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In the Name of God بسم الله
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The impression created by twelver shias while referring to Surah Ahzab Ayah 6 is that mother of believers is only in the sense that no one can marry wives of Prophet s.a.w.w after him. Its merely about prohibition of marriage with them. Nothing more, nothing less. While the order of prohibition of marrying the wives of Prophet s.a.w.w is already mentioned in Ahzab 52-53 very explicitly. Not lawful to you, [O Muhammad], are [any additional] women after [this], nor [is it] for you to exchange them for [other] wives, even if their beauty were to please you, except what your right hand possesses. And ever is Allah , over all things, an Observer. O you who have believed, do not enter the houses of the Prophet except when you are permitted for a meal, without awaiting its readiness. But when you are invited, then enter; and when you have eaten, disperse without seeking to remain for conversation. Indeed, that [behavior] was troubling the Prophet, and he is shy of [dismissing] you. But Allah is not shy of the truth. And when you ask [his wives] for something, ask them from behind a partition. That is purer for your hearts and their hearts. And it is not [conceivable or lawful] for you to harm the Messenger of Allah or to marry his wives after him, ever. Indeed, that would be in the sight of Allah an enormity. Then what is the significance and importance of Ahzab 6. The Prophet is more worthy of the believers than themselves, and his wives are [in the position of] their mothers. And those of [blood] relationship are more entitled [to inheritance] in the decree of Allah than the [other] believers and the emigrants, except that you may do to your close associates a kindness [through bequest]. That was in the Book inscribed. Moreover this include all wives of Prophet s.a.w.w, not only umm aisha s.a. And they are mothers of both believing men and women. As verse does not separate the men and women here. Furthermore, both shia and sunni commentaries also confirm the same. i.e its more than merely prohibition of marriage. Sunni Tafsir Tafsir Qurtubi: وأزواجه أمهاتهم شرف الله تعالى أزواج نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم بأن جعلهن أمهات المؤمنين ; أي في وجوب التعظيم والمبرة والإجلال وحرمة النكاح على الرجال And his wives (i.e. wives of the Prophet) are their mothers (i.e. mothers of believers). Allah venerated the wives of His Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam by giving them the status of Mothers of Believers, i.e. to be respected and venerated and the prohibition of re-marrying. (vol.14, p.123) Tafsir Ibn Kathir: وقوله : ( وأزواجه أمهاتهم ) أي : في الحرمة والاحترام ، والإكرام والتوقير والإعظام ، ولكن لا تجوز الخلوة بهن ، ولا ينتشر التحريم إلى بناتهن وأخواتهن بالإجماع (and his wives are their mothers.) i.e. in terms of prohibition (of marriage), and in terms of honour, respect and veneration, it is not permissible for them to be alone with them, and the prohibition of marriage to them does not extend to their daughters and sisters, according to scholarly consensus. (vol. 6, p. 380) Tafsir Fath al-Qadir: وأزواجه أمهاتهم أي : مثل أمهاتهم في الحكم بالتحريم ومنزلات منزلتهن في استحقاق التعظيم فلا يحل لأحد أن يتزوج بواحدة منهن كما لا يحل له أن يتزوج بأمه ، فهذه الأمومة مختصة بتحريم النكاح لهن وبالتعظيم لجنابهن (And his wives are their mothers) means: they are like their mothers in the ruling of prohibition of marriage, and they share the station of deserving treatment of grandeur, so it is not permissible for anyone to marry anyone of them, just like it is impermissible for them to marry their mothers. Thus this motherhood is about forbidding marriage with them and about respecting/venerating them. Tafsir al-Baydhawi: منزلات منزلتهن في التحريم واستحقاق التعظيم وأزواجه أمهاتهم “And his wives are their mothers” means they share the station of prohibition in marriage and deserving treatment of grandeur. (vol. 1, p. 364) Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ani: وأزواجه أمهاتهم أي منزلات منزلة أمهاتهم في تحريم النكاح وإستحقاق التعظيم “And his wives are their mothers” means they share the station of mothers in the prohibition of marriage and the deservedness of respect. (vol. 21, p. 151) Shia Tafsir Tafsir al-Mizan of Ayatollah al-Tabataba’i: وقوله: (وأزواجه أمهاتهم) جعل تشريعي أي انهن منهم بمنزلة أمهاتهم في وجوب تعظيمهن وحرمة نكاحهن بعد النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم (and his wives are their mothers). This is the Sharia ruling i.e. his wives are to them like their mothers, and by necessity they (i.e. the wives of the Prophet) have to be honoured and are not allowed to be taken as wives after the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. (vol. 16, p. 288) Tafsir al-Safi of the renowned Muhsin al-Fayd al-Kashani, وأزوجه أمهاتهم منزلات منزلتهن في التحريم مطلقا وفي استحقاق التعظيم (And his wives are their mothers) means they share the station of prohibition in marriage and deserving treatment of grandeur. (vol. 4, p. 168) Tafsir Namunah/al-Amthal Fi Tafsir al-Qur’an (written by Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi and other researchers): در اينجا سؤ الى مطرح است و آن اينكه آيا تعبير ((ازواجه امهاتهم )): ((همسران پيامبر مادران مؤ منين محسوب مى شوند)) با چيزى كه در چند آيه قبل گذشت تضاد ندارد؟ زيرا در آنجا مى فرمايد: ((كسانى كه گاهى همسرانشان را بمنزله مادر خود قرار مى دهند، سخن باطلى مى گويند، مادر آنها فقط كسى است كه از او متولد شده اند)) با اين حال چگونه همسران پيامبر كه مسلمانان از آنان متولد نشده اند مادر محسوب مى شوند؟ در پاسخ اين سؤ ال بايد به اين نكته توجه كرد كه خطاب مادر به يك زن يا بايد از نظر جسمانى باشد يا روحانى ، اما از نظر جسمانى تنها در صورتى اين معنى واقعيت دارد كه انسان از او متولد شده باشد، و اين همان است كه در آيات پيشين آمده كه مادر جسمانى انسان تنها كسى است كه از او متولد شده است ، و اما پدر يا مادر روحانى كسى است كه يكنوع حق معنوى بر او داشته باشد، همچون پيامبر (صلى اللّه عليه و آله و سلّم ) كه پدر روحانى امت محسوب مى شود، و هم به خاطر او همسرانش احترام مادر را دارند. A question arises here that isn’t the explanation of the verse (and his wives are their mothers) against the verses mentioned before. Because there it is mentioned, “Those who declare their wives as their mothers, and in fact they use false words, their mothers are only the ones who bore them.” In this situation, how can the wives of the Prophet (peace be upon him) be considered the mothers of the believers. This point should be noted in answering the question at hand that addressing a woman as mother is either due to biological relation, or spiritual relation. This meaning could be only in the case of biological relation, and this is the same thing which is mentioned in the earlier verses, that a person’s biological mother is only the one who bore him. But the spiritual mother and father are those who have a kind of special right over them, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) is considered the spiritual father of the nation, and due to him, his wives hold the respect which a mother holds. (vol. 17, p. 180) Words of Imam Ali a.s, whom twelvers claim to follow. ولها بعد حرمتها الاولى والحساب على الله She has the same respect afterwards as she had earlier, and the accountability is on Allah to take. (Nahjul balagha) Same respect/honour as she had earlier, meaning she was neither given divorce nor was cursed by Imam Ali a.s. Therefore, the title mother of believers is a great merit of the wives of Prophet s.a.w.w. A fact which can not be denied except by ignorant one. And any narrations that goes against these explicit verses of Quran are nothing but useless. Jazak Allah Khairan.
We Shia, have two sources of guidance that our fiqh is based upon:- #1- The Quran - They Quran supersedes EVERYONE and EVERYTHING regardless of whomever it is, simply because its Word of Allah himself and no one can supersede Allah's word. #2- AhleBayt - Prophet Muhammad being the highest authority in hierarchy of AhleBayt by far, for being chosen the last and final Messenger, and then the Imams of his house hold. If any of the imams has been attributed to have said something that contradicts the Quran and/or Prophet Muhammad, that hadith is to be rejected and considered false since Imams will not go against the laws of the Quran or Nabi. Similarly If Nabi is attributed to have said something that contradicts Quran, in that case that hadith is to be considered false and rejected, since - its our belief is that - Nabi would never go against the Quran. Only Quran can not be abrogated by anyone or anything. The case of Umm Ayesha according to Quran and AhleBayt: #1 - The Quran: Allah knew about all the events are to take place in future, he knew Imam Ali and Umm Ayesha are going to go to war with each other in which Imam Ali is going to be on Haq, He knew that Umm Ayesha is going to declare war on Imam Ali due to Caliphs Othman's killing and everything else, he knew what the future is going to bring because he is the creator of that future,and still he commands us "The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers." (Quran 33:6) - hence Umm Ayesha. #2- AhleBayt : Imam Ali in Nahjul Balagha Sermon #155 clearly mentions "As regards a certain woman, she is in the grip of womanly views, and malice is boiling in her bosom like the furnace of the blacksmith. If she were called upon to deal with others as she is dealing with me she would not have done it. (As for me), even hereafter she will be allowed her original respect, while the reckoning (of her misdeeds) is an obligation on Allah". Source: Nahjul Balagha - Sermon #155 (About the malice by Ayesha and warning the People of Basra about what to occur) In Conclusion: Our Imam, Imam Ali is clearly commanding us that Umm Ayesha is full of hated towards him and mentions that if it was someone else besides Imam Ali himself, she would not act the way she did but then he commands us that she should be given the ORIGINAL RESPECT - which implies treat her like there was not war or hatred among us. Further more he leaves her case to God for his to take care of it. Based on these two, In conclude, we have to show respect towards Umm Ayesha and am interested in your comments on it? Any comments?
It is proven logically that this Sorah is about Aisha RA, not Maria RA. 1. Aisha RA was Rasoolullah SAW's wife. Maria RA was a slave girl. A slave girl can be purchased from her master while a wife remains wife unless death or divorce occurs. In the case of divorce, still Allah allows to reconciliate. 24: 6 And those who accuse their wives [of adultery]....... 2. Abu Bakr RA stopped helping his poor relative who took part in slander on Aisha RA. It is natural, a father may feel in the same way. But because he was a virteous person and Allah loves him to continue his virtues, He told him with kind, loving and respectful words to continue to support his poor relative. It can't be Muqawqis, who sent Maria Qibtia as a gift to Rasoolullah SAW when Rasoolullah SAW sent him a letter to accept Islam. He did not accept Islam and sent the messenger back to Madina with some gifts including Maria Qibtia. Muqawqis did not support Muslims financially, especially after the incident of Ifk. Because he did not have any blood relation with Maria RA. 24:22 And let not those of virtue (Ulul Fadhl) among you and wealth swear not to give [aid] to their relatives and the needy and the emigrants for the cause of Allah , and let them pardon and overlook. Would you not like that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful (Indeed this is due to slander, the next verse explains). 24:23 Indeed, those who [falsely] accuse chaste, unaware and believing women are cursed in this world and the Hereafter; and they will have a great punishment. 24:24 On a Day when their tongues, their hands and their feet will bear witness against them as to what they used to do. Ali RA reply and view of ifk Ali RA said, “O Messenger of God! Once, you were leading the prayer. You took off your shoes. We took off our shoes following you. When you finished the prayer, you asked us why we had taken off our shoes. We said we had taken them off to follow you. Thereupon, you said, ‘Gabriel ordered me to take them off because they were not clean.’ Is it possible that you were informed about the dirt that polluted your shoes and you were ordered to take them off but you would not be ordered to remove something that blemished your honor?” Halabi, Insanu’l-Uyun, Vol. 2, p. 624-625. Quranic verse, 24:26 Evil women are for evil men, and evil men are [subjected] to evil women. And good women are for good men, and good men are [an object] of good women. Those [good people] are declared innocent of what the slanderers say. For them is forgiveness and noble provision.
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