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In the Name of God بسم الله

#9 Imam Muhammad al-Jawad (al-Taqi) ibn Ali (as)

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In His Name the Most High

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Imamate, a Divine position

One of the subjects that became popular among people discussing Imamate, was the question that:” Could anyone become an Imam without having arrived at puberty?” This subject got more popular since 203 BH, when Imam Jawad (pbuh) became Imam.

It is stated in the quotations about Imam Jawad’s (pbuh) Imamate that Imam Reza (pbuh) chose his son, Imam Jawad (pbuh), as his successor by the Almighty Allah’s command; and although he had a lot of time to introduce him, he insisted on this fact to the extent that when the companions mentioned Imam Jawad’s (pbuh) little age, he pointed to the fact that Jesus (pbuh) became a prophet when he was a child at the breast and said:” When Jesus (pbuh) got a prophet, he was younger than my son!”1

The concept of this saying, refers directly to the verses in the Holy Quran about the prophecy of Jesus (pbuh), as in Surah Maryam, verses 29 to 31:

“Mary (pbuh) pointed to Jesus (pbuh). They said:” How can we talk to an infant in cradle?” (Suddenly Jesus (pbuh) started to speak and) said:” I am a bondman of Allah, who has given me a book and made me a prophet; and has made me auspicious where ever I am; and has recommended me to say prayers and give alms as long as I’m alive.”

Historic events indicate that although Imam Jawad (pbuh) was a child, he was able to answer scientific and religious questions. Not only were his Shiites aware of this matter, but also his deniers realized it in their disputes. One of those disputes is mentioned below:

When Ma’moon (the Abbasid Caliph) and his associates argued on Imam Jawad’s (pbuh) knowledge, Ma’moon said:” I know this young man better than you. He is of a family that all of them have divine knowledge and don’t need to gain knowledge and science by regular teachings. In order to realize this, you can examine him whenever you want”. Therefore, they chose Yahya bin-Aktham, one of the famous judges and great sholars, to dispute Imam Jawad (pbuh). In that session, in the presence of Ma’moon, Yahya asked a question. In reply, Imam Jawad (pbuh) mentioned ten points about his question that the answer based on those points. With these points, Yahya became astonished and distressed, and all the present people understood this from his face turning pale. Then Imam Jawad (pbuh) answered all of them. Then Imam Jawad (pbuh) asked Yahya a question. He couldn’t answer it and asked Imam Jawad (pbuh) to answer it. At the end, Ma’moon said:” Shame on you! Prophet Mohammad’s (pbuh&HP) family (Ahl al-Bayt) are superior to other people, never mind what their age is.”2

Finally, from what was said, we understand that Imamate is a divine position and is granted by the Almighty Allah; therefore, their age isn’t incompatible with this position, as Imam Jawad (pbuh) is an instance.

(Derived from "The Mental-Political Life of Shiite Imams (PBUT)", by Rasool Jafarian)

Roshd website congratulate all Muslims on the 10th of Rajab, the birthday of incarnation of generosity and mercy, the treasure of grace and the source of wisdom Imam Muhammad ibn Ali al-Jawad (pbuh).

Roshd Islamic-Shia information website

1 'Oyoon al Mu'jizat, p. 119

2 Al-Irsahd, ps. 46-51; al-Fosool al-Mohimmah ps. 267-271; Tafsir al-Qumi, vol. 1, p. 183

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From: http://www.almujtaba.com/article/html

By: Nayyar Hussain

Ad`iyah (invocations) from the ninth Imam Hazrat Muhammad bin Ali Al-Jawaad (as) are compiled in As-Saheefatul Jawadiyyah. The following three Short ad`iyah are taken from it:

1.When Invoking the Tawheed of Allah (swt) every morning and evening:

Allaahu, Allaahu, Rabbee, Ar-raHmaanur-raHeem, laa ushriku bihi shay'aa. (Allah, Allah, my Lord, the Most Gracious [and] the Most Merciful I do not associate anything with Him.)

2. When asking relief from every anxiety and grief:

Yaa man yakfee min kulli shay' Walaa yakfee mihu shay' Ikfinee maa ahammanee mimmaa anaa feeh. (O He who is sufficient from all things, But nothing is sufficient from Him. Be sufficient for me in what worries me in the state I am).

3. When thanking Allah for creating us and dignifying us (over other creatures):

AlHamdu lillaahil-lazee khlaqanaa min noorihee biyadih wasTafaanaa mim bariyyatih

waja`lanaa umnaa-ahu `alaa khalqihee wa-waHyih. (Praise be to Allah who created us from His Light with His hand And dignified us over His creatures And made us trustees of His creation and His revelation).

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Imam Muhammed Al-Jawad (as) Season

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We Send Our Heartiest To Our 12th Imam (Al-Imam Muhammed Al-Mahdi (as),To Our Holy Ulama, And To The Muslim World On The Martyrdom Anniversary Of Our Nineth Imam, Al-Imam Muhammed Al-Jawad Al-Taqi (as).

AlMujtaba.Com Had Made A Page For The Season Which Will Stay Open Until The End Of The Season. This Page Will Be Updated Daily During The Season.

How To Find The Page?

1- http://www.almujtaba.com/1/jawad.html

2- http://www.almujtaba.com > Imam Muhammed Al-Jawad (as) Page

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4- http://www.almujtaba.com > English > What's New?

What Am I Going To Find On This Page?

Articles, stories, traditions, e-cards, photos, information, biography, etc. about Imam Muhammed Al-Jawad (as)

Please Don't forget to send your comments about AlMujtaba.Com Generally and Imam Muhammed Al-Jawad (as) Page Specifically at AlMujtaba.Com Guestbook.

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Imam Mohammad at-Taqi (as)

Name - Mohammad

Title - at-Taqi and al-Jawad

Kunyat - Abu Jafar

Born - Friday 10 Rajab 195 AH, in Madinah

Father's Name - Ali ibn Musa

Mother's Name - Khayzuran

Died - At the age of 25 years, at Kazemayn, on Wednesday, 29 Zil-Qaadah 220 AH.

Poisoned by Mu'tasim the Abbasid khalif

Buried - in Kazemayn, Baghdad.

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Edited by Ali al-Mahdi
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(bismillah)

(salam)

thank very much for ur good text about our dear imam (as) :cry: ,may dear Allah help us to be best muslim and can act like them in our life :cry:

unfortunately many of muslims can't know him yet and his real personality and recognize his love :cry:

ELTEMASE DUA :angel: :cry:

fatemeh

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Imam Muhammed Al-Jawad (as) Season

Recently At AlMujtaba.Com!

We send our condolences to our twelfth imam, Imam Muhammed Al-Mahdi (as), our righteous ulama, and to Muslim world on the martyrdom anniversary of our nineth imam, Imam Muhammed Al-Jawad (as).

On this sad event, we have opened a season which contains articles, stories, ahadeeth, traditions, e-cards, photos, and information for everybody to see and learn about this great scholar and personality.

To find the season's page follow the path below:

Visit http://www.almujtaba.com > On your left, in the Seasons section find Imam Muhammed Al-Jawad (as) Season

- If you are a a digital art designer or you want to share your work with many people around the world or you want to learn about digital art designing or you want to be one of those creative digital art designers. JOIN Creative Muslims | First Muslims Digital Art Community by clicking the link below:

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(salam)

(bismillah)

Please accept my condolences on the martyrdom anniversary of Imam Mohammad at-Taqi (as) :cry:

See my posts on Imam at-Taqi al-Jawad (as): http://www.shiachat.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=47649

Khoda Hafez va Eltemas-e Dua Barayeh Faraj!

Ali @)

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In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

The Representative of Allah (SWT) in Imamat is Like His Representative in Nubuwwat

After the martyrdom of Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Reza (pbuh), Ma'moun moved his central power in Khurasan to Baghdad. He then sent a letter to Imam Mohammad Taghi al-Jawad (pbuh) and summoned him respectfully and honorably acknowledging his knowledge and superiority.

The elders of the Abbasid Dynasty immensely disagreed with this matter because the Imam was not only from the Hashemi tribe, but he was also a child. Ma'moun however convinced the Abbasids through arranging a debate between the contemporary scholars and Imam Jawad (pbuh). He set up an enormous debate session. After the Abbasids saw the Imam defeat all other scholars, they had no other choice, but to agree with Ma'moun suggestion.

Imam Jawad (pbuh) has explained the possibility of being a child and yet a representative of Allah (SWT) who defends the religion of Allah (SWT) through the Holy Quran, and logical and scientific reasoning.

Ali ibn Asbat narrates: One day when the child Imam Jawad (pbuh) was coming towards me, I deeply stared at him to memorize his appearance. I wanted to describe him for my friends when I returned to my town.

Imam Jawad (pbuh) interrupted my thoughts as he sat and said: “Allah’s representative (Hujjat) in Imamat is similar to His representative in Nubuwwat. Allah in Quran says: ‘And We gave him the command for prophethood in childhood’ (the Holy Quran, 19:12. He also says: ‘When Yusuf attained his full manhood, We gave him power and knowledge’ (the Holy Quran, 12:22). Furthermore He says: ‘And when he reached the age of full strength and attained forty years’ (the Holy Quran, 46:15).

So, he deserves to be offered wisdom in childhood, as he is in the age of forty.â€

(Selected from: The History of 14 Infallibles, by Sayyid Mohammad Baqir Majlesi, with some changes)

The Roshd Islamic Shi'ah website offers its condolences upon the martyrdom of the Imam of servants and the light of universe, our ninth Imam, Imam Abi Ja’far Mohammad ibn Ali al-Jawad (pbuh), to his son, Imam Mahdi (AJ), and to all Shi'ah communities.

Roshd Islamic Shi'ah website (www.roshd.org)

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(bismillah)

(salam)

oh thanks very much for ur beautiful text about the life of out 9th imam(our dear imam (as) ).may dear Allah help us to follow his and other dear imam to Allah insha-Allah .

please pray for other real muslims. :cry: :angel:

ELTEMASE DUA :angel:

fatemeh

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(salam)

Brother what does this passage mean here :-

The Imam (as) replied, "Allah (SWT) has created many vast oceans from which clouds are formed. When clouds are forming, they absorb small live fishes which are sought by the eagles of the kings who then use them to test the Imams of their time.” Hearing this, Ma’moun admitted, "There is no doubt that you are the son of Ali ibn Mousa (as) , for such miracles are only possible by his son.” (Ahsan al-Maqaal)

Mashallah what a beautiful work by you keep it up, we need more posts like this mashallah!

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(bismillah)

Assalam alaykum,

The Al Zahraa' Youth group will be commemorating the martyrdom of Imam al Jawad (as) this Friday 30th December @ 7pm. See attachment for further details. Inshallah will see you then.

fi amanillah

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(bismillah)

(salam)

YOU SHOULD NOT FEAR ANYONE OTHER THAN Allah

Once when our 9th Imam, Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (as) was only a child, he was walking down a street, when Ma'mun and his soldiers came by. All the other children on the street ran away but Imam (as) did not.

Ma'mun stopped his coach and asked Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (as) why he did not run away like the others.

Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (as) answered that he had done nothing wrong and that the road was big enough for the both of them.

Ma'mun asked Imam (as) who he was; and Imam (as) told him. Ma'mun asked Imam (as) what he was holding in his closed hand.

Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (as) knew that it was a little fish without seeing it.

Moral: You should not be scared of anything or anyone as Allah is the strongest and will look after you.

KHUDA HAFIZ

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Salam

Haraka Al Haidaria Commemorate the Martyrdom of Imam Mohammad Al Jawad (as) on Friday 22nd December 2006.

With a youth lecture by brother Ridha Khazraji and a lecture by Brother Mohammad Al Hill on Spirituality of the Ahlul Bayt (as) and Imam Al Jawad (as).

and with latmiyya by mulla ali fadhil

The videos of the latmiyyas read by Mulla Ali Fadhil

Sorry about the quality, i used my NEW camera phone.

Photos here

Wasalam & Duas

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The Exemplary Life of Imam al-Jawad (A.S.)

“Or do they envy the people for what Allah has given them out of His grace? We have certainly given the progeny of Ibrahim the Book and wisdom, and we have given them a great kingdom”. (4:54)

According to the Tafseer of the Shia’hs, the mahsudeen (People upon whom others are jealous) are the progeny of the Holy Prophet (saww). And why are people jealous of them? It is because Allah (SWT), out of His grace, gave them Mulkan Adheeman meaning ‘great kingdom’ and this kingdom is in reference to the ‘Imamat’ (Divine Leadership) of our Aimma (as). Imam Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Jawad (as) is also among those who were blessed with divine leadership; and on account of his Imamate, people were jealous of him including the rulers of his time!

Important Lessons from His Life

Our 9th Imam AS lived a very short life. He AS was born in the year 195 AH and was poisoned and killed in the year 225 AH. Thus his lifespan was only 30 years. But if we carefully study his short life, we will find that he (as) made enormous contributions to Islam and in addition, our Imam (as) has taught us through his behaviour, a very important lesson of self-control despite all riches.

Our Imam AS was young and we all know that in young age, people are usually very ambitious. If in young age, a person is surrounded by worldly wealth and luxuries; and there is no proper upbringing, the young man can fall into all sorts of vices. Our 9th Imam AS lived for only 30 years – a period when a person is still considered as a youth and in these 30 years, most of his life was during the reign of Mamoon ar-Rasheed – the Abbasid ruler, who was responsible for the murder of our 8th Imam AS.

Marriage to Mamoon's Daughter

Mamoon ar-Rasheed was a very cunning and a very shrewd ruler. He got our 9th Imam AS married to his daughter Ummul-Fadhl. Why?? Historians have given different reasons for this: Some say that Mamoon himself had said, “I would like to be a grandfather of one whose fathers are the Messenger of Allah (saww) and Ali bin Abi Talib AS”. And they also believe that Mamoon admired the talents of our Imam AS.

If he had so much regard for the Ahlul-Bayt AS then why did he kill Imam ar-Reza AS? Some say that Mamoon wanted to show the public that he was innocent of assassinating Imam ar-Reza AS –if he was the killer then why should he marry his own daughter with the son of Imam AS? Some say that this was a ploy of Mamoon. He was too scared of the Imamat of our 9th Imam AS ,therefore he wanted to keep track of all his activities and followers through his daughter hence the marriage.

However, The main motive of Mamoon was to mess around with the youth of our Imam AS by occupying him with riches and diverting his focus to material things through marriage such that the office of Imamate becomes valueless. But Mamoon did not succeed in that! Some of the things, which Mamoon did to lure our Imam AS away from his divine leadership:

When he wanted to marry his daughter to him, he brought 200 beautiful maids and gave each one of them a cup full of jewels to receive the Imam AS when he AS sat with the notable people – But the Imam AS never paid any attention to them. A person with a long beard called Mukhariq, who was a singer, was brought to play lute and tambourine. Mamoon instructed him to play. Imam AS neither looked at the right nor at the left for sometime and then addressing the singer, he AS said, “Fear Allah! O you man of the beard”. The instruments immediately fell down from his hands and they became numb until his death. Mamoon once asked him as to what had happened to him and the man said, “Abu Ja’ffar shouted at me and this was its effect. Now I will never be able to play the instruments”.

Delegations of notable people came from Baghdad and other cities to congratulate him. Among them were leaders of the army and the officials of the government. Mamoon ordered that the gifts be brought and the lavish gifts were presented to the Imam (as) and prizes were given to the people. After this, whenever ImamAS passed from any street, people would gather to salute him – a manner in which the great princes are saluted. Mamoon set aside the salary of 1 million dirhams per annum for our Imam AS.What was the reaction of our Imam AS?? Today, if a young ambitious person, who has no fear of God, gets all these luxuries, one can imagine the disaster!

Imam AS did not stay in Baghdad. Soon after his marriage, he AS took his bride and left for Hajj on his way to Yathrib (Madina). There, he AS : Managed the affairs of the Shias; distributed his annual salary among them and other needy people and led a very simple and humble life.

Abhorring Pride

Despite being the son-in-law of the ruler of time, Imam AS was never boastful and proud. In fact, he AS abhorred pride( takabbur) of any kind and always cautioned others against it! For instance: Once three prominent people came to visit the Imam AS. They stayed with him for sometime and then got up to leave. Imam AS pointed towards one of them, who was Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Bizenti and said, “As for you, please sit down’. The man sat down and the Imam (as) conversed with him for a long time. Then as he wanted to depart, Imam AS told him, “O Ahmad! Will you go or spend the night here?” The man said, “O Maula! It depends on you. If you want me to stay, I will stay and if you want me to go, I will go”. He AS said, “Stay!” As the Imam AS got up and went inside, it occurred to this man, “Alhamdulillah. The authority of Allah and heir of the knowledge of the prophets has liked my company among my brothers”. As this thought crossed his mind, Imam AS came in, took his hand, shook it and said: “Once Ameer al-Mumineen AS visited Sa’sa’a when he was ill. When he AS got up to leave him, he AS said to him: ‘O Sa’sa’a, do not pride yourself before your fellows on my visiting you, Fear Allah!’ and then he AS left”. (Hayaat Imam Muhammad al-Jawad)

Victim of Jealousy

Abu Laylah was a chief justice in the court of Mu'tasim, the Abbasid caliph. One day, he came to his friend Zarqa in state of extreme anger and when asked the purpose of anger, Abu Laylah said, “O Zarqa! Today I was put to a very big test in which I failed. A thief, whose crime was established, was presented before Mu'tasim.

So Mu'tasim asked, 'Quran says that I should cut the hands of this thief. You tell me from which part shall his hand be cut-off'. I said, ' Quran states that chop-off the hand of a thief and in the verse of wudhoo, it is mentioned that wash your hands till your elbow. So from elbow downwards is considered as hand therefore cut his hand from his elbow'.” Mu'tasim then asked other learned people in his court for their opinion.

Someone said, 'In the verse of Tayammum, hand has been mentioned till the wrist so cut the thief's hand from his wrist'. After a lot of discussion and debate, Mu'tasim then put the same question to the Imam of the Shia’hs, Muhammad ibn Ali, who happened to be present at the time. At first, he refused to comment but when Mu'tasim insisted, he said, "You will only cut-off the fingers of the thief because Quran says: The places of prostration are for Allah meaning parts of the body placed on the ground during Sajdah. Since the thief is also a Muslim who offers prayers, he will need his palms during Sajdah. So you have to leave that and cut only his fingers". O Zarqa! Mu'tasim was so pleased with this answer that he praised the Imam of the Shia'hs and we felt discredited.

O Zarqa! I am aware that whoever harms this young man will burn in the hell-fire but I will not rest till I have taken my revenge against him”.

Having said this, Zarqa returned to Mu'tasim to provoke him against the Imam AS. He said to him, "What have you done? People, as it is believe in him as the true Imam and do not believe in you. Why did you give him preference over us? Now you have confirmed to the people through your action that indeed he is on truth and you are on falsehood". Mu'tasim was so affected by this, that shortly after this incident, he poisoned the Imam (as). (Bikhre Moti)

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:bismillah:

:salam:

Imam Jawad (A.S.): The Treasure of Knowledge and Source of Wisdom

There were strenuous efforts on every occasion to hold the personality of Imam Jawad (A.S.) in contempt. This fact was so obvious that it is narrated that:” Ma’moon1 would touch upon all deceitful acts in order to belittle Aboo Ja’far’s (Imam Jawad (A.S.)) character. All of Mamoon’s efforts however would fail.”2

In spite of all these efforts, Ma’oon would fail and the Imam would gain a higher popularity and power amongst the people. This would even scare the military who had control over the reins of government. Imam Jawad (A.S.) successfully protected Imamah (divine leadership) from the harsh and dangerous situation it had fallen in. He was able to secure the pillars of religion, encourage reason and proof, and give light and guidance to the dark path. He proved the trueness of the claim of his father –Imam Reza (A.S.) - about him: “No infant has been born as blessed and good as this infant in Islam.” 3 In another text it has been recorded that Imam Reza (A.S.) said, “This newborn infant is him whom no other like him has been born to be so full of blessings for our followers.”4

Indeed, as days would pass by, the popularity of the Imam would rise and his star would continue shining. Even though his age would count him as a child, he had reached the status of Imamah during childhood years. Enemies and friends all could not help but admit and witness to his knowledge and excellence. Despite Ma’oon’s efforts to embarrass Imam Jawad (A.S.) in different scientific and theoretical assemblies, those assemblies would on the contrary show the vast amount of Imam’s knowledge.

Sibt ibn Jouzi, one of the famous Sunni scholars, said “He (Imam Jawad (A.S.)) was like his father in knowledge, asceticism, and generosity.” 5

Jahidh Mu’tazili Uthmani lived in Basrah and was not a follower of Imam Ali (A.S.) and his progeny. He had a long hand in knowledge and the sciences, and is the author of many books about science and the techniques of his time. He lived in the same era as Imam Jawad (A.S.) and his children. Jahidh has placed Imam Jawad (A.S.) in the ten “Talebyun” and has said about them, “each of them is a knowledgeable. They are ascetic, devotee, brave, generous, chaste, and pure.” 6

The other scholars have said many similar things about Imam Jawad (A.S.), which will not be stated in this piece. All in all Imam Jawad (A.S.) was highly respected by his friends and common people. When Imam Jawad (A.S.) wanted to enter the capital city of Baghdad, people would run to high altitudes just to see the Imam. It was as if seeing the Imam even if it meant from afar was a huge important event for them.

Another way to familiarize ourselves with the greatness of Imam Jawad (A.S.) is by seeing the great respect of the elders for him. The uncle of his father who was the son of the sixth Imam was a man named Ali ibn Ja’far al-Sadiq. Ali ibn Ja’far was himself of the great religious scholars, and yet he would very highly respect Imam Jawad (A.S.).

Muhammad ibn Hassan narrates, ‘For two years I was with Ali ibn Ja’far and would record and write the narrations he had heard from his brother (Imam Moosa ibn Ja’far (A.S.)). One of the days that I was sitting in his presence, Imam Muhammad ibn Ali al-Jawad (A.S.) entered Masjid al-Nabi7. Ali ibn Ja’far hurried toward the Imam without even wearing his shoes or cloak. He kissed the Imam’s hand and revered him.

The Imam said, “Uncle! Please sit, may Allah bless you.”

Ali ibn Ja’far said, “My Master! How shall I sit when you are standing?”

When Ali ibn Ja’far returned to his small gathering, the people around him began reproaching him for what he did. They said, “You are the uncle of his father, why do you act as such?”

Ali ibn Ja’far told them, “Remain silent!” He then held his beard and said, “When Allah has not made this white beard worthy and deserving, but has made this young man worthy of the status of Imamah, then how can I deny his virtue?”…’ 8

(Selection taken from the book, “The Political Life of Imam Jawad (A.S.)” by Allamah Ja’far Murtada Ameli)

Notes:

1- The Abbasid Caliph

2- Al-Kuleini, Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 494: Narrated by Muhammad ibn Rayan

3 - Allamah Majlesi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 50, p. 20, narrated by Imam Reza (A.S.)

4- Al-Kuleini, Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 321: Narrated by Imam Reza (A.S.)

5 - Sibt ibn Jouzi, Tadhkirat al-khawas, p. 358-359

6 - Jahidh Mu’tazili Uthmani, Athar al-Jahidh, p. 235

7 - The Mosque of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) located in Medina

8 - Al-Kuleini, Usul al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 322

:cry: :angel:

YA Allah

ELTEMASE DUA

fatemeh :angel: :wub:

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IN THE NAME OF Allah

(salam)

Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (A.S.)

The Ninth Immaculate Holy Imam

Name: Muhammad bin Ali.

Titles: At-Taqi, Al-Jawad.

Kuniyya: Abu Ja'fer.

Father:Imam Ali Reza(A.S.)

Mother: Sabika (also known as Khaizarun).

Birth: 10th Rajab 195 A.H. Madina.

Martyrdom: 29th Dhulqa'da 220 A.H. Baghdad. Buried in Kadhmain.

Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) was born on 10th day of the month of Rajab, in the year 195 A.H. in Madina - the city of his grandfather, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), under the care of his father, Imam Ali bin Musa al-Reza (A.S.) who was qualified with the leadership (Imamate) and its qualifications, a lofty status, the position of leadership in the ummah and in the sciences of Islamic Shari'a and its laws.

The Imam (A.S.) was born in a period full of events and political situations, conflicts, and the tension of events of the Abbasid caliphate between Amin and Ma'moon, the two sons of Harun Rashid.

Those political events and the situations of the conflict which was going on between the two brothers, the Abbasid caliphs, never ended without reflecting their effects on the life of Imam al-Reza (A.S.) attracted the attention of the Muslims -in the city of his grandfather, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) - including religious scholars, jurisprudents, governors, and common people. Thus, the political view of the caliph, Ma'mun, was directed towards him and, therefore, summoned him to the capital of his rulership (Merv) in the year 200 A.H. and appointed him as heir so that the caliphate would be transferred to him after Ma'mun's death.

The Imam Reza (A.S..) was forced to leave Madina and move towards the city of 'Merv' (in Khurasan - Iran) to accept Ma'mun's invitation after many refusals and abstentions. Before moving to merv, he took with him, his son, Imam Muhammad al-Jawad (a.s.), then, he (a.s.) started out from Madina towards Mecca in order to pay a visit to the Sacred House (Ka'ba) and, also, to say farewell to it.

Imam al-Reza (A.S.) performed the hajj (pilgrimage) with his son, al-Jawad, who was only four years at that time.

Indeed, the young Imam expressed his adherence and love for his father by his insistence to stay under the care of the holy embrace. It was difficult for him to return home (Madinah), alone, and depart from his father, who wrote, in his farewell letter to the Sacred House, that he would not return.

The moments of farewell ended and the hour of departure approached; the young Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) returned home (to Madinah), bearing the yearnings of love, the adherence of a son for his father; his father moved towards the city of Merv while his heart departed to Madina, following the procession of the beloved al-Jawad.

Imam al-Reza's Letters to his Son, al-Jawad (A.S.)

Arriving at the city of Merv, the, then, capital of the Abbasid caliphate, Imam al-Reza (A.S.) rested there while his heart still inclined towards his son. From there, he (A.S.) began to correspond, address, advise, guide and take care of him. Historians state the fact that Imam al-Reza (A.S.) used to address his son al-Jawad (A.S.), with honour and glory in his correspondences and call him by his surname 'Abu Ja'far'.

The Divine Leadership of Imam al-Jawad (A.S.)

The period of transferring the leadership to Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (A.S.) faced a dangerous problem which caused debates and arguments concerning the personality of Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (A.S.) because of his youth.He (A.S.) was young, at the age of seven, when his father passed away. Books of history and biographies record some of these discussions about the personality of the young Imam (A.S.) and his capability for the leadership at that age.

When Imam Muhammad al-Jawad (a.s.) was born, the same questions were sent to Imam al-Rida in order for them to know who would be the Imam after al-Reza (A.S.). Was not Muhammad al-Jawad (A.S..) a child? And how could he bear the responsibility of the leadership and its affairs if he was at this age? Indeed, Imam al-Reza (A.S.) always confirmed that the Imam after him would be his son, Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (a.s.), and the one who was most qualified.

Ibn Qulawaih, on the authority of Kulaini, on the authority of Hussein bin Muhammad, on the authority of Khariani, on the authority of his father, said:

"I (i.e. Khayrani's father) was standing in front of Abul-Hassan al-Reza (A.S.), in Khurasan. Someone asked him: 'My master, if something happens, to whom will authority belong?"

"To Abu Ja'far (al-Jawad), my son," he replied. The speaker indicated that the age of Abu Ja'far was too young. So, Abul-Hassan al-Reza (A.S.), replied: "Allah, may He be praised, sent Jesus, son of Mary, to be an apostle, a prophet, the bringer of a revealed law (Shari'a), to begin (his mission) when his age was younger than that of Abu Ja'far(al-Jawad), peace be upon him."

Narrated Mu'ammar bin Khallad that he heared Imam al-Reza (A.S.), saying: "When he mentioned something and, then, said: 'What need have you for that? Here is Abu Ja'far, whom I have brought into my meetings and whom I have made to be my successor.' Then, he added: 'We are the family of the House (Ahlul-Bayt). Our young inherit from our old, like one feather (on a wing) followed by the next.'"

Allamah Majlisi narrated, in his book 'Uyoon Mu'jizat', a description of certain events of that critical period from the age of leadership, and which included the following text:

"... it was pilgrimage season. Some jurisprudents (Fuqaha') of Baghdad and other nations and their religious scholars, numbering 80, went to Medina to perform Hajj ceremonies and, then, they intended to see Abu Ja'far Imam Jawad(A.S.). When they reached the house of Ja'far al-Sadiq (a.s.), because of its emptiness, entered it and sat on a big carpet.

"Then, Abdulla bin Musa (Imam al-Reza's brother) came and sat at the head of the meeting. A caller stood and said: "This is the son of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.), therefore, whoever has any question, he may ask him." He (Abdulla bin Musa i.e. Imam al-Jawad's nephew) was questioned about things, to which he inappropriately answered. His answers caused the Shi'a to be bewildered and grieved, therefore, the jurisprudents were confused among themselves and started leaving the pleace and telling each other that if Abu Ja'far (the Imam) was present, he would have been able to answer all the questions addressed to Abdulla bin Musa.

"Then, a door was opened at the front of the meeting and Muwafaq, the Imam's servant, entered and said: "This is Abu Ja'far Imam Jawad (A.S.)." All those who were present stood up, welcomed and greeted him, then the Imam (A.S.) entered.

He (A.S.) sat while all people kept silent. Then, the questioner stood up and asked the Imam (A.S.) different questions, to which he (A.S.) answered perfectly and correctly. His answers caused those present to be happy, give thanks and praise the Imam.

They told him: "Indeed, your uncle, Abdulla, gave verdicts so and so." He (A.S.) said: "There is no god but Allah, o my uncle, Abdulla, gave verdicts so and so." He (A.S.) said: "There is no god but Allah, O my uncle! It is great to stand tomorrow (on the resurrection day) before His hands and He will say to you: 'Why did you give verdicts (issue religious decrees) to My servants about things you did not know, while there was someone among people who had more knowledge than you.'"

Even religious scholars and jurisprudents confirmed their declaration for the Imam Jawad's being qualified with the position of leadership. The vivid declaration of Imam al-Reza (A.S.), for his leadership, and the acknowledgement of the famous traditionist, Ali bin Ja'far, are, also, proofs for the Imam's qualification for the position of leadership.

He became an Imam at the age of nine. Mamun thought that as all the rulers before him had oppressed the Holy Imams and their schemes had backfired that he would try to bribe the Holy Imams. He tried to make the 8th Imam his heir apparent and give him power and wealth but that also backfired.

He now tried to use power and wealth with the 9th Imam again but from a much younger age thinking that he would be able to influence him.

His main purpose was also to make sure that the 12th Imam (whom he knew would bring justice to the world) would be from his progeny and therefore intended to give his daughter Ummul Fadl to the Imam for a wife. Mamun still continued oppressing the family and followers of the Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.).

Mamun called the young Imam (A.S.) to Baghdad from Madina and offered his daughter. This infuriated his family (Banu Abbas). To prove to them the excellence of Imam even at a young age he arranged a meeting between Imam and the most learned of men at that time - Yahya bin Athkam, the Chief Judje of his period .

Imam (A.S.) read his own Nika (the khutba of which is used today) with the Mehr of 500 dirhams. Imam wrote a letter to Mamun that he would also give Ummul Fadhl Mehr from the wealth of Aakhira. This was in the form of 10 duas which were for fulfilling any hajaat (desires) [Chain of narrators upto Prophet - Jibrail - Allah]* . Thus his title Al-Jawad (the generous one).

* These duas are found in Mafatihul Jinaan (pg 447 - In margin)

Hirze(Amulet) Jawad

Imam lived for a year in Baghdad with Ummul Fadhl. She was very disobedient to Imam.

When she found out that Imam had another wife (from the progeny of Ammar-e-Yasir) and that there was also children she was jealous and angry realizing that her father's plan had failed. She complained to her father who also realized that his plan, to keep the 12th Imam in his progeny, had failed.

He was enraged and in his rage he drank heavily and went to the 9th Imam's house and attacked Imam with a sword. Both Ummul Fadhl and a servant saw the attack and believed Imam was dead. Mamun on waking next morning realized the consequences of his attack and was thinking of arranging the disposal of Imam's body when he saw Imam well without a scratch on him.

He was confused and asked Imam who showed him an amulet which is called Hirze Jawad.The Holy Imam told him it was from his grand mother Bibi Fatima Zahra (A.S.) and kept the wearer safe from all except the angel of death.

We, also, observed how Ma'mun held meetings and councils in which he invited various scholars, thinkers and jurisprudents like the Qadi ul-Qudat(Chief Judge) of the Abbasid state, Yahya bin Aktham for scholarly discussions and debates which lasted hours and days. In such meetings, they introduced the Imam Jawad (A.S..) to critical legislative and theological questions to which he answered wisely and accurately.

The debate was attended by top officials of the state, military commanders and leaders.Then, the Qadi, Yahya bin Aktham approached Abu Ja'far al-Jawad (A.S.) and asked him some questions he had prepared before. The Imam Jawad (A.S.) answered them correctly and, in which, he showed the cause for correcteness.

Therefore, the debate went on between Yahya and Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) in the following way:

"Ask me whatever you wish," said the Imam in the typical tone of his anscestors.

Yahya, then, asked the Holy Imam, "What is your verdict about a man who indulges in hunting while he is in the state of Ihram'. (In the code of religious law hunting is forbidden for a pilgrim).

The Imam at once replied, "Your question is vague and misleading. You should have definitely mentioned whether he hunted within the jurisdiction of the Ka'ba or outside; whether he was literate or illiterate; whether he was a slave or a free citizen; whether he was a minor or a major; whether it was for the first time or he had done it previously; also, whether that victim was a bird or some other creature; whether the prey was small or big; whether he hunted in the day or at night; whether the hunter repented for his action or persisted in it; whether he hunted secretly of openly; whether the 'Ihram' was for Umra (the lesser pilgrimage) or for Hajj (the greater pilgrimage). Unless all these points are explained no specific answer can be given to this question."

Qadi Yahya was bewildered and staggered in listening to these words, of the Holy Imam, and the entire gathering was dumbfounded. Inability and indecision were clear on Qadi Yahya's face.

Thus, the historical period, and what it contains of religious scholars and jurisprudents, acnowledges the leadership of Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) in order to continue the right path of his forefathers and their footsteps and, also, bear the religious scholarly and political burdens of divine succession of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.).

His Knowledge

Indeed, Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) played his role and shared in enriching the scholarly school during the period of his leadership, which lasted nearly 17 years, and, also, safeguarded its patrimony. That period (of the Holy Imam) was distinguished by two things: Dependence on text and narration of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) and, also, on an accurate understanding and deduction of both the Book (the Qur'an) and Prophet's traditions (Sunnah). In addition to this, the Holy Imam's concern for intellectual knowledge and science, in which, the Imams of Ahlul-Bait and their students participated greatly, in developing, enriching, and expanding its circles to the extent that it became a lofty declaration and a well-fortified fortress for the Islamic thought and Shari'a.

Imam al-Jawad (A.S.), like his forefathers (A.S.), used different means to carry out his scientific procedures, among them are:

1. The means of teaching and instructing thosed students and scholars and urging them to write and record and, also, sustain what comes from the Holy Imams of Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.) or by bidding them to the art of writing, publishing, and classifying.

Sheikh Tusi in his book 'Rijal', mentioned the number of the close companions of Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) and his narrators, who studied and were educated under his care to be about one hundred, including two women.

Indeed, all these religious scholars quoted Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) and wrote many books in different fields of Islamic sciences and knowledge. They enriched Islamic schools with true, original researches and thoughts.

This fact is proved in the books of 'Rijal' which mentioned the close companions of Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) and, in which, they explained their conditions, their publications and writings.

2. The means of appointing deputies and commanding them to spread out in different parts of the Muslim lands in order to be true callers to Islam, follow it and convey its divine laws.

Books of history have recorded the correspondences of Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) with his deputies who were spread in different parts of the Muslim world in order to convey Islamic faith and what they learned from the jurisprudence of the Household of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and their knowledge.

3. The means of scholarly debates and discussions. The books of traditions and narrations, have recorded for us, richly, discussions and debates in different kinds of sciences and knowledge and defending Islam and fixing its pillars in the fields of monotheism, jurisprudence, interpretation, and narrations and so on.

These discussions contained different researches. Among them were: Defending Islam and countering perverse ideas and deviated philosophies and ideologies whic existed among the Muslims. And, also, repairing the ideological deviations which existed among certain Muslims, such as: Exaggeration and incarnations and others or discussions to explain Islam and clarify its diverse fields.

The Political course in the Holy Imam's Life

The Holy Imams of Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.), their followers, and those who supported them during the history of Islam, represented political oppositions against the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers, who usurped the caliphate and imposed their tyrannical rule on the Muslims and who stayed away from the political course, decreed by the Holy Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) for his Ummah.

All the political slogans and plans, declared by Ma'mun, aimed to draw the attention of public opinon and those who were loyal to Holy Prophet's Household [Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.)] towards him, and calm down the Shi'ite uprisings. But, inspite of that, the caliph Ma'mun, faced different Shi'ite revolutions because of anti-Islamic deeds.

So, this policy did not last for a long time and, soon, the Abbasid rulers turned to hurting and harming the Holy Imams of Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.) and hampering them.

The Imam Jawad's Political Role

Studying the historical documents stated by Imam al-Jawad (A.S.), on one hand, and the attitudes held by the Abbasid authorities towards the Holy Imam, on the other, one can understand that Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) was at the top of secret political and ideological essence and who practised his activities in secret and had a leading status with a deep impact on awakening the feelings of the people.

Books of traditions, history and narrations recorded for us some of these letters dispatched by Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (A.S.), to his companions, followers and representatives and which portray vividly the secret political activity of the Holy Imam (A.S.) and his companions and cause us to be acquainted with the ideological and political situation of that age.

These letters reveal not only the existence of the deep relationship between the Holy Imam (A.S.) and his companions and how the financial assistance was presented to him, from different parts of the Muslim lands to cover his needs in performing his activities, but, also, the existence of the Holy Imam's followers, and his sectert cultural and political activity at that time.

Indeed, the Abbasid authorities were watching the Holy Imam's activities and used different ways to hinder it and forbid it against spreading and affecting others. Hence, these letters reveal to us the continuation of this activity and the call in support of the holy family of the Prophet (A.S.), the deepness of their effect, the influence of their ideological and political tendencies, in the life of people, inspite of the terror and dangers which surrounded them.

The Attitude of Abbasid Caliphs towards Imam al-Jawad (A.S.)

Certaily, to study and analyze the attitude of the two Abbasid caliphs, Ma'mun and Mu'tasim, who succeeded the caliphate after him, toward Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad (A.S.) indicates, clearly, the importance of the leading personality of the Holy Imam (A.S.) and his esteemed status in the hearts of the people and the inclinations of the Ummah towards him. They considered him (the Holy Imam) as a true representative of Ahlul-Bayt, in that period, and as a successor of his guiding grandfathers (peace be upon them all).

Therefore, we find that Ma'mun summoned the Holy Imam (A.S.) from Madina in the year 211 A.H., and then married him, to his daughter, Ummul Fadl. Because of this marriage, Ma'mun involved himself in a conflict with his cousins, the Abbasid family. Ma'mun wanted to assimilate the situation of Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) towards his collaterals and to contain his public movements in both the ideological and political fields.

But, as we have seen, the Holy Imam (A.S.) was opposite of this. He (A.S.) practised his activity accurately and skillfully. The Holy Imam (A.S.) moved in every field in which the opportunity was supplied to him. He (A.S.) refused to stay in Baghdad in order to be far from the siege of the authorities and their control and, then, returned to Madina, his birth place and the residence of his fathers, a centre of knowledge, and faith and a shelter of hearts in order to achieve the related aims as being an Imam (leader) of the Ummah and a pioneer of the Shari'a.

Holy Imam's Martyrdom

When Ma'mun died, Mu'tasim ascended the throne. He (Mu'tasim), like his Abbasid ancestors, was worried about the leadership of Ahlul-Bayt (A.S.) and their political and scholarly status. Therefore, he exiled Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) from Madina to Baghdad in the year 219 A.H., for fear of his popularity and extending his effect. He did this, in order to draw the Holy Imam near the centre of power and scrutiny and isolate him from practising his popular, political and scholarly role.

Indeed, Imam al-Jawad (A.S.) was exiled to Baghdad from Madina and stayed in Baghdad until in the year 220 A.H. when he was martyred by poisoning by his wife Ummul Fadl at the instigation of the ruling Abbasid caliph Mu'tasim.

His short life lasted twenty five years and some months, and was full of historical, ideological and scholarly struggle and achievements.The Holy Imam (A.S.) was martyred in Baghdad in the year 220 A.H., on the 29th of Zee al-Qa'adah and was burried in the graveyard of Quraish behind his grandfather, Imam Musa bin Ja'far (A.S.) the seventh holy Imam which was since then became famous as Kazmain.

Short Maxims of Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad(A.S.)

1 - As a man asked him for an advice, Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) said: Put your head on steadfastness, embrace poverty, reject the lusts, oppose your passions, and know that you cannot be out of Allah's sight. Consider how you should behave, then.

2 - Allah revealed to one of His prophets: Your asceticism will give you comfort. Your devotion to Me will endear you to Me. But, did you antagonize My enemies and cherish My disciples?

3 - It was related that highway robbers stole the large anounts of cloth that belonged to Imam al-Jawad(A.S.). The head of the caravan sent the Imam a message in which he informed him of that news. The Holy Imam (A.S.) answered him: Our souls and riches are within the pleasant gifts and the deposited loans of Allah Who makes us enjoy some of them pleasantly and delightedly and seizes whatever He wills with rewards and merits. He whosever intolerance overcomes his steadfastness will waste his rewards. Allah protect us against so.

4 - He who detested a matter that he witnessed is as same as those who were absent from it, and he who was absent from a matter that he loved is as same as those who witnessed it.

5 - He whoever listens to a caller is serving him. If the caller was Allah's representative, he is then serving Allah. If the caller was the Shaitan's representative, he is then serving the Shaitan.

6- Dawud-bin-al-Qasim related: I asked Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) about the meaning of 'Samad'. He said: Everything that lacks navel is 'Samad'. I said that people claim that 'Samad' is everything that lacks interior.Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) commented: Everything that lacks interior lacks navel.

7 - Abu-Hashim al-Ja'fari related: On the wedding day of Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) and Ummul-Fadhl, daughter of Al-Ma'mun. I said: O master, the blessing of this day is clearly great for us. The Holy Imam (A.S.) replied: O Abu-Hashim, Allah's blessings in this day have been great for us. "Yes, master," I said, "What should I say about the day?" Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) answered: Say only good things about the day so that you will be given from these good things. "Master," I said, "I will follow this instruction completely." Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) said: You will be guided to the right and you will see only the good if you adhere to this instruction.

8 - Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) wrote to one of his disciples: We are only ladling from this world. He whose belief and religion are the same as his acquaintance will surely accompany tha acquaintance everywhere. The life to come is surely the remaining abode.

9 - Delay of repentance is deception, excessive procrastination is perplexity, arrogance against Allah is perdition, and insistence on sins is security against Allah's unexpected retribution. No one can consider himself secure from the retribution of Allah except those who are lost. (Holy Qur'an 7:99).

10 - A cameleer who took Imam al-Jawad(A.S.) from Medina to Al-Kufa asked for more money after the Imam had given him four hundred dinars. The Holy Imam (A.S.) said: How strange this is! Do you not know that Allah's increasing gifts will be stopped when the servants stop showing Him gratitude?

11 - The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) accepted the pledge of allegiance of women by dripping his hand in a bowl of water, and when he took his hand out, women dripped their hands in that bowl and declared the shahada, faith in Allah, and believing in the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and the matters they had to acknowledge.

12 - To show a matter before preparing for it properly is spoiling it.

13 - A believer is in need of successfulness from Allah, a self-preaching, and accession to the advisers.

History of the Shrine of Imam Musa al-Kazim(A.S.) and Imam Muhammad Taqi(A.S.)

Anyone approaching Baghdad from the north or the west will be impressed by the sight of the four golden minarets at Kadhmayn, the Shrine of the Two Imams, Imam Musa al-Kadhim(A.S.) and Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad(A.S.). They are respectively the Seventh and the Ninth of the Twelve Imams, at whose tombs we are accustomed to seek healing and to invoke their intercession for the forgiveness of our sins and the fulfilment of our needs.

The present building dates back only to the beginning of the sixteenth century and has been kept in excellent repair. This building represents the restoration of Shah lsmail I Safavi (1502 - 24), though when the Turkish Sultan, Suleman the Great, captured Baghdad and remained there for four months in 1534, he visited this sacred place, and is said to have contributed to the further ornamentation of the Shrine at Kadhmayn.

The tiles for the double cupola, however, were provided in 1796 by Shah Agha Muhammad Khan, who was the first of the Persian Qajar dynasty. In 1870, Nasr-al-Din Shah had these golden tiles repaired on one of the domes and on the minarets. It is interesting that the dates of all these alterations are clearly indicated by inscriptions.

If we bear in mind that the Two Imams who are buried here were martyred in the beginning of the eighth century, it will be evident that there are seven hundred years of the history of their tomb to account for, previous to the comparatively modern restoration of Shah Ismail I. The Imams lived in the early days of Baghdad, while the walls of Mansur's round city on the western side of the Tigris were still standing. There were cemeteries to the north-west that went by various names - that at the Syrian Gate, that of the Abbasids, and that of the Straw Gate.1

The Two Imams were buried immediately to the west of this latter cemetery, but by the time Yakubi wrote, the whole northern district was designated in a general way as the cemetery of the Kuraish.2 Both of these Imams were poisoned at the instigation of the reigning Caliphs, but it is significant that in the case of Imam Muhammad Taqi, the funeral service was read by a representative of the royal family,3 which undoubtedly distinguised the Imam as an important person, at whose grave some sort of a mausoleum would be built.

But as to the importance attached in the early times to the visit to this tomb, the only information available is on the authority of traditions that have been attributed to the Eighth and Tenth Imams. These traditions are answers they are said to have given when they were asked by their followers concerning the merit of pilgrimage to Kadhmayn.

It is related that the Imam Ali Reza(A.S.), whose life in Baghdad was during the caliphate of Haroon al-Rashid, told his Shia followers to say their prayers of salutation to his father, the Imam Musa al-Kadhim, "Outside the walls of the Shrine, or in the nearby mosques," if the Sunni authority and prejudice in Baghdad was too great for them to do so at the tomb itself. From this we infer that a building of some sort was recognised at that early date as marking the tomb of the Imam Musa and that it was surrounded by a wall.

Further statements are said to have been made a few years later by the Imam Ali Naqi(A.S.), whose period in the Imamat began during the later part of the Caliphate of Mu'tasim, and who enjoyed greater indulgence that was shown to the Shias until the period of reaction against them and the Mu'tazalites under the Caliph Mutawakkil. The following particular instructions for visiting this Shrine have been given by Majlisi.

When you wish to visit the tomb of Musa ibn Jafar(A.S.) and the tomb of Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Musa(A.S.), first you must bathe and make yourself clean, then anoint yourself with perfume and put on two clean garments, after which you are to say at the tomb of the Imam Musa: -

Peace be upon thee, O Friend of God!

Peace be upon thee, O Proof of God!

Peace be upon thee, O Light of God!

O Light in the dark place of the earth!

Peace be upon him whom God advances in thy regard,

Behold I come as a pilgrim, who acknowledges your right,

Who hates your enemies and befriends your friends,

So intercede for me therefore with your Lord.

"You are then free," said the Imam Ali Naqi(A.S.), "to ask for your personal needs, after which you should offer a prayer in salutation to the Imam Muhammad Taqi(A.S.), using these same words."

Majlisi, who has included these traditions in his instructions for modern pilgrims to this Shrine, makes the observation in explanation of the unusual - brevity of the prescribed prayer, "that it was necessary in those times to take great care in dissimulation (taqiyah) that the Shias should not suffer injury."4

Another tradition that dates from the same century in which these two Imams died is attributed to a certain Hasan ibn Jamhur, who said:

"In the year 296 A.H., when Ali ibn Ahmad al-Frat was Vizier, I saw Ahmad ibn Rabi", who was one of the Caliph's writers, when his hand had gotten infected so that it had bad odour and turned black.

Everyone who saw him had no doubt but that he would die. In a dream, however, he saw Hazrat Ali(A.S.), and said to him: "O Amiru'l Momineen, will you not ask God to give me my hand?" Hazrat Ali(A.S.) answered, `go to Musa ibn Jafar(A.S.) and he will ask this for you from God.'

In the morning they got a litter and carpeted it, gave him a bath and anointed him with perfume. They had him lie down in the litter and covered him with a robe. Then they carried him to the tomb of Imam Musa ibn Jafar(A.S.), whose intercession he sought in prayer.

The afflicted man took some of the earth from the tomb and rubbed it on his arm upto the shoulder and then bound the arm up again. The next day, when he opened the bandage, he saw that all the skin and flesh of the arm had fallen off, and that only the bones and veins and ligaments remained, and the bad odour had also ceased, When the vizier heard of this he took the men to testify as what had happened. In a short time the healthy flesh and skin grew back again, and he was able to resume his work of writing.".

Majlisi adds the comment that "in every period there have been so many miracles (mu'jizaat) and demonstrations of power (karamat) at the tomb of these two saints that there is no need to describe cases of the past. In our own times there are so many instances occuring and recurring that to recount them would be a lengthy process."5

After the Abbasid caliphs had fallen more under the authority of the commanders of their armies of Turkish mercenaries, there was a rising of the Buyids (or Buwaihids) in Persia; and in A.D. 946 the Caliph Mustakfi was blinded by the Buyid Prince, Mu'izzu'd Dawla, who set up the blinded Caliph's son, al-Muktaddir, as a nominal ruler while he exercised the actual authority himself. Ibn Athir has related that "the Buyids were fanatical adherents of Ali and firmly convinced that the Abbasids were usurpers of a throne that rightfully belonged to others."6

They did not take over the Caliphate, but in addition to retaining for themselves the authority and perquisites of the government of the provinces, they proclaimed the first ten days of the month of Muharram as a period of public mourning for Husain,7 and they frequently enriched the sanctuary at Kadhmayn with their gifts. The Caliph Tai' is reported to have led the Friday prayers in the Kadhmayn mosque,8 so that in the period of the revival of the Shia influence under the protection of the Buyids, we are certain that the Kadhmayn Shrine was regularly visited by pilgrims and served as "the rallying place of the Shia party."

It was during this period that the four great works of the Shia tradition were compiled. Kulaini died in Baghdad in A.D. 939, after completing his monumental work, the Compendium of the Science of Religion (al-Kafi fi Ilm ad-din), which is perhaps the most highly esteemed of all the Shia source books. Ibn Babuwaihi had come to Baghdad from Khorasan in 966 A.D., where he devoted himself to teaching and writing.

His `Every Man His Own Lawyer' (Kitab man la yadhuruhu' l-Faqih), is also one of the four most authorative books on Shia law and tradition. And sixteen years after the death of Ibn Babuwaihi, Al-Tusi also came from Khorasan to teach in Baghdad, where he wrote the remaining two of the four great books of traditions that lie at the basis of Shia theology and jurisprudence, `The Correcting of judgments' (Tahzhib al-Ahkam) and the `Examination of Differences in Traditions' (Al-Istibsar).

At this time of greater boldness on the part of the Shias, riots with the Sunnis were not infrequent in Baghdad. In one of these disturbances in 1051 A.D. the Sunni leader was killed in a fight that had ensued when the Shias ventured to put an inscription laudatory of Ali above one of the city gates. The indignation of the Sunnis was so great that in the tension of the situation after their leader's funeral, they went as a mob into the Shrine of Kadhmayn and plundered the tombs of the two Imams.

After carrying off the gold and silver lamps and the curtains which adorned these sanctuaries, the rioters on the following day completed their work by setting fire to the buildings. The great teak-wood domes above the shrines of the Imam Musa ibn-Jafar(A.S.) and Imam Muhammad Taqi(A.S.)were entirely burnt.9 This fact that the domes were at first of teak-wood has something to do doubtless with the number of times they were burned.

It was shortly after the burning of the Shrine in 1051 A.D. that the Seljuk Sultans displaced the Buwaihids as military dictators in Persia and "Protectors" of the Caliphs in Baghdad. They learned what they knew of Islam in the distinctively Sunni atmosphere of Bukhara. Nevertheless, when they came to Baghdad, no injury was done to the Shrine at Kadhmayn. And when Sultan Malik Shah visited it in 1086, it had apparently been repaired from the damages of the fire of thirty-five years before.10

Ibn Jubayr, who gives a detailed description of Baghdad in 1184, A.D. in his Travels,11 mentions the tomb of Imam Musa ibn Jafar(A.S.), but he does not speak of it as Kadhmayn, and he makes no reference to the tomb of the Imam Muhammad Taqi(A.S.), which would suggest that Shia influence was at that time at such low ebb that this shrine, so close to the city of Baghdad had, been abandoned as a place of regular pilgrimage.

Notwithstanding, before another hundred years had passed when the domes of the Shrines had again been destroyed by fire, we find that its repair was regarded as of sufficient importance to be the one and only enterprise that the shortlived Caliph Zahir had been able to undertake. And Ibn Tiktaka who mentions this repair of the domes in his Kitab al-Fakhri,12 is known to have succeeded his father as supervisor of the sacred towns of the Shias in the vicinity of Baghdad, so that it is possible that the minority community, while by no means free, may have enjoyed certain prescribed and restricted rights.

Their headquarters however, were no longer in Baghdad but in Hilla, and greater importance was given to Najaf and Kerbala as places of pilgrimage.

When the Mongols came with their overwhelming force in 1258, they wrought almost complete devastation in and around Baghdad. There is said to have been an understanding, however, that the holy cities of the Shias should be spared, and in fact Kadhmayn was the only one of these shrines that suffered. This was perhaps to the destruction of the western part of the city first.

It may have been during the subsequent siege of the fortress on the eastern side of the Tigris that the deputation of Shias from Hilla arrived and arranged with Khulagu Khan for the special protection of Najaf and Kerbala. However that may be, we know that the city of Baghdad was utterly ruined by the Mongols, and that the tombs of Kadhmayn were burned. "Nearly all the inhabitants, to the number, according to Rashid ad-Din, of 800,000 (Makrizi says 2,000,000) perished, and thus passed away one of the noblest cities that had ever graced the East - the Cynocure of the Muhammadan world, where the luxury, wealth and culture of five centuries had been concentrated...

The booty captured, we are told, was so great that Georgians and Tartars succumbed under the load of gold and silver, precious stones and pearls, rich stuffs, gold and silver vessels, etc., while as to the vases from China and Rashan (i.e., procelain), and those made in the country of iron and copper, they were deemed scarcely of any value, and were broken and thrown away. The soldiers were so rich that the saddles of their horses and mules and their most ordinary utensils were inlaid with stones, pearls and gold. Some of them broke off their swords at the hilt and filled up the scabbards with gold, while others emptied the body of a Baghdadian, refilled it with gold, precious stones and pearls, and carried it off from the city."13

The death of the last of the Abbasid Caliphs, Mustasim, has been so celebrated in literature that what actually happened is obscure.

There are numerous accounts of how Hulagu Khan was disgusted when he saw that in his avarice the Caliph had gathered gold which he had been unwilling to spend either in defence of the city or to effect favourable terms of capitulation.

Marco Polo relates the story that when Hulagu Khan entered Baghdad he found to his astonishment a town that was filled with gold and silver, and in his indignation he gave orders that the avaricious Caliph should be "shut up in this same town, without sustenance; and there, in the midst of his wealth, he soon finished a miserable existence."14

This story is based on the narrative of Mirkhond, of joinville, and of Makakia, the Armenian historian, and as Howarth remarks it has provided "one of those grim episodes which Longfellow delighted to put into verse":-

I said to the Caliph, "Thou art old,

Thou hast no need of so much gold;

Thou should'st not have heaped and hidden it here,

Till the breath of battle was hot and near,

But have sown through the land these useless hoards,

To spring into shining blades of swords,

And keep thine honour sweet and clear."

Then into his dungeon I locked the drone,

And left him there to feed all alone,

In the honey cells of his golden hive;

Never a prayer, nor a cry, nor a groan,

Was heard from those massive walls of stone,

Nor again was the Caliph seen alive.

One notable fact in this connection is that the life of the Caliph's vizier in Baghdad was spared. He was Muayid-ud-din Alkamiya who was known to have been favourable to the Shias, and who was also reported to have sent his submission to Khulagu, and had invited him to invade the country. However, this may be, the Caliph was put to death on the 21st February, 1258. Wassaf and Novairi say he was rolled up in carpets and, then trodden under by horses so that his blood should not be spilt. This was in accordance with the `yasa' of Jingis Khan, which forbade the shedding of the blood of royal persons.

But the Caliph's vizier, whose life was spared, "retained his post as vizier, the reward doubtless of his dubious loyalty." Various prominent Persians, as distinguished from Arabs or Turks were appointed to important positions in the new administration of affairs, and among the first buildings to be rebuilt was the Shrine of the two Imams, at Kadhmayn.15

After the fall of the last of the Abbasid Caliph, Baghdad was never rebuilt on its former scale of grandeur. The Il-Khans, Who were the descendants of Khulagu, held the city for 82 years, not as a capital, however, but merely as the chief town of the province of Iraq. It was near the close of their period of authority that the traveller Mustawfi visited Baghdad (1339) A.D., and at that time he mentioned seeing the Shrines of al-Kadhim(A.S.) and of his grandson, Taqi(A.S.), the seventh and ninth Imams. He observed that Kadhmayn was a suburb by itself, about six thousand paces in circumberence.16

About that time the Mongol tribe of Julayr wrested the power from the Il-Khans, and their chief, Shaikh Hasan Buzurg, made his residence in Baghdad in 1340, as the town best suited for his tribal headquarters.

Fifty odd years later, in connection with his widespread conquests, Timur spent three months in Baghdad. It happened to be in the summer that he besieged and captured the city, and the Persian chronicler in the Zafar Nameh remarks that "the heat was so intense, that as for the fish in the water, the saliva boiled in their mounts: and as for the birds in the air, from the fever heat their livers were cooked and they fell senseless."

The horrors of the taking of the city are described in graphic detail. So thoroughly had all avenue of escape been closed that when the wind accelerated the flames that filled the air, there were many people who threw themselves into the water, to escape the fire or sword. It was a time when the slave market was such that an old man of eighty and a child of twelve sold for the same price and the fire of hate waxed to such a heat that the garment of the wealthy merchant and the rags of the sick beggar burned the same way. Individual soldiers in bands of the troops had been each commissioned to each get a head, but some who were not content with one head got all they could tie to their belts.

It is mentioned, however, that some of the men of learning and rank as were granted his protection and shared his bounty, but the general carnage was hideous. When the inhabitants had been thus almost annihilated, their habitations were dealt with. Only the mosques, the schools, and the dormitories were spared. Accordingly, we read that Timur left Baghdad on account of "vile odour of the carcases of the dead."17

Nevertheless, when Timur took his departure, we are told that he ordered that the city should be rebuilt. The shrine at Kadhmayn, however, was not restored. After the death of Timur, there was a brief reoccupation of Baghdad by the Julayrs, who were displaced by the "Black Sheep" Turkomans, who held the city from 1411-1469. They in turn were driven out by their rivals, the "White Sheep" Turkomans.

It was therefore after a long period of neglect, when the city had been held by successive generations of half savage tribes, that Shah Ismail I, of the Safawi dynasty captured Baghdad in 1508, and it was in 1519 that he completed the rebuilding of the Shrine at Kadhmayn much as it stands today. With the rise of Shah Ismail there is an interesting and significant story of the revival of Persian Shia Power, which belongs in the history of Ardebil in Azerbaijan rather than in a description of the Shrine of the "Two Kadhims" in Baghdad.

We are told that frequently from twenty-five, to thirty thousand pilgrims visit the Shrine in one day. If viewed from a point of vantage, this Shrine with its twin domes of gleaming gold is one of the most beautiful sights in Baghdad; and if studied in its historical associations throughout the last eleven hundred years, it affords a thrilling resume of the changing fortunes of the far-famed city of Arabian Nights.

Footnotes:

1. Ibn Sa'd, Tabakat, VII, ii, pp. 68, I. 18; 99, I. 21; & 80, I. II.

2. Yakubi, Tarikh, edit, Houtsma, Vol. 11, P. 499.

3. Kulaini, Usul al-Kafi P. 203.

4. Majlisi, Toafatu's- Za'irin, pp. 308 fi.

5. Majiisi, op. cit., p. 309.

6. Ibn al-Athir, Kamil, viii, p. 177.

7. Browne, Persian Literature in Modern Times, p. 31.

8. Le Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate, p. 162.

9. Le Strange, Op. cit., p. 164.

10. Le Strange, Op. cit., p. 163.

11. Ibn Jubayr, Travels, Wright's text revised by de Goeje, P. 226.

12. lbn Tiktaka, Kitab al- Fakhri, p. 163.

13. Howarth, History of the Mongols, iii, pp. 126, 127.

14. Travels of Marco Polo the Venitian, ch. viii.

15. Howarth, Op. cit. pp. 127-131.

16. Mustawfi, Nuzhatu'l-Qulub, Eng. trans. Gibb Mem. series, vol. XXIII, ii, p. 42.

17. Zafar Nameh, by Sharifu'd-din Ali Yazdi, edt. Calcutta 1887-8, vol. II pp. 363-369.

Other References:

Encyclopaedia of Islam, art. "Kadhmayn".

:angel:

YA MAHDI

ELTEMASE DUA

fatemeh

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(bismillah)

(salam)

Condolences on the Martyrdom Anniversary of Imam at-Taqi al-Jawad (as)

The Prophet (pbuh) had said:

“My father be sacrificed on the mother of the ninth Imam who will be a pure and pious Nubian.”

Imam Muhammad at-Taqi was bought up by his Holy Father ‘Ali ar-Ridha (as) for four years. Under the Force of circumstance Imam ‘Ali ar-Ridha (as) had to migrate from Madinah to Khorasan (in Iran), leaving his young son behind him. The Imam was fully aware of the treacherous character of the ruling king and was sure that he would return to Madinah no more .So before his departure from Madinah he declared his son Muhammad as his successor and imparted to him all the stores of divine knowledge and spiritual genius

It is a very heart-rending tact mat at a very early age Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (as) had to prepare himself to face the hardships and sufferings of life. For a very short time he could pass his days under the loving and instructive shadow of his father. After separation from his father at that age Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (as) did not get the opportunity to meet him again in his lifetime.

The world must have been under the impression that there were now no means left for. Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (as) whereby to gain access to the heights of knowledge and accomplishments and, therefore, the seat or learning of Imam Ja’far as-Sadeq (as) would remain unoccupied from now onwards.

But the amazement of the people knew no bounds when after some time they witnessed this young child taking his seat by the side of Mamoun and engaging himself in disputations with eminent scholars on jurisprudence, traditions, exegesis and reasoning and compelling them to accept his viewpoint. Their astonishment was not to end till they were prepared to admit that against physical means there was also a divine system to impart knowledge and training. Without such a realization the puzzle could not and cannot be solved.

Mamoun called the young Imam (as) to Baghdad from Madinah and offered his daughter. This infuriated his family (Banu ‘Abbas). To prove to them the excellence of Imam even at a young age he arranged a meeting between Imam and the most learned of men at that time - Yahya ibn Aktham.

It was a grand occasion with some 900 other scholars present. Imam (as) was first asked by Yahya:

What is the compensation (kaffarah) for a person in Ihram who hunted and killed his prey?”

Imam replied that there were many more details required before he could answer the question:

1. Did the mohrem (one in ihram) hunt in the haram or outside?

2. Did the mohrem know shari’ah or not?

3. Did he hunt intentionally or not?

4. Did he hunt for the first time or was this one of many times?

5. Was he free or a slave?

6. Was his prey a bird or an animal?

7. Was it big or small?

8. Had he hunted by day or by night?

9. Was he balegh or not?

10. Was he repentant or not?

11. Was his ihram for Hajj or ‘Umrah?

Yahya was stunned. He looked down and started sweating.

Mamoun asked the young Imam to answer the question, which he did, and then Imam asked Yahya a question which he could not answer. The Banu ‘Abbas admitted defeat and Mamoun took the opportunity to offer his daughter in marriage to Imam. Imam (as) read his own marriage (the sermon of which is used today) with the dowry of 500 dirhams.

The ninth Imam whose epithet “Jawad” means “extremely generous,” lived a very simple life and used to say that nobility lies in good temper and good association with people rather than harassing or humiliating them. At the same time he stood steadfast against the attempts of the ‘Abbasid caliphs to tarnish the image of Islam. This was the reason that the ‘Abbasid tyrant, Mo’tasem, martyred the ninth Imam at the young age of 25 on the 29th of Dhul-Qa’dah. But his legacy continues to live and acts like a beacon of guidance for humanity. Once again we offer our condolences on the martyrdom anniversary of Imam al-Jawad (as).

Imam at-Taqi al-Jawad (as) said: “There are three characteristics that never let regret and they consist of patience, consultation, and reliance on God.”

Edited by Ali Mahdi
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(bismillah)

(salam)

Tell me all you know about Imam al-Jawad [as]

It can be small copy and pastes from books, it can be in your own words from what you know, up to you anything you want :)

Also maybe post a few of his sayings or a few narrations that he mentioned

Please don't link me to books, as I know I can gain more info from there, but I believe if many of us just post a few narrations or what we know about him already then it will take less time to read, and I believe we will remember easier insha'Allah

Thanks

(wasalam)

Edited by Shia_Debater
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Salam :)

These are some Hadith I found by imam Muhammad bin Ali al-jawad (as)

Imam al-Jawad as said, 'Meeting fellow brothers, even very briefly, causes the mind to broaden and develop.’[Bihar al-Anwar, p. 353, no. 26]

11– Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘It is sufficient for someone to be classified as a betrayer if he is the trustee of a disloyal person.’[Bihar al-Anwar, v. 78, p. 364, no. 4]

6– Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘People who perform acts of courtesy towards others benefit more from them than the receptors of their kindness, for verily they have the reward for them, the [rewarding feeling of] pride for having helped someone as well as a mention. So however much good a man may do for others, it ultimately always starts by benefiting himself, such that he never seeks thanks for the benefit incurred by himself through helping others.’[Kashf al-Ghamma, v. 3, p. 137]

16– Imam al-Jawad as , when asked about death said, ‘It is the sleep that comes to you every night, however its period is long and none will wake from it until the Day of Resurrection. So he who sees in his sleep different kinds of happy states whose extent he cannot fathom and different kinds of terrors he cannot fathom, then how will the happiness and the dismay in death be? This is death so prepare for it.’[Ma`ani al-Akhbar, p. 289, no. 5]

12– Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘He who approves of a wicked deed partakes in it.’[Kashf al-Ghamma, v. 3, p. 139]

13– Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘He who witnesses a misdeed and abhors it is as one who was absent thereat, whereas he who is absent from a misdeed and yet contents himself with it is as one who witnessed it.’[Tuhaf al-`Uqoul, no. 456]

9– Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘He who conceals [the path] of proper conduct from you in making you follow that which you desire is indeed your enemy.’[A`alam al-Din, no. 309]

37- Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘Allah revealed to one of the prophets, “Your asceticism in this world hastens your comfort, and your devotion to Me endears you to Me. But did you oppose an enemy [of Mine] for My sake or did you befriend a friend for Me?” [Tuhaf al-`Uqoul, no. 455]

8– Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘There are four types of merits: the first is wisdom, and its basis is thinking. The second is chastity, and its basis is desire. The third is power, and its basis is anger. The fourth is justice, and its basis is moderation in the faculties of the self.’[Kashf al-Ghamma, v. 3, p. 138]

6– Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘Patience in the face of a misfortune is itself a misfortune for the one who gloats over your bad luck.’[Kashf al-Ghamma, v. 3, p. 139]

27- Imam al-Jawad as said, ‘Postponing repentance is an illusion, and long procrastination is perplexity.’[Tuhaf al-`Uqoul, no. 456]

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(bismillah)

(salam)

Muhammad Ibn `Ali al-Jawad (at-Taqi)

(peace be Upon him)

Name: Muhammad

Title: al-Jawad or at-Taqi

Agnomen: Abu Ja`far

Father's name: `Ali ar-Ride

Mother's name: Sabikah (or khayzuran)

Birth: In Medina, on Friday, 10th Rajab 195 AH"

Death: Died at the age of 25 ,in al-kazimiyyah on Wednesday, 29th Dhi'l-qi`dah 220 AH, poisoned by Mu`tasim, the `Abbasid caliph; buried in al-kazimiyyah, Baghdad. Imam Muhammad al-Jawad (or at - Taqi) is the Ninth Apostolic Imam. his epithet was Abuja `far and his famous titles were al-jawad and at-Taqi. Since Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, the Fifth Imam was called Abu Ja`far the Second.

________________________________________

Childhood:

Imam Muhammad al-jawad was brought up by his Holy father Imam `Ali ar-Rida for four years. under the force of circumstances Imam ` Ali ar-Rida had to migrate form Medina to khurasan (Iran), leaving his young son behind him. the Imam was fully aware of the treacherous character of the ruling king and was sure that he would return to Medina no more. So before his departure from Medina he declared his son Muhammad al-Jawad as his successor, and imparted to him all his stores of divine knowledge and spiritual genius.

* * *

Imamate:

Imam Ali ar-Rida was poisoned on 17th safari 203 AH and with effect from the same date Imam Muhammad al-jawad was commissioned by Allah to hold the responsibility of Imamate. At the tender age of eight there was no apparent chance or means of the young Imam reaching great heights of knowledge and practical achievements. But after a for days hi is known not only to have debated with his contemporary scholars on subjects pertaining to fiqh ( Islamic jurisprudence), hadith ( tradition), tafsir (Qur'anic exegesis), etc. and outwitted them, but also to exhort their admiration and acknowledgment of his learning and superiority. right from then the world realized that he possessed divine knowledge and that the knowledge commanded by the Holy Imam was not acquired, but granted by Allah.

* * *

Literary Attainments and excellence:

The span of the life of Imam Muhammad al-Jawad was shorter than that of his predecessors as well as his successors. He become Imam at the age of eight years and was poisoned at the age of twenty - five ; yet his literary attainments were many and his commanded great respect and esteem. The Holy Imam al-Jawad was the symbol of Prophet Muhammad's affability and Imam `All's attainments. His hereditary qualities comprised of gallantry, boldness, charity, learning, forgiveness and tolerance, The brightest and most outstanding phases of his nature and character were to show hospitality and courtesy to all without discrimination , to help the needy; to observe equality under all circumstances, to live a simple life; to help the orphans, the poor and the homeless; to impart learning to those interested in the acquisition of knowledge and guide the people to the right path.

* * *

Migration to Iraq:

For the consolidation of his empire, it was realized by al-Ma'mun, the ` Abbasid king, that it was necessary to win the sympathy and support of the Iranians who had always been friendly to the Ahlul-Bayt. consequently, al-Ma'mun was forced , from a political point of view , to establish contacts with the tribe of Banu Fatimah at the expense of the ties with Banu ` Abbas and thereby win the favour of the shi`ah. Accordingly, he declared Imam `Ali ar-Rida as his heir even against the Imam's will and got his sister umm Habibah married to him. al-Ma'mun expected that Imam ` Ali ar-Rida would lend his support in political affairs of the state. But when he discovered that the Imam was little interested in political matter and that the masses were more and more submitting themselves to him due to his spiritual greatness, he got him poisoned.

Yet the exigency which directed him to nominate Imam ` Ali ar-Rida as his heir and successor still continued. Hence he desired to marry his daughter ummau` l-fadl to Muhammad al-Jawad, the son of Imam `Ali ar-Rida and with this object in view, he summoned the Imam from Medina to Iraq. The Banu ` Abbas were extremely disconcerted when they come to know that al-Ma'mun was planning to marry his daughter to Imam Muhammad al-Jawad. A delegation of some leading persons waited on him in order to dissuade him from his intention. But al-Ma`mun continued to admire the learning and excellence of the Imam. He would say that though Imam Muhammad al-Jawad was still young , yet he was a true successor to his father in all his virtues and that the profoundest scholars of the Islamic world could not compete with him" when the `Abbasides noticed that al-Ma'mun attributed the Imam's superiority to his learning they chose yahya ibn Aktham, the greatest scholar and jurist of Baghdad, to contend with him.

Al-Ma'mun issued a proclamation and organized a grand meeting for the contest which resulted in huge gathering of people from all parts of the kingdom. apart from noble and high officials, there were as many as nine hundred chairs reserved for scholars and learned men only. The world wondered how a young child could contest with the veteran judge in religious laws (qadi'l-qudat) and the greatest scholar of Iraq. Imam Muhammad al-Jawad was seated beside al-Ma'mun on his throne face to face with Yahya ibn Aktham , who addressed the Imam thus: "Do you permit me to ask you a Question?" " Ask me whatever you wish , " said the Imam in the typical tone of his ancestors. yahya then asked the Imam, O what is your verdict about a man who indulges in hunting while he is in the state of Ehram." (In the code of religious law hunting is supposed to be forbidden for a pilgrim.)

The Imam at once replied , " Your question is vague and misleading. You should have definitely mentioned whether he hunted within the jurisdiction of the Ka`bah or outside; whether he was literate of illiterate; whether he was a slave of a free citizen; whether he was a minor or a major; whether it was for the first time of he had done it previously; also whether, that victim was a bird or some other creature; whether the prey was small or big; whether he hunted in the day or at night; whether the hunter repented for his action of persisted in it ; whether he hunted secretly of openly ; whether the Ehram was for ` umrah of for hajj. Unless all these points are explained no specific answer can be given to this question." al-Qadi Yahya was staggered in listening to these word of the Imam and the entire gathering was dumbfounded.

There was no limit to al-Ma'mun's pleasure. he expressed his sentiments of joy and admiration thus, " Bravo! well done ! o Abu Ja`far ! ( Ahsanta, ahsanta ya Aba Ja`far ) , your learning and attainments are beyond all praises." As al-Ma'mun wanted that the Imam's opponent be fully exposed , he said to the Imam, " You may also put some question to Yahya ibn Aktham." Then Yahya also reluctantly said to the Imam, "Yes, you may ask me some questions. If I know the answer, I will tell it ; otherwise , I shall request you to give its answer." Thereupon, the Imam asked a Question to which Yahya could not reply. Eventually, the Imam answered his question.

Then al-Ma'mun addressed the audience thus: Did I not say that the Imam comes of a family which has been chosen by Allah as the repository of knowledge and learning? Is there any one in the world who can match even the children of this family? " All of them shouted, " Undoubtedly there in no one parallel to Muhammad ibn ` Ali al-Jawad." In the some assemble al-Ma'mun wedded his daughter ummu 'l-Fadl to the Imam and liberally distributed charity and gifts among his subjects as a mark of rejoicing. One year after his marriage the Imam returned to Medina from Baghdad with his wife and there he set about preaching the commandments of Allah.

* * *

Death:

when after the death of al-Ma'mun, al-mu`tasim ascended the throne, he got and opportunity to persecute the Imam and to ventilate spite and malice against him. He summoned the Imam to Baghdad. The Imam arrived at Baghdad on 9th Muharram 220 AH and al-Mu`tasim got him poisoned in the same year. He died on 29 th Dhi'lqi`dah 220 AH and was buried beside his grandfather, Imam Mussa al-Kazim the Seventh Imam , in al-Kazimiyyah , in the suburb of Baghdad (Iraq).

al-Imam al-Jawad, peace be Upon him, said:

The trust in Allah is the price of every thing that is precious and the ladder to every goal which is high and sublime.

One who follows his desires, concedes to the wishes of his enemy.

Do not be an apparent friend of Allah in open and a secret enemy of His in private.

* * *

________________________________________

(A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles, p. 145-150)

Source

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Mabrook!

here is the text of the ziyarat: http://www.ziaraat.org/kazim/kazim.php

Here is a special salawat: http://www.ziaraat.org/kazim/salwat.php

Lets all send as hadiyah to Imam (as), a surah fatiha and salawat.

Allahumal'an qatalata Mohamed Taqi (as) !

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