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jund_el_Mahdi

Nabi Adam (as)

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(salam)

I've always pondered over this countless times, and while my folks have tried as best they can to explain it to me, some of it still escapes me...and you all probably know what I'm getting it...

Nabi Adam (as) was infallible. He could not sin or make mistakes. The age old question, how is it did not listen to Allah's (swt) judgement when he ordered him not to eat from the date tree? He was the first human being created by Allah, and the first human to....disobey him...

Can anyone please help me understand this?

Jazak'Allah brothers/sisters.

(wasalam)

Edited by jund_el_mahdi

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(salam)

I dont think it was a "date" tree that was out of bounds of Hazrat Adam (as) or His (as) mistake was to eat from it..

When u read the translation of Surah Baq'rah it says that

[shakir 2:35] And We said: O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree, for then you will be of the unjust.

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 2:35]

With his opposite and complementary companion, Hawwa, the woman, Adam, the man was given the garden to dwell in, unrestrained. Only a tree was out of bounds.

According to many a tradition, it was not the perpetual heavenly garden. The garden referred to here was an area of expansion, comfort and ease, everything that was needed and desired was available without toil and effort. The out of bound tree is the symbol of temptation, covetousness, envy and greed. Imam Ali bin Musa al Rida says:

It stimulates desire for things which are not necessary for life.

Imam Ali bin Husayn says:

It stimulates desires for the worldly possessions as the ultimate object of life.

The command of Allah was not to go near the tree. Eating the fruit of the tree was not definitely forbidden.

[shakir 2:36] But the Shaitan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said: Get forth, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 2:36]

Adam was endowed with infinite potentiality to reach the ultimate through rational thinking and be able to discriminate and choose. Shaytan, the furious and the fiery, obstinate and perverse, devoid of iman, became an enemy of Adam. The stimulating warning of the divine command "not to go near the tree" awakened Adam's latent ambition to march unto those "highest beings" whose status Allah had shown him. To begin this journey, Adam, in a way, apparently gave Shaytan the opportunity to use his guile and rebellious energy in order to take advantage of the situation and get even with his adversary who caused his downfall. Adam and Hawwa slipped out of the condition of peace and contentment into the realm of struggle where peace and conflict, love and hate, and such opposites are at full play. Thereafter the two opposite groups faced each other. It was a conflict between good and evil, right and wrong. Ihbitu, also used in verse 61 of al Baqarah, means a change from the easy life of joy and happiness to the life of toil, suffering and misery.

Hope this helps :)

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Thank you sister...that does help...somewhat :)

Do any others have other comments please?

Salaams.

Prior to the creation of Adam (s), Allah said "I am going to create a vicegerent on EARTH." Here, Allah (swt) knew that earth would be the abode of mankind. The purpose of the Prophet eating from the tree, something referred to as 'Tarke Awla', was to establish the purpose of Creation in itself, according to Allah's (swt) Divine Decree.

To add so the next follow up question could be answered: Allah's knowledge does not change the free will of man, but Allah's requirement of certain issues, Lahwe Mahfuz, are certain decrees that cannot be changed, i.e. Allahs WILL and Allahs KNOWLEDGE are tied together to a certain level.

Therefore it was incumbent on Prophet Adam to eat from the tree, but not that it was considered a haraam act, for it was, established beforehand.

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sallam

i beleive many people try to confuse the issue since they dont know the issue from beginning to end and when i asked many people they gave me different theryys however i came to the conclution why ask people they probably just try to make sense of it and make something up according to their assumptions so i decided to listen to knowlagable and reliable people like hassanain rajabali and ssayed ammar nakhshawani.

please listen to his lecture on infallibility and sinlisness here www.shialectures.net

ill give u a simple logical answer

in our ahadith and quran it is as follows.

Allah made Adam (as) an Imam on Earth

Allah told Adam to not eat of the tree

shaytan in a costume (snake) came and sweared by Allahs name that it is permissible to eat from the tree.

now imagine your Adam (as) have not had any childhood and experience with evil he has been encompassed by good and he cannot understand what trickery por deception or lies so one day god comes to u and tells u dont eat the food then after a certain time someone comes to u and tells u NOW it is permissible for u to eat from the fruit and on top of that he swaers by Allah'S (AW) name i dont know about u but prophet or not any person not only man is gonna fall into that trap.

then as we know Allah sends all of them to earth if they werent on earth to begin with and says you are the enemies of each other.

now why would god put Adam (as) in such a situation were certainly he was gonna fail... to teach him teach him of the deception and trickery of satan so that on earth hed know what is Good and what is Evil.

for me the christian or sunni interpretation simply doesnt make sense the only interpretation which made sense to me was the shia tafseer not becuase im shia but bcz it wouldnt make sense for Allah (AW) to put a child which does not understand trickery and deception to not be decieved by shaytan hell be gullable and beleive anything anyone tells him as long as he swears by Allah's name after all would it make sense for someone to have everything he ver wanted and more and give it up for a fruit?.

inshallah this makes sense sorry for dragging on lol.

ws

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sallam

i beleive many people try to confuse the issue since they dont know the issue from beginning to end and when i asked many people they gave me different theryys however i came to the conclution why ask people they probably just try to make sense of it and make something up according to their assumptions so i decided to listen to knowlagable and reliable people like hassanain rajabali and ssayed ammar nakhshawani.

please listen to his lecture on infallibility and sinlisness here www.shialectures.net

ill give u a simple logical answer

in our ahadith and quran it is as follows.

Allah made Adam (as) an Imam on Earth

Allah told Adam to not eat of the tree

shaytan in a costume (snake) came and sweared by Allahs name that it is permissible to eat from the tree.

now imagine your Adam (as) have not had any childhood and experience with evil he has been encompassed by good and he cannot understand what trickery por deception or lies so one day god comes to u and tells u dont eat the food then after a certain time someone comes to u and tells u NOW it is permissible for u to eat from the fruit and on top of that he swaers by Allah'S (AW) name i dont know about u but prophet or not any person not only man is gonna fall into that trap.

then as we know Allah sends all of them to earth if they werent on earth to begin with and says you are the enemies of each other.

now why would god put Adam (as) in such a situation were certainly he was gonna fail... to teach him teach him of the deception and trickery of satan so that on earth hed know what is Good and what is Evil.

for me the christian or sunni interpretation simply doesnt make sense the only interpretation which made sense to me was the shia tafseer not becuase im shia but bcz it wouldnt make sense for Allah (AW) to put a child which does not understand trickery and deception to not be decieved by shaytan hell be gullable and beleive anything anyone tells him as long as he swears by Allah's name after all would it make sense for someone to have everything he ver wanted and more and give it up for a fruit?.

inshallah this makes sense sorry for dragging on lol.

ws

Hmm, ok ok, I'm starting to understand better now...

You're saying that Allah (swt) CREATED Adam to fall into that trap in the first place so from then on never to be strayed by shaytan again in his life? But I don't understand the reasoning behind, why Adam had to go through this, or why Allah (swt) ordained for it to be that way, and not other prophets... why not create him with all the knowledge in the beginning, Allah (swt) is capable of anything!

It seems this process that Adam had to be tricked by shaytan to know good from evil was unnecessary...right? :unsure:

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Guest BumbleBee

Adam (as) ate from the tree in Paradise. It was suppose to happen. That's why God placed Adam (as) and Eve on Earth. To obey God and test them (us).

Edited by BumbleBee

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[shakir 2:35] And We said: O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree, for then you will be of the unjust.

[shakir 2:36] But the Shaitan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said: Get forth, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.

Brother there's no EATING involved. The tree that's referred to here, some ulemas explain, that it was the Masoomeen (as). And Allah (swt) had told Adam (as) not to try and (for the lack of a better expression) put himself with Them (as) because They (as) are higher in status. And if Adam (as) tried to do this, He'd only be unjust to himself since He cannot become one of them.

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 2:36]

Adam was endowed with infinite potentiality to reach the ultimate through rational thinking and be able to discriminate and choose. Shaytan, the furious and the fiery, obstinate and perverse, devoid of iman, became an enemy of Adam. The stimulating warning of the divine command "not to go near the tree" awakened Adam's latent ambition to march unto those "highest beings" whose status Allah had shown him. To begin this journey, Adam, in a way, apparently gave Shaytan the opportunity to use his guile and rebellious energy in order to take advantage of the situation and get even with his adversary who caused his downfall. Adam and Hawwa slipped out of the condition of peace and contentment into the realm of struggle where peace and conflict, love and hate, and such opposites are at full play. Thereafter the two opposite groups faced each other. It was a conflict between good and evil, right and wrong. Ihbitu, also used in verse 61 of al Baqarah, means a change from the easy life of joy and happiness to the life of toil, suffering and misery.

I hope it's clearer now..

As for being "punished" about this tark e aula.. Well think logically for a sec.. Adam (as) was created for the specific purpose of going to Earth. Therefore, sooner or later, He (as) had to come down to Earth. Now the only difference was that He (as) was sent down to Earth without much ceremony because of this.*

*(Maulana Zaki Baqri explained it this way that maybe He (as) would have been sent to Earth with "red carpet and all big hoo-haa" [his words not mine] but because He (as) wanted something that He couldnt get, He was sent without much ceremony)

Edited by syeda_zaidi

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Maulana Zaki Baqri explained it this way that maybe He (as) would have been sent to Earth with "red carpet and all big hoo-haa" [his words not mine] but because He (as) wanted something that He couldnt get, He was sent without much ceremony

sorry for going off topic but did anyone see moulana zaki baqri's video where he says naarey haideri is equivalent to clapping? and where he also said naarey haideri needs to be removed from society... something along those lines i think. I saw it on some site i dont remember now but it was really shocking to hear it. Anyways....

this thread is interesting... tark e awla - does it not mean " chosing the less preferred course? "

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[shakir 2:35] And We said: O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree, for then you will be of the unjust.

[shakir 2:36] But the Shaitan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said: Get forth, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.

Brother there's no EATING involved. The tree that's referred to here, some ulemas explain, that it was the Masoomeen (as). And Allah (swt) had told Adam (as) not to try and (for the lack of a better expression) put himself with Them (as) because They (as) are higher in status. And if Adam (as) tried to do this, He'd only be unjust to himself since He cannot become one of them.

I hope it's clearer now..

As for being "punished" about this tark e aula.. Well think logically for a sec.. Adam (as) was created for the specific purpose of going to Earth. Therefore, sooner or later, He (as) had to come down to Earth. Now the only difference was that He (as) was sent down to Earth without much ceremony because of this.*

*(Maulana Zaki Baqri explained it this way that maybe He (as) would have been sent to Earth with "red carpet and all big hoo-haa" [his words not mine] but because He (as) wanted something that He couldnt get, He was sent without much ceremony)

Ok I understand it now sister, jazak Allah :)

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sorry for going off topic but did anyone see moulana zaki baqri's video where he says naarey haideri is equivalent to clapping? and where he also said naarey haideri needs to be removed from society... something along those lines i think. I saw it on some site i dont remember now but it was really shocking to hear it. Anyways....

Since u asked i'll reply otherwise this is sooo off topic. The site u're talking abt, they just picked a particular part of his speech and not the full one. When u hear the full version u'll understand that he's actually right.

He said that Naraye Haidery has become a "popularity guage" in the sub continent. The speaker who can get the most naraye Haidery out of the listeners is the most popular one and gets called back year after year even though he's not imparting any real knowledge to the masses. So the purpose of the minbar is unfulfilled. He said that the people should encourage those speakers who talk about deen and tell the masses their responsibilities toward preparation for the zahoor of our Imam (as).

In short, he's not against naraye Haidery. he just says that don't abuse it.

Sorry OP and Mods for going off-topic.. :blush:

this thread is interesting... tark e awla - does it not mean " chosing the less preferred course? "

U're right there.. tark e aula is mistakenly understood by the layman as a "mistake" :P

Edited by syeda_zaidi

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sallam

well thats the beauty of Allah making Adam experience it like a child touching a hot stove experience is much better giving someone knowledge isnt enough he has to have awareness and as an example to future prophets and people he wanted to show how deceptive shaytan is i mean imagine if Allah gave adam all the knowledge without an example he couldn't really understand it on the awareness and experience stage since there was no example present so he wanted adam (as) to understand the situiation he was getting himself into so that noone on earth would call him a sinner in the future because he didnt understand the situation on the other side u have prophets after him who knew and understood adams (as) story and from that used him as an example.

bear in mind this my understanding.

ws

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(salam)

I've always pondered over this countless times, and while my folks have tried as best they can to explain it to me, some of it still escapes me...and you all probably know what I'm getting it...

Nabi Adam (as) was infallible. He could not sin or make mistakes. The age old question, how is it did not listen to Allah's (swt) judgement when he ordered him not to eat from the date tree? He was the first human being created by Allah, and the first human to....disobey him...

Can anyone please help me understand this?

Jazak'Allah brothers/sisters.

(wasalam)

Salam,

When Allah swt make a person as a Prophet, he will NOT make mistakes or sins.

In the case of Adam, he was not yet a Prophet until after the event of eating from the tree (he was brought down to earth), and after he dwelled on earth for quite sometimes (after regretting his action) and after he lived in a community of human beings.

A Prophet is a guide to humans/ group of humans/ nation...on the earth and NOT on heaven.

Only when Adam was brought to Earth and lived in a community, he was then made a Prophet to guide a group of people. From that time on (as a Prophet), Adam (as) NEVER sin or make mistakes.

When Adam was in heaven, there was NO human community to guide...so he was just an ordinary human that went into trials (just like us) by Allah swt directly. So he made mistakes.

Layman

Edited by layman

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guys if you have a question its best to ask an expert.

taken from tafseer al mizan, by the great tabatabei.

And We said: “O Adam! dwell you and your wife in the Garden and eat (you both) from it (freely) a plenteous (food) wherever you (two) wish and do not approach (you two) this tree, for then you (two) will be of the unjust” (35). But the Satan made them both slip from it and drove them out of what they were in; and We said: “Get down, some of you being the enemies of others; and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time” (36). Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord, so He returned to him mercifully; surely He is Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful (37). We said: “Get down you there from all together; and if there comes to you a guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve (38). And (as to) those who disbelieve in, and belie, Our signs, they are the inmates of the fire, in it they shall abide- (39).

* * * * *

COMMENTARY

QUR’AN And We said: -O Adam! dwell you and your wife. . . ":

Although the story of the angels' prostration before Adam has been repeated several times in the Qur'ân, that of his placement in the Garden has been given in three places only:

First: The verses given above, from Chapter 2 (the Cow).

Second: In Chapter 7 (the Elevated Places): And (We said): "O Adam! dwell you and your wife in the Garden; so eat from where you desire, but do not go near this tree, for then you will be of the unjust- (19). But the Satan whispered an evil suggestion to them that he might make manifest to them what was hidden from them of their nakedness, and he said: ---Your Lord has not forbidden you from this tree except that you may not both become two angels or that you may (not) become of the immortals" (20). And he swore to them both: "Most surely I am a sincere adviser to you- (21). Then he caused them to fall by deceit; so when they tasted of the tree, their nakedness became manifest to them, and they both began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Garden; and their Lord called out to them: "Did I not forbid you both from that tree and say to you that the Satan is your open enemy?" (22). They said: "Our Lord! We have been unjust to ourselves, and if Thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers " (23). He said: Get down, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time (24). He (also) said: ---Therein shall you 'live, and therein 'shall you die, and from it shall you be raised" (25).

Third: In Chapter 20 (Tâ-Hâ): And certainly We had covenanted unto Adam before, but he forgot; and We did not find in him any determination (115). And when We said to the angels: "Prostrate before Adam -, they did prostrate, but Iblis (did it not); he refused (116). So we said. -0 Adam! Surely this is an enemy to you and to your wife; therefore let him not drive you both forth from the Garden so that you should be put to toil (117); Surely it is (ordained) for you that you shall not be hungry therein nor bare of clothing (118); and that you shall not be thirsty therein nor shall you feel the heat of the sun- (119). But the Satan whispered an evil suggestion to him; he said: "0 Adam! Shall I guide you to the tree of immortality and a kingdom which decays not?" (120). Then they both ate of it, so their nakedness appeared unto them, and they both began to cover themselves with leaves of the Garden, and Adam disobeyed his Lord, so he got astray (121). Then his Lord chose him, so He turned to him and guided (him) (122). He said: "Get down you two there from, all (of you), one of you (is) enemy to another. So if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, he shall not go astray nor be unhappy (123). And whoever turns away from My remembrance, his shall surely be a straitened life, and We will raise him, on the Day of Resurrection, blind- (124). He shall say: "My Lord! why hast Thou raised me blind, and I was a seeing one indeed?" (125) He will say: "Even so: Our signs came to you, but you forgot them; even thus shall you be forsaken this day- (126). And thus do We recompense him who is extravagant and does not believe in the signs of his Lord; and certainly the chastisement of the hereafter is severer and more lasting" (127).

The context, and particularly the opening words of the story, "Verily 1 am going to make in the earth a vicegerent", clearly show that it was for the earth that Adam was created; it was the original plan that he should live and die in the earth. Allâh had temporarily placed the couple in the Garden to test them in order that their nakedness might be uncovered to them. Also the context in all three places shows that the order to the angels to prostrate before Adam, and then to Adam to stay in the Garden is a single, continuous, story. It all shows that Adam (a.s.) was created specifically for the earth, and the way to send him down was through the Garden as mentioned in the Qur'ân: It was shown that he was superior to the angels and, therefore, more qualified for the vicegerency of Allàh; then they were told to prostrate before him, in acknowledgement of his superiority; then he was placed in the Garden but forbidden to go near a particular tree; so that on eating from it they should become aware of their nakedness and then be sent down to the earth. It means that the last link in this chain was their becoming aware of their private parts - it was this factor which irrevocably showed that they were fit for this earth, ready for this life. “As-Saw'ah”, (literally means shame, disgrace, private part of the body. In this story it has been used in the last meaning, as may be seen from the words, “and they both began to cover themselves with leaves of the Garden”. That is why we have translated it as “nakedness”.) However, their awareness of their pudenda proved that in addition to their spiritual qualities, they had also animal instincts and desires ingrained in them. It naturally made them dependent on nutrition and growth. Iblis wanted them to become aware of their nakedness. Adam and his wife were given earthly, human existence and were at once placed in the Garden without any delay; they were not given time to perceive and understand their nakedness or its concomitants; they had not yet comprehended the life of this earth and its necessities. When they were sent to the Garden their connection with the spiritual world, including the angels, was strong; their link with it was not weakened. It should be noted that Allàh has said, “what was hidden from them”; He has not said, “what had been hidden from them”; it may be inferred from the expression used that their nakedness could not remain hidden for ever in this life; it was hidden for only a short period when they were placed in the Garden. The uncovering of their nakedness with all its concomitants was a predetermined fact and it depended upon their eating from that tree. That is why Allàh had told them: “therefore let him not drive you both forth from the Garden so that you should be put to toil”; thereafter, the Satan “drove them out of what they were in”.

It should not be overlooked that even when Allàh pardoned them after their repentance, He did not return them to the Garden - they were sent down to the earth to live therein. If their eating of the tree, the uncovering of their private parts and the life of this world- were not a confirmed divine plan, an irrevocable predetermined decree, they would have been returned to their place in the Garden as soon as they were forgiven their mistake. In short, it was the divine plan that they should spend sometime in the Garden to get them prepared for the life in this world; and their removal from the Garden, according to the causal relation decreed by Allàh, depended on their eating from the tree and becoming aware of their nakedness, and it happened because they listened to the whispering of the Satan.

Allàh says: “And certainly We had covenanted unto Adam before, but he forgot”. Which covenant does this verse allude to? Does it refer to the admonition, “and do not approach (you two) this tree, for then you (two) will be of the unjust”? Or to the warning, “surely this (i.e., the Satan) is an enemy to you and to your wife”? Or does it refer to the general covenant made with all human beings in general and with the prophets in particular?

The first possibility is out of question altogether. Allàh says: “But the Satan whispered an evil suggestion to them . . . and he said: ‘Your Lord has not forbidden you from this tree except that you may not become two angels or that you may (not) become of the immortals…’” Obviously, when Adam and his wife committed the error and tasted of the tree they were aware of the prohibition - even the evil suggestion of the Satan had begun with a reference to it. And Allàh says in this verse that “We had covenanted unto Adam before, but he forgot; and We did not find in him any determination.” It, therefore, could not refer to that prohibition, because Adam had not forgotten it at all.

The second suggestion - that the covenant might refer to the warning against the Satan - is not so wide of mark; still it is not supported by apparent meaning of the verses. The said warning was given to both Adam and his wife, while this verse refers to a covenant made especially with Adam.

It leaves us with the last alternative that the covenant means the general covenant which was made with the whole mankind and more particularly with the prophets. This verse (about the covenant with Adam and his forgetting it) occurs at the beginning of the story in the chapter of Tà-Hà, and the story concludes with the words, “So if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, he shall not go astray nor be unhappy. And whoever turns away from My remembrance, his shall surely be a straitened life, and We will raise him, on the Day of Resurrection, blind. He shall say: ‘My Lord! why hast Thou raised me blind, and I was a seeing one indeed?’ He will say: ‘Even so: Our signs came to you, but you forgot them; even thus shall you be forsaken (literally: forgotten) today.’”

These concluding verses perfectly fit that opening one. To turn away from the remembrance of Allàh is not different from forgetting the covenant of Allàh. Add to it the use of the same verb (you forgot them) in the next verse. All these references arc perfectly compatible with the covenant made with the souls of the human beings about the Mastership of Allàh and their own servitude. That covenant obliged the man that lie should never forget that Allàh is his Lord, the Ruler and Master of his affairs; nor should he lose sight of the fact that he is a wholly owned slave of Allàh; that he has no authority whatsoever over his benefit or harm; nor does he has any control over his life, death or resurrection; in short he owns neither his person, his characteristics nor his actions.

The error that stands opposite to this remembrance is forgetfulness -- man forgets his Lord and His All-encompassing Mastership; he becomes engrossed in his own self, getting bogged down more and more in the mire of this world’s attractions.

Look at this world’s life, with all its diversity; and see how it spreads its tentacles in all directions. Note how it is shared by the believer and the unbeliever both. And then find out how the two groups respond to its joy and sorrow. How different is their respective attitude towards this life’s success and failure, happiness and unhappiness, content and discontent, relief and suffering. These factors affect the two groups - the believers and the unbelievers - in entirely different ways. The believer has the knowledge of Allàh and the unbeliever lacks this knowledge. And it causes all the differences in their respective behavior. Every man looks at this world; a world that is submerged in all types of misfortunes and disasters: a life followed by death, a health ruined by disease, a prosperity eaten away by poverty, a comfort destroyed by discomfort, a gain nullified by loss - this is, in a nutshell, the life of this world. The believer knows that everything and every affair belongs to Allàh; nothing is independent of God, the Lord. Every thing and every affair emanates from Him; and all that originates from Him is good and beautiful, nothing but beauty and splendor, goodness and excellence, can come from Him. And because all things and all affairs issue forth from his Lord and Master, he thinks that all is elegant and fine; he dislikes nothing and fears nothing; everything in his eyes is likeable, except that which his Master tells him to dislike. He subjugates his likes and dislikes to those of his Master. In short, all his attention is fixed to the pleasure of his Master. He knows that everything is the sole property of God; none else has any share in anything. That being the case, why should he worry how the Master manages His own property? He does not think that he is competent to meddle in the affairs of his Lord. This submission to Allàh creates a perfect tranquility, a truly happy life, untarnished by unhappiness; a light without darkness, a joy without sorrow, a benefit without harm, and a riches without want. It all happens because he believes in Allàh and in His mastership.

On the other hand is the unbeliever who does not know Allàh. By cutting himself off from the one and only Master, he has to bow his head before every creature. He believes that everything is independent in its actions - that it has a power of its own to benefit or to harm, to do good or evil. Consequently, he remains in constant fear of everything; he is ever apprehensive of every real or imagined danger. He is always grieving for want has befallen him, longing for the opportunities he has missed. He feels nostalgia for the prestige or wealth that is gone; breaks his heart for the children, relatives or friends who have left him. He is inextricably trapped by the attractions of the world; he relies on them and has trust in them; and when any thing goes wrong, he sinks into despair. Then as soon as he makes a virtue of necessity and is resigned to that misfortunate, a new calamity overwhelms him. In this way, He always driven from pillar to post, with a heavy heart and a gloomy countenance; “thus does Allàh lay uncleanliness on those who do not believe”.

It can be seen, in the light of the above discourse, that forgetting the covenant and unhappiness of this world’s life, both are interrelated - the later springs from the former. This tact becomes clearer if we compare the wordings of the verse 20:123-124 with those used in the verse under discussion. The former says: So if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, he shall not go astray nor be unhappy. And whoever turns away from My remembrance, his shah surely be a straitened life, and We will raise him, on the Day of Resurrection, blind. And the same idea has been expressed in this verse in the following words: . . . then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve.

It may be inferred from these verses that the forbidden tree was of such a nature that if one ate from it he would certainly be entangled in the troubles and misfortunes of this life he would spend his life in this world, heedless of his own place, forgetting his Lord. Probably Adam (a.s.) wanted to combine the fruit of that tree with the covenant that he had entered into with his Lord. But he could not succeed, the fruit had its effect, he forgot the covenant and fell into the troubles and toils of this world. Then he was saved when he repented before Allàh and Allàh turned to him with mercy.

QUR’AN: and eat (you two) from it (freely) a plenteous (food):

“ar-Raghad” literally means happiness, well-being, good life and affluence arghada ’l-qawmu mawàshiyahum means, “the people left their cattle to graze wherever it liked. “Qawmun raghad” and “nisà’un raghad” means people (or women) having a life of plenty and opulence.

QUR’AN: and do not approach (you two) this tree;

The context shows that actual prohibition was of eating from it; but they were told not even to approach it; the prohibition was couched in these terms for emphasis. What was really forbidden is seen from the : so when they tasted of the tree, their nakedness became manifest to them (7:22), and . . . they both ate of it, so their nakedness appeared unto them (20:121).

QUR’AN: for then you (two) will be of the unjust:

az-Zàlimin is the nomen agentis of az-zulm (= injustice, to do wrong). It is not from az-zulmah (= darkness), as has been suggested by someone. Adam and his wife acknowledged their wrong-doing, and the Qur'an quotes them as saying: “Our Lord! we have been unjust to ourselves, and if you forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers” (7:23).

This clause has been changed in Chapter 20 to “so that you should be put to toil”; and the toil has further been explained in these words: Surely it is (ordained) for you that you shall not be hungry therein (i.e. in the Garden) nor bare of clothing; and that you shall not be thirsty therein nor shall you feel the heat of the sun (20:118-119). Clearly, the injustice and wrong-doing, mentioned in the verse 2:25, was to bring in its wake the toil of this world - hunger, thirst, nakedness and other discomforts. The injustice or wrong that they had done was against their own selves; it was neither a sin (as this term is used in the shari‘ah) nor an injustice against Allàh. It shows that the prohibition was in the nature of an advice pointing out to them what was good for their own comfort; it did not have the force of an ordained law. Adam and his wife did wrong to themselves, because their disregard to that divine advice caused their removal from the Garden.

When a man commits a sin (i.e. an offence, from the shari’ah point of view), he is given a punishment. Then if he repents and his repentance is accepted, the punishment is completely waived off, and he is returned to his previous position as though he had not committed the sin at all. If Adam and his wife were guilty of such a sin, they should have been returned to their place in the Garden soon after their repentance was accepted. But it was not done. It clearly shows that the prohibition did not have the force of an ordained law; it was only an advice. Even so, neglecting it had its natural effect on both of them and they had to come out of the Garden. But this removal, from the Garden was not a punishment for any sin or crime; it was the natural consequence of the wrong they had done against their own selves. (We shall write again on this subject, God willing.)

QUR’AN: But the Satan made them both slip from it:

The Satan could have misled them by creating evil thoughts in their hearts, in the same way as he misleads other human beings. But many verses, in the three narratives quoted at the beginning of this commentary, show that the Satan had appeared before Adam and his wife, and had talked to them face to face:

So We said: “O Adam! surely this is an enemy to you and to your wife” (20:117). Allàh had pointed out the Satan to Adam, not by any verbal description but by showing to him the person of the said enemy. (Note the demonstrative pronoun, “this is”.)

(The Satan) said: “O Adam! shall I guide you to the tree of immortality . . .” (20:120). The speaker, that is, the Satan, must have talked to Adam face to face.

And he (i.e. the Satan) swore to them both: “Most surely I am a sincere adviser to you” (7:21). Obviously, he was visible to Adam and his wife and swore during his talk with them.

. . . and their Lord called out to them: “Did I not forbid you both from that tree and say to you that the Satan is your open enemy?” (7:22) It indicates that the Satan was visible to Adam and his wife. If the Satan had misled them by creating evil thoughts into their minds without appearing before them, they could have said to Allàh that they were not aware that that thought was put into their minds by the Satan; that they mistook it to be their own thought because the Satan had not appeared before them.

They used to see and recognize the Satan. Likewise, other prophets - all of them covered by Allàh’s protection - used to see and recognize him if and when he came to them. Many traditions mention such encounters in the stories of Nùh, Ibrâhim, Musa, ‘Isa, Yahya, Ayyùb, Ismà‘il and Muhammad (may Allàh bless him and his as well as the prophets).

The above-quoted verses as well as the verse 7:20 (and he said: “Your Lord has not forbidden from this tree except that…”) also show that the Satan had visited then near that tree in the Garden. He entered the Garden, talked to them and put evil suggestion before them. He was able to do so because the Garden was not the Garden of eternal abode. The Qur’àn also says that Adam, his wife and the Satan all were removed from the Garden together. (Of course, Allàh had said to the Satan: “Then get down from this, for it does not befit you to behave proudly therein” (7:131). But the pronouns “this” and “therein” may refer to the angels or to the heaven. It may mean: Get down from the company of the angels; or, get down from the heaven as it is a place of honor.)

QUR’AN: and We said: “Get down, some of you being the enemies of others…”:

The second person pronouns, used in this verse, are plural, which denote at least three persons. Clearly, it was addressed to Adam, his wife and the Satan. The Satan was turned out of the heaven and/or the company of the angels before (as described above). This verse combines in itself that previous order too; and manifests the firm decree of Allàh establishing enmity between Iblis on one side and Adam and his wife and their descendants on the other. It also promulgates another decree that they shall live in the earth, die therein, and be raised again from it.

It may safely be said that the whole human race (Adam together with his descendants) is covered by the last mentioned decree: Therein shall you live, and therein shall you die, and from it shall you be raised (7:25). This verse comes at the end of the story (in Chapter 7) which begins with the following words: And certainly We created you, then We fashioned you, then We said to the angels: “Prostrate before Adam”… (7:11). In both verses plural pronouns have been used; and it is an indication that the creation and the decree to live and die in the earth includes more than two, that is, other human beings too besides Adam and his wife.

The story of Adam may have been used by Allàh to represent the rise, fall and rise again of the whole mankind. Adam was the first representatives of humanity, and his life was a symbol, a miniature, of the human beings life-span in this world.

The angels were told to prostrate before Adam, because he was the vicegerent of Allàh in the earth. It has been mentioned earlier that this vicegerency was bestowed on the whole mankind. The angels prostrated before Adam, as he was the symbol of humanity, the representative of his race.

Adam and his wife were placed in the Garden and then were sent down from there because they had eaten of the forbidden tree. Every man may see his own face in this mirror. His soul, before coming to this world, enjoyed the sublime and lofty existence; his abode was spiritually near to his Lord - a place of joy and happiness, of splendor and light; in the company of purified companions and spiritual friends, near to Allàh, the Lord of the worlds. Then he opted for this transient life, and was at once entangled in the troubles and toils of this world; leaving that purified existence, he was attracted to this tedious and odious life.

Adam at once repented and prayed for the mercy of Allàh. In the same way, man may return to Allàh and consequently to the eternal abode of honor and bliss. But if he took the wrong turning, did not try to return to Allàh, and, in short, followed his base desires, he would change the, bounty of Allàh into disbelief and ungratefulness, would direct himself to the place of disgrace - to the hell; and how evil that resting place is!

QUR’AN: Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord so He returned to him mercifully:

“at-Talaqqi” (= to receive) signifies “to learn”. It was this learning of the words that paved the way for the repentance of Adam.

“At-Tawbah” literally means to return; generally it is used for repentance, because when a man repents, he returns to his Lord. This verb is at times ascribed to Allàh (as in this verse), and signifies that Allàh returns or restores the servant to His grace and mercy. In other words, He accepts the plea of the servant and forgives his sins. At other times it is attributed to the servant; then it signifies the servant’s return to Allàh, that is, his repentance from his sins.

At-Tawbah (repentance) of man is flanked on both sides by two tawbahs (mercies) of Allàh. Man can never do without the mercy of Allàh. He needs mercy and help of Allàh to turn away from sins; only then he may return to Allàh, may repent from his sins; then again the mercy of Allàh comes forward, and his repentance is accepted. Therefore, an accepted repentance of man issues forth from the mercy of Allàh, and also ends on His mercy. The verse 9:118 clearly mentions this fact: then He returned to them (mercifully) so that they might return (i.e. might repent).

What were the words which Adam received from his Lord? Some people think that it refers to their invocation reported in Chapter 7: They said: “Our Lord! We have been unjust to ourselves, and if thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers” (7:23). But this view is not supported by the sequence of the events. Adam and his wife had addressed that invocation before they were told to get down from the Garden (7:24); and it was after getting that order that he “received some words” from Allàh, as is clear from the verse 2:36-37. Therefore, “some words” cannot refer to that previously uttered invocation.

There may, however, be another explanation: When Allàh announced to the angels that He was going to make a vicegerent in the earth, they said: “Wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, while we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy holiness?” Allàh did not say that their accusation against the would-be vicegerent was wrong; His only answer was that He taught Adam all the names. There must have been something deep, meaningful and relevant in this teaching of the names; otherwise, the angels could not be satisfied, their objection could not be answered. The names taught to Adam must have contained some such thing that would come to the rescue of man if he sinned, would save him from disgrace if he erred. Probably, the words received at the time of repentance were related to the names taught to him in the beginning.

It cannot be denied that Adam (a.s.) did wrong to himself by placing himself in this world - a crossroads of happiness and unhappiness; had he been ensnared by it he would have perished; but he chose to return to his original place of spiritual bliss and was saved; he had to undergo, in this process, untold miseries and unbearable hardships. In any case, he put himself in so much trouble that he became “unjust” to himself. The question arises as to why Allàh selected this hard way to send him from the Garden to the earth. The fact, however, remains that in this process he attained to such heights of eternal bliss and spiritual perfection as would have been impossible to reach without coming down to the earth - and that too with a stigma of mistake.

The events leading to his removal from the Garden and, later, to the acceptance of his repentance showed to him his true reality - how humble, dependent, deficient and servile he was; and at the same time he came to realize that every difficulty of this world leads to manifold case in the next life; every unpleasantness here results in enhanced pleasantness there; every trouble in the obedience to Allàh brings in its wake the pleasure of Allàh and His unlimited reward; the process continues until the servant reaches the sublime presence of his Lord. Adam knew, through his own experience, taste of many of the beautiful attributes of Allàh: His forgiveness, turning mercifully to the servants, covering their mistakes, bestowing mercy on them, putting them in the shadow of His compassion and grace - these are some of the divine attributes which He has especially reserved for the sinners. Adam could not know and understand them without passing through the stages which Allah had decreed for him.

This, however, was his repentance; it made ordination of a shari‘ah essential. It was necessary for Adam and his descendants to know which path they should take so as to reach their destination, the abode of bliss and happiness. His repentance brought him to the stage where promulgation of religion and ordination of the shari‘ah was inevitable.

That is why Allàh frequently mentions the repentance before the belief: Stand fast then (in the right path) as you are commanded, as also he who has turned (to Allàh) with you… (11:112); And most surely I am most forgiving to him who repents and believes and does good . . . (20:82). There are many such verses in the Qur'àn.

QUR’AN: We said: “Get down you therefore all together; and if there comes to you a guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve. And (as to) those who disbelieve in, and belie, Our signs, they are the inmates of the fire, in it they shall abide “.

This is the essence of religion ordained, for the first time, for Adam (a.s.) and his descendants. Allàh has condensed the whole religion in these two sentences; nothing has been added, nor can be added to it up to the Day of Resurrection.

Ponder on this story and particularly the narrative of Chapter 20. You will see that Allàh had issued two decrees in respect of Adam and his descendants. When he ate from the tree, it was decreed that he should get down to the earth and spend his life therein - a life of trouble and toil. And when he repented, it was ordained that he and his descendants should be honored with divine guidance. The first decree initiated the earthly life for him; the second, issued after his repentance, bestowed dignity and grace to that life, by providing it with divine guidance. From then on, man’s life is composed of two lives: A material, earthly life and a spiritual, heavenly one. It may be inferred from repetition of the order to “get down “ in this narrative: “Get down, some of you being the enemies of others; and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time” (2:36). “Get down you therefrom all together- and if there comes to you a guidance from Me…” (2:38).

Repentance of Adam (2:37) occurred between these two orders. The sequence shows that Adam had repented before their departing from the Garden, although lie had slipped from his earlier position of honor. It may also be inferred from the change in the styles of the following verses: Allàh said to Adam, when placing him in the Garden, “do not go near this tree” (7:19); but when they ate from it, their Lord called out to them: “Did I not forbid you both from that tree…” (7:22). Note the demonstrative pronoun, “this”, (for a nearer object) in the former speech, and “that” (for a farther one) in the latter. Also contrast the verb, “said”, (showing proximity) of the former with “called out” (showing distance) of the latter. All this together supports the above-given explanation that at the time of the second order Adam was still in the Garden but not in his earlier honored place.

“Get down, some of you being the enemies of others; and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time” (2:36; 7:24). “Therein shall you live, and therein shall you die, and from it shall you be raised” (7:25). The verses indicate that the life on the earth was very different from that in the Garden. This life is firmly connected with the earth, full of difficulties and hardships. Man, in this life, is created from the earth, then after death is returned into it, and will, on the Day of Resurrection, be raised from it, This life is different from that of the Garden. It follows that Adam had lived a heavenly - and not earthly life in the Garden.

This observation gives us a certainty that the Garden of Adam was in the heaven, although it was not the Garden of eternal abode from which one is never turned out.

What is meant by “the heaven”? We shall, God willing explain it somewhere else.

Now, we come to the mistake of Adam. The explanation given under various verses throws sufficient light on this subject. But the importance of the topic justifies its recapitulation in a systematic way:

The verses obviously say that he had committed a mistake and disobeyed the divine command: “ . . . for then you (two) will be of the unjust”; “and Adam disobeyed his Lord, so he got astray”, and they too acknowledged their error: “Our Lord! We have been unjust to ourselves, and if Thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers.” But on meditating on the verses, and particularly on the admonition not to eat of the tree, we come to a definite conclusion that the said prohibition was not in the nature of an authoritative command; it was rather like an advice to guide Adam to his good and comfort. The following proof irresistibly lead us to this conclusion:

First: Allàh said in this, as well as in Chapter 7, that eating of the tree would be an injustice, a wrong-doing (for then you will be of the unjust). The same result has been described two as “toil” (so that you should be put to toil); and the “toil” has been explained in the terms of worldly needs and troubles, because it was ordained “for you that you shall not be hungry therein (i.e., as long as you remained in the Garden) nor bare of clothing; and that you shall not be thirsty therein nor shall you feel the heat of the sun”. It seems clear that it was to protect them from these worldly troubles and toils that they were told not to go near that tree, The prohibition, therefore, was not more than an advice; certainly it was not an authoritative command. Going against an advice does not entail a sin, does not involve rebellion against the adviser. The injustice, mentioned in this story, therefore, means their doing wrong against their own selves, putting themselves in this world’s hardship and toil; but it cannot mean the sin committed by a servant against his master.

Second: When a servant repents, that is, returns to Allàh, his Lord, and the Lord accepts that repentance, all the effects of the sin are erased, as though he had not committed any sin at all. If the prohibition against eating from the tree had the force of an authoritative command, an ordained law, Adam and his wife should have been returned to their place in the Garden as soon as their repentance was accepted. But they were not. It decisively proves that the prohibition was of advisory nature like telling someone not to put his hand in a fire; if he does not listen to the advice, his hand would certainly burn, and the subsequent apology would not unburn it, even if the apology was accepted. Likewise, Adam and his wife disregarded the advice, and as a result of eating from the tree, had to go out of the Garden and live in the earth a life of trial and hardship. Their repentance could not take them back to the Garden as their coming to the earth was the natural and inevitable result of that action.

The prohibition, in short, was not a law ordained by the Master - like the announcement that the shari'ah would be punished. if it were like such a command, the repentance would have rubbed out the effect of disobedience and they would have been sent back to the Garden straight away.

Third: We said: "Get down you therefrom all together; and if there comes to you a guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve. And (as to) those who disbelieve in, and belie, Our signs, they are the inmates of the fire, in it they shall abide." These verses have put in a nutshell all the detailed laws, rules, and regulations sent by Allah for the mankind, through His angels, books and apostles. And it was the first shari'ah which Allâh ordained for the world, the world of Adam and his descendants. It was ordained after the second order to "get down" - and the order to "get down" was not a legislative, but a creative, command, resulting from his eating of the tree.

It means that at the time when Adam partook of the tree, no shari'ah was ordained yet, and no law was promulgated. Therefore, whatever Adam did was not a transgression against any law of the shari’ah, nor was there any sin or crime involved in acting against that advice.

Question: The order to the angels and Iblis to prostrate before Adam was an authoritative command, and it was given before the order to Adam not to go near that tree. Therefore, it is difficult to believe that at that time there was no obligatory law.

Reply: We are talking about Adam and his descendants, and not about the angels and Iblis. It is irrelevant whether the angels and Iblis were given a compulsory order before Adam was placed in the Garden.

Question: If the prohibition were of an advisory nature, Allah would not have described its disregard in the terms of "injustice", "disobedience", and "going astray".

Reply: We have already explained that the "injustice" done by Adam and his wife was against their own selves; it was not a sin against Allâh.

"al-Isyan " (disobedience) literally means to resist, or to yield with difficulty. The Arabs say: I broke it and it was broken; I broke it fa-'asa but it resisted, or yielded to my pressure with difficulty. Not heeding an order is called al-'isyân, because one does not yield to that enjoinment or prohibition. This resistance may occur against an advice as much as against a compulsory order. The word in itself does not imply sinning; it all depends on the nature of the order that was disregarded.

Of course, nowadays we, the Muslims, use this word as synonymous to sinning. And now it has become a terminology of the shari'ah (or of the Muslims), used for disobedience to an authoritative command. But this later transformance cannot effect its original or literal meaning for which it was used in the Qur'ân.

"al-Ghawâyah" (= to go astray) literally means inability of a man to look after his interests; not managing one's affairs properly. This word by itself does not indicate committing a sin or crime. It is the context that determines its value. Its emphasis changes depending on whether the neglected order was an advice or an authoritative command.

Question: Then why did they repent? Why did they say, "and if Thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers?"

Reply: at-Tawbah (repentance) means to turn to. And the word can be used in various meanings, depending on context.

A servant rebels against his master, and thereafter returns to him and asks for his forgiveness; the master, if he so wishes, pardons him, and gives him his previous rank and position.

A doctor tells a patient not to eat certain fruits, lest his illness be prolonged or the disease be complicated. The patient disregards the prohibition and, as a result, puts his life in danger. Now he feels embarrassed and repents before the doctor, asking for his forgiveness, begging him to prescribe for him a medicine to enable him to regain his health and vigor. The doctor may tell him that now it will be necessary for him to undergo a long and difficult treatment, adding that if he persevered in the prescribed regimen his health would be much better than before.

The significance of the other words used in the narrative, like forgiveness, mercy and loss, may likewise change with the context.

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Salaam,

Allah (SWT) advised Prophet Adam to not eat from the tree, it was not an obligatory order. For example, Allah advises us to give charity in certain situations, but he does not make it obligatory.

Prophet Musa killed someone yes, and yes he would have been better off if he had not killed that person, however it was done in the defense of someones life. It is considered acceptable, in every religion and culture, to kill someone if they are going to kill an innocent person. Its not always optimal - but no one says its a sin. That was the circumstance with Prophet Musa.

With Prophet Khidr, Prophet Musa did have the knowledge Prophet Khidr had, and acted accordingly. He did not have the Unseen knowledge that Allah had granted to Prophet Khidr and thus used the best of his knowledge as best he could - again, not a sin.

-FG

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