim riled up.

So yes, this can be interesting.

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i just have one question?

When the prophet (saw) introduced his message, i find it hard to swallow that he preached wahdat al wujood and the other innovative principles of irfan?

i am not against it, but have read a lot and i don't know who to believe, when i ask scholars some say yes its fine, others say you can but don't do anything haram (see why would they say that if something weren't wrong), and others say its haram (irfan i'm talking about). Also an arif in my community said that it is good but should not be taught without a supervisor.

Therefore i have chosen to ignor it.

BTW i love ayat Bahjat. (brotherly love that is lol)

With Salams and duas,

Ahmad

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These Niamatullahis are not real Sufis. The genuine Sufi does not abandon the shariat. These Niamatullahis are basically just like Aga Khanis, their "Shaykh" is just another businessman living in a golden palace with a mercedes benz, and he is suppose to be some kind of "Shaykh". Compare him with Ameer e Ahle Sunnat Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Ilias Attar Qadri Rizvi damat barakatuhum aulia. Now that is a true Sufi and shaykh of tareeqah.

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These Niamatullahis are not real Sufis. The genuine Sufi does not abandon the shariat. These Niamatullahis are basically just like Aga Khanis, their "Shaykh" is just another businessman living in a golden palace with a mercedes benz, and he is suppose to be some kind of "Shaykh". Compare him with Ameer e Ahle Sunnat Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Ilias Attar Qadri Rizvi damat barakatuhum aulia. Now that is a true Sufi and shaykh of tareeqah.
Ghulam Nabi, do you ever say anything that isn't derogatory of another Muslim? Every post of yours I find is insulting Twelvers, or a marja3, or Ismailis, or the Shi'ah... why are you even on this site if you hate everyone?
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(salam)

(bismillah)

Ëõãøó ÓóæøóÇåõ æóäóÝóÎó Ýöíåö ãöä ÑøõæÍöåö æóÌóÚóáó áóßõãõ ÇáÓøóãúÚó æóÇáúÃóÈúÕóÇÑó æóÇáúÃóÝúÆöÏóÉó ÞóáöíáðÇ ãøóÇ ÊóÔúßõÑõæäó

[shakir 32:9] Then He made him complete and breathed into him of His spirit, and made for you the ears and the eyes and the hearts; little is it that you give thanks.

Irfaan is a a knowledge, Arif is a state that person can reach both linked to the last and final goal and cause of creation- Becoming one with the divine obligatory existence. As there are different stages of Irfaan to learn, reach and teach. I would like to quote from my master and teacher Ayatollah Misbah Yazdi(May Allah prolong his life):

“The initial steps of Irfaan are to start with tazkiyah nafs and the final stage is to be in unity with the divine existence. Firstly the step mankind has to take is to gain knowledge and understanding of the matters, life and existence. After achieving acknowledgement of the primary stages one starts to understand by gaining knowledge, after this through practice( doing obligatory actions and refraining from sins and later doing the good which is not obligatory and refraining from bad which is not illegal), he or she- the traveler, the one that practices reach a stage where he awakens in the laps of his love, the soft and sweet grip of the owner of his worships, his visions see Him, his ears hear Him, his tongue speaks Him, his will becomes the masters will and the masters will becomes his will. At last the person can put the lights off since the divine light has illuminated everything and everywhere”.

As the wisdom of Gnosticism is taken directly from the infallibles and the holy Quran there is no doubt that it can be practiced and followed. To some it’s nothing more than doing what is obligatory and refraining from committing the illegal whereas to others it is so deep that it can only be fully understood if one himself goes to the beautiful journey.

Regarding the permissibility of the practical wisdom of Gnosticism(Irfaan), I would like you to contact teachers as Ayatollah Misbah Yazdi(www.misbahyazdi.org), Ayatollah Javadi Amoli(www.esraco.org), Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Bahjat(www.mtb.ir) or contact this sand face personally.

I have personally been learning the practical wisdom of Gnosticism and been teaching to some extend thanks to the divine blessings of the infallibles and the love of the Gnostics. One of my personal teacher has been Ayatollah Mohandisi(may my soul and body be sacrificed for him).

ÊóÚúÑõÌõ ÇáúãóáóÇÆößóÉõ æóÇáÑøõæÍõ Åöáóíúåö Ýöí íóæúãò ßóÇäó ãöÞúÏóÇÑõåõ ÎóãúÓöíäó ÃóáúÝó ÓóäóÉò

[shakir 70:4] To Him ascend the angels and the Spirit in a day the measure of which is fifty thousand years.

Wasalam alaikum

The servant of Hussain ibn Ali

(wasalam)

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