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  1. [sorry if there was some problems in translation] This is accepted by both Shia and Sunni Scholars that some of the Companions of Prophet Muhammad PBUH had attempted to assassinate him As Quran mentioned it: یَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ ما قالُوا وَ لَقَدْ قالُوا کَلِمَةَ الْکُفْرِ وَ کَفَرُوا بَعْدَ إِسْلامِهِمْ وَ هَمُّوا بِما لَمْ یَنالُوا وَ ما نَقَمُوا إِلاَّ أَنْ أَغْناهُمُ اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ فَإِنْ یَتُوبُوا یَکُ خَیْراً لَهُمْ وَ إِنْ یَتَوَلَّوْا یُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ عَذاباً أَلیماً فِی الدُّنْیا وَ الْآخِرَةِ وَ ما لَهُمْ فِی الْأَرْضِ مِنْ وَلِیٍّ وَ لا نَصیرٍ . التوبه / 74 . They swear by Allah that they did not say [anything against the Prophet] while they had said the word of disbelief and disbelieved after their [pretense of] Islam and planned that which they were not to attain [assassination of Muhammad]. And they were not resentful except [for the fact] that Allah and His Messenger had enriched them of His bounty. So if they repent, it is better for them; but if they turn away, Allah will punish them with a painful punishment in this world and the Hereafter. And there will not be for them on earth any protector or helper. Quran 9:74 Many of Sunni Interpreters believe that, it's about those who planned to assassinate the prophet when he was coming back from war of Tabouk. Suyuti famous Sunni Interpreter wrote in his book "Al-Durr al-Mansur Fi al-Tafsir Bi al-Ma'sur": وأخرج البیهقی فی الدلائل عن عروة رضی الله عنه قال رجع رسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم قافلا من تبوک إلی المدینة حتی إذا کان ببعض الطریق مکر برسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم ناس من أصحابه فتآمروا أن یطرحوه من عقبة فی الطریق فلما بلغوا العقبة أرادوا أن یسلکوها معه فلما غشیهم رسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم أخبر خبرهم فقال من شاء منکم أن یأخذ بطن الوادی فإنه أوسع لکم وأخذ رسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم العقبة و أخذ الناس ببطن الوادی الا النفر الذین مکروا برسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم لما سمعوا ذلک استعدوا وتلثموا وقد هموا بأمر عظیم وأمر رسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم حذیفة بن الیمان رضی الله عنه وعمار بن یاسر رضی الله عنه فمشیا معه مشیا فامر عمارا أن یأخذ بزمام الناقة وأمر حذیفة یسوقها فبینما هم یسیرون إذ سمعوا وکزة القوم من ورائهم قد غشوه فغضب رسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم وأمر حذیفة أن یردهم وأبصر حذیفة رضی الله عنه غضب رسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم فرجع ومعه محجن فاستقبل وجوه رواحلهم فضربها ضربا بالمحجن وأبصر القوم وهم متلثمون لا یشعروا انما ذلک فعل المسافر فرعبهم الله حین أبصروا حذیفة رضی الله عنه وظنوا ان مکرهم قد ظهر علیه فأسرعوا حتی خالطوا الناس وأقبل حذیفة رضی الله عنه حتی أدرک رسول الله صلی الله علیه وسلم فلما أدرکه قال اضرب الراحلة یا حذیفة وامش أنت یا عمار فأسرعوا حتی استووا بأعلاها فخرجوا من العقبة ینتظرون الناس فقال النبی صلی الله علیه وسلم لحذیفة هل عرفت یا حذیفة من هؤلاء الرهط أحدا قال حذیفة عرفت راحلة فلان وفلان وقال کانت ظلمة اللیل وغشیتهم وهم متلثمون فقال النبی صلی الله علیه وسلم هل علمتم ما کان شأنهم وما أرادوا قالوا لا والله یا رسول الله قال فإنهم مکروا لیسیروا معی حتی إذا طلعت فی العقبة طرحونی منها قالوا أفلا تأمر بهم یا رسول الله فنضرب أعناقهم قال أکره أن یتحدث الناس ویقولوا ان محمدا وضع یده فی أصحابه فسماهم لهما وقال اکتماهم . الدر المنثور - جلال الدین السیوطی - ج 3 - ص 259. Bayhaqi narrated from Urva that he said: When the Messenger of Allah and Muslims were coming back from war of Tabuk, some of his Companions gathered together and planned to kill the prophet in a Ghat Road and they decided to go after him in Aqaba way. The Prophet was informed of this treacherous decision and said: "Everyone who likes, go the way of the desert. Because it's wide way and Population passes through it easily" Then he continued his way through the Aqaba that was a Mountainous area. Huzayfa But those who have been planned to assassinate him got prepared, covered their faces and got ambushed on the way. Messenger of Allah asked Huzayfat ibn Yaman and Ammar ibn Yaser to come whit him. Then asked Amar to take the harness of camel and asked Huzafa lead him. Suddenly they heard voice of running of those men who was chasing. Then they surrounded the prophet and tried to kill him. But Huzayfa attacked them and kick them and their camels and identified some of them so they escaped and … Then messenger of Allah asked Huzayfa : "Did you identify them?" He answered: " I Identify some of their camels, but because it was too dark and they had been overed their face, I was'nt able to know them." The prophet said: " Did you understand what they have been planned to do?" Huzayfa an Ammar Said:"No" The Prophet said:" They wanted to throw me from the mountain by using the darkness of night" They said: Please take people to kill them, the Prophet said:" I don't like people say Muhammad Accuses his companions and kill them" Then he named them and said:" You ignore it and do not disclose it" But who was this men???? Some of Sunni Scholars like Ibn Hazm Andalusi wore their names in his book al-Muhalla: ان أبا بکر وعمر وعثمان وطلحة وسعد بن أبی وقاص رضی الله عنهم أرادوا قتل النبی صلی الله علیه وسلم وإلقاءه من العقبة فی تبوک. المحلی، ابن حزم، ج 11، ص 224، وفات: 456، ناشر: دار الفکر، توضیحات: طبعة مصححة ومقابلة علی عدة مخطوطات ونسخ معتمدة کما قوبلت علی النسخة التی حققها الأستاذ الشیخ أحمد محمد شاکر . " Indeed Abu Bakr , Umar, Usman, Talha, Sa'd ibn abi Vaqqas decided to kill the Prophet and threw him from Aqaba in Tabuk" [Al-Muhalla vol.11 , page 224,died :456 AH, Publisher: dar ul-Fikr] The only fault that Ibn Hazm wrote is that you can find Walid ibn Abdullah ibn Jamie in hierarchy of narrators and because he believe that Walid is not reliable so he refuse the narration(hadith). Let see other Sunni scholar believe about Walid ibn Abdullah. When we check Sunni Rijal Books we can find many Scholars who believe that he was reliable. For example: Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani , Taqrib ul-Tazhib Vol.2 Page 287, died: 852 AH 7459 - الولید بن عبد الله بن جمیع الزهری المکی نزیل الکوفة صدوق. تقریب التهذیب،ابن حجر، ج 2، ص 286، وفات: 852، دراسة وتحقیق: مصطفی عبد القادر عطا، چاپ: الثانیة، سال چاپ: 1415 - 1995 م، ناشر: دار الکتب العلمیة، بیروت، لبنان، توضیحات: طبعة مقابلة علی نسخة بخط المؤلف وعلی تهذیب التهذیب وتهذیب الکمال . Ibn Sa'd , al-Tabaqat ul-Kubra, vol 6, page 354, died 230 الولید بن عبد الله بن جمیع الخزاعی من أنفسهم وکان ثقة وله أحادیث . الطبقات الکبری، محمد بن سعد، ج 6 - ص 354، وفات: 230، چاپخانه: دار صادر‌، بیروت، ناشر: دار صادر، بیروت . Al-Ijli, ma'rifat al-thiqa, vol 2, page 342, died at: 261 AH الولید بن عبد الله بن جمیع الزهری مکی ثقة. معرفة الثقات،العجلی، ج 2 - ص 342، وفات: 261، چاپ: الأولی، سال چاپ: 1405، ناشر: مکتبة الدار، المدینة المنورة . Al-Razi, al-Jarh wa at-ta'dil, vol 9, Page 8 نا عبد الرحمن نا عبد الله بن أحمد بن محمد بن حنبل فیما کتب إلی قال قال أبی: الولید بن جمیع لیس به بأس . نا عبد الرحمن قال ذکره أبی عن إسحاق بن منصور عن یحیی بن معین أنه قال:الولید ابن جمیع ثقة . نا عبد الرحمن قال سئل أبی عن الولید بن جمیع فقال: صالح الحدیث . نا عبد الرحمن قال سألت أبا زرعة عن الولید بن جمیع فقال: لا بأس به. الجرح والتعدیل،الرازی، ج 9، ص 8، وفات: 327، چاپ: الأولی، سال چاپ: 1371 - 1952م، چاپخانه: مطبعة مجلس دائرة المعارف العثمانیة، بحیدر آباد الدکن، الهند، ناشر: دار إحیاء التراث العربی، بیروت، توضیحات: عن النسخة المحفوظة فی کوپریلی ( تحت رقم 278) وعن النسخة المحفوظة فی مکتبة مراد ملا ( تحت رقم 1427) وعن النسخة المحفوظة فی مکتبة دار الکتب المصریة ( تحت رقم 892) . Al-Mazi, Tahzib al-Kamal, vol31, page 36-37 قال عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل عن أبیه، وأبو داود: لیس به بأس . وقال إسحاق بن منصور، عن یحیی بن معین: ثقة. وکذلک قال العجلی وقال أبو زرعة: لا بأس به وقال أبو حاتم: صالح الحدیث. تهذیب الکمال،المزی، ج 31، ص 36 – 37، وفات: 742، تحقیق: تحقیق وضبط وتعلیق: الدکتور بشار عواد معروف، چاپ: الرابعة، سال چاپ: 1406 - 1985 م، ناشر: مؤسسة الرسالة، بیروت، لبنان. And Zahabi one of the big Sunni's Scholar said: وثقه ابن معین، والعجلی. وقال أحمد وأبو زرعة: لیس به بأس. وقال أبو حاتم: صالح الحدیث. میزان الاعتدال، الذهبی، ج 4، ص 337، وفات: 748، تحقیق: علی محمد البجاوی، چاپ: الأولی، سال چاپ: 1382 - 1963 م، ناشر: دار المعرفة للطباعة والنشر - بیروت – لبنان . And Walid is one of Sahih Muslim's narrators So what do you think ? Who is Liar here? Sunni's Scholar or Walid? Or …??? my weblog: http://yshia.blogfa.com
  2. (bismillah) صلى الله على محمد وآله Recently, I came across a fascinating article regarding the hypocrites at Uqba that attempted to kill the Holy Prophet [sawa] after Tabuk. The full article can be read here (click!). I will here, however, provide a summarized version of its points with some extra points here. The great companion Huthayfa b. al-Yaman (d. 37 AH), who accompanied the Prophet [sawa] when he was attacked by these people at Uqba, was informed by the Prophet [sawa] of who these hypocrites were and then announced to everyone else that there were a number (12 ~ 14) hypocrites amongst them. This narration is saheeh and included in Sahih Muslim. This incident is famous and well accepted by everyone. Now, Ibn Hazim – an Andalusian Sunni hadith scholar of the 5th century H – comments on the incident and calls it a fabricated lie. He points to the one of the narrators – Walid b. Abdullah b. Jumay` - and accuses him of fabricating this hadith because he narrates reports accusing Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Talha, and Sa`d b. Abi Waqas of wanting to kill the Prophet [sawa] at Uqba after Tabuk. So the events are one and the same and he is solely accusing this narrator of fabricating because of the content of what he is narrating and it is completely irreconcilable with their doctrine and historical point of view. Also note that Ibn Hazim specifying fabrication to this particular narrator – on a content basis (istiqraa’) – means that the remainder of the chain and its narrators is correct. Ibn Hazim is in fact very late compared to many other narrator critics. In fact, most of the scholars of narrator praise and criticism give this narrator Walid b. Abdullah b. Jumay` strong authentication: Yaha b. Mu`ayn (d. 233 AH) – reliable, trustworthy Abu Hatim al-Razi (d. 277 AH) – righteous hadith Abu Dawud (d. 275) & Ahmad b. Hanbal (d. 241 AH) – there are no problems with him I think the problem presented to the opponents here is clear. It would give legitimacy to the narration as previously existing with the names of companions who according to them were the best of the best and the heavy weights. The narration in the books today does not include the names. This is not surprising as the narrators after Walid b. Jumay` and/or the compilers themselves would have censored the names and the content – a well known and apparent habit of theirs. It is also good to note that the person Walid b. Jumay` is narrating from the last companion to die, Abu al-Tufayl [ra], a hardcore shi’i rafidhi (you can see his article here (click!) Ibn Hajr tries to rescue the situation (and this narrator) by saying, he’s not thiqa (having good memory AND honesty), rather he was just sadooq (honest) and had awhaam (an imagination) and then goes to accuse him of tashayyu`. He then brings forward a narration where Umar asks Huthayfa if he is from the munafiqeen and Huthayfa replies in the negative. The article writer presents two points here. First, Umar asking such a thing is strange and suspicious. He himself should be aware if he was from the assailants at Uqba or not. So this is not some sort of moment of grand taqwa for Ibn al-Khattab. The second point, the article writing claims, is that Huthayfa did taqiyya – he hid the truth from Umar to spare himself. Now, at first glance, this argument seems extremely farfetched. But it in fact seems be on spot especially given what is presented following this argument: He presents a narration where Uthman summons Huthayfa, while Ibn Mas`ud is with him, interrogating Huthayfa about the rumors of him accusing him (Uthman) about “such and such” [there we go again with the censoring]. Huthayfa denies it and then leaves. Ibn Mas`ud then asks him “Why did you deny saying that when I heard you saying these myself!?” Huthayfa replies saying, essentially, I hid the truth to spare myself and my deen (taqiyya). All of the narrations about these incidents and events are saheeh by their isnad. Refer back to the original article and their scans to see it. You can also check each narrator yourself. Finally, another event brought forward is an incident where an early tabi` (possibly young companion, Shurayq) is sitting with Huthayfa in the masjid when Abdullah b. Mas`ud and Abu Musa al-Ash`ari walks in and he says “one of these two is a hypocrite.” Then Huthayfa goes on to praise Ibn Mas`ud very highly. Essentially clarifying – Abu Musa al-Ash`ari is the munafiq [hypocrite]. Sunni scholars tried to “save” the situation here by saying things like “Oh Huthayfa was just mad when he said this” – which is a saying without proof and is far from what is apparent. al-Thahabi, who is someone known to be extremely hostile to Shias and Shiism, tries to accuse al-A`mash in the chain because he has some tashayyu` in him and that Shias tend to dislike Abu Musa. Problem is that al-A`mash is EXTREMELY thiqa and relied upon by the Sunnis. He narrates about 370 times in Bukhari and Muslim’s saheeh. And they’ve never really made a fuss about his slight tashayyu` (khafeef tashayyu`) ever before and in fact most ignored it as anything of any real mention. Next, tadlees/irsal can’t be used as the excuse here either. The narrator al-A`mash is narrating from (Shurayq/Abu Waa’il) is from among his main teachers and al-A`mash `an Shurayq appears many times in the saheehayn AND several times with explicit hearing (simaa`) where he says “I heard Shurayq say” and the like. Shurayq is himself a giant thiqa narrator who was born during the Prophet [sawa]’s life (1 AH). Conclusion: No matter how you look at it, the probability of this hadith being reliable is very high, as Walid b. `Abdullah b. Jumay` was considered thiqa by the earliest rijal scholars, and was only weakened by Ibn Hazim for narrating this hadith. We cannot establish someone's weakness for the sole reason that he narrates a hadith some don't like. The hadith does not contradict the Qur'an or the Sunna in any way, and no doubts were placed on the transmitters' honesty and character. The hadith merely identifies the previously anonymous hypocrites that attacked the Prophet. Through this charge, and through other evidences that we have used to expose the malicious intentions of the 3 Caliphs, we can make a good case against Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman. If they indeed tried to kill the Prophet, then this is the worst of their sins, and no Muslims from any sect should try to exonerate them. Put this beside the many other crimes they have committed against the Ahl al-Bayt and the sahaba, and you'll find that these guys were all bad apples. All deficiencies are mine and all truth is from Allah. May He [awj] forgive us and accept efforts for His cause. Ameen. في أمان الله
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