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  1. Response: According to many narratives in Sunni and Shia books, “Muawiyah bin Sufyan” sent poison for “Ja’da”, daughter to “Ash’ath bin Qays” the same hypocrite who had fundamental role in all incidents at the time of Commander of faithful [AS], and promised her to marry her off to his son “Yazid” if she martyrs Imam “Hassan” [AS]. “Ja’da” did Muawiyah’s order and martyred Imam “Hassan” [AS] by that poison when Imam “Hassan” [AS] returned home for “Iftar”. Preface: Before talking about main topic and showing proof for above issues, it’s necessary to talk about the position of Imam “Hassan” [AS] in the perspective of prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]. Imam “Hassan” [AS] had high dignity and position with Prophet Muhammad [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)], so that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] would put his grandson on his back and say: god I like him, you like him too. “Bukhari” and “Muslim” write in their books: “ اخبرني عَدِيٌّ قال سمعت الْبَرَاءَ رضي الله عنه قال رأيت النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم وَالْحَسَنُ بن عَلِيٍّ علي عَاتِقِهِ يقول اللهم إني أُحِبُّهُ فَأَحِبَّهُ” “Baraa’” says: I saw prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] while having “Hassan bin Ali” [AS] on his back and said: god I like him, you like him too. “Al-Bukhari Ju’fi”- Sahih al-Bukhari, v3, p1370 /// “Muslim bin Hajjaj”- Sahih Muslim- v4,p1883 Enmity towards Imam “Hassan” [AS], enmity with god and prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]! And Sunni scholars have quoted with valid document that enmity with Imam “Hassan” [AS] is enmity with prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]. “Ibn Habban” writes in his book: “حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ إِِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ أَسْبَاطِ بْنِ نَصْرٍ عَنِ السُّدِّيِّ عَنْ صُبَيْحٍ مَوْلَي أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَرْقَمَ أَنّ النَّبِيَّ صلي الله عليه وسلم قَالَ لِفَاطِمَةَ وَالْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَيْنِ أَنَا حَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَكُمْ وسلم لِمَنْ سَالَمَكُمْ” It’s been quoted from “Zeid bin Arqam” that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said to “Fatimah”, “Hassan”, “Hussein”[AS]: I’ll be the enemy of the one who is your enemy and will compromise with the one compromises with you. “Muhammad bin Habban”- Sahih ibn Habban- v15, p434 “Hakim Neishapuri” writes: “أخبرنا أحمد بن جعفر القطيعي ثنا عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل حدثني أبي ثنا تليد بن سليمان ثنا أبو الجحاف عن أبي حازم عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال نظر النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم إلي علي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين فقال أنا حرب لمن حاربكم وسلم لمن سالمكم هذا حديث حسن من حديث أبي عبد الله أحمد بن حنبل عن تليد بن سليمان فإني لم أجد له رواية غيرها وله شاهد عن زيد بن أرقم” It’s been quoted from “Abū Hurairah” that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said to “Ali”, “Fatimah”, “Hassan”, “Hussein”[AS]: I’ll be the enemy of the one who is your enemy and will compromise with the one who compromises with you. “Al-Hakim Nishapuri”- al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain- v3, p161 “Shams ad-Din Dhabi” writes: “أحمد بن حنبل حدثنا تليد بن سليمان حدثنا أبو الجحاف عن أبي حازم عن أبي هريرة نظر النبي (ص) إلي علي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين فقال: أنا حرب لمن حاربكم سلم لمن سالمكم. رواه الحاكم في المستدرك وفيه من طريق أبان بن تغلب عن أبي بشر عن أبي نضرة عن أبي سعيد قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم لا يبغضنا أهل البيت أحد إلا أدخله الله النار” “Ahmad bin Hanbal” has quoted from “Abu Hurairah” that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] looked at “Ali”, “Fatimah”, “Hassan” and “Hussein” and said: I’ll be the enemy of the one who is your enemy and will compromise with the one who compromises with you. “Hakim” has quoted this narrative in the book “Al-Mustadrak” that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said: the one who is our enemy, god will put him in the Hell. “ad-Dhahabi Shafi’i”- Siyar al-A’lam al-Nubala, v2, p123 So, according to narratives, enmity with “Ahl al-Bayt” [AS] and fighting them that Imam “Hassan” [AS] is definitely amongst them as Sunni narratives restate, are like fighting and enmity with prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]. After this short preface, we take a look at evidences that prove that “Muawiyah” is the main murderer of Imam “Hassan” [AS] and he sent poison for “Ja’da” and provoked her by promising her to marry “Yazid” to poison prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]’s grandson. Sending poison by “Muawiyyah” in Sunni resources: To keep the reputation of caliphs, Sunni scholars have not mentioned many of their crimes or they’ve distorted after saying them in a book! For instance the story of Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s poisoning at the instruction of “Muawiyah” has been distorted by Sunni scholars. Manipulating facts by clean hands! As Sunni scholars have admitted, “Ibn Sa’d” and “Tabari” have quoted the story of Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s poisoning at the instruction of “Muawiyah” in their books but this issue has been deleted from these books! After mentioning the name of group of Sunni scholars who believed that “Muawiyah” ordered “Hassan bin Ali” [AS] to be poisoned, “Sibt bin Jawzi al-Hanafi” writes: قال علماء السير: منهم ابن عبد البر سمته زوجته جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس الكندي. وقال السدي: دس اليها يزيد بن معاوية أن سمي الحسن وأتزوجك فسمته فلما مات ارسلت الي يزيد تسأله الوفاء بالوعد فقال أنا والله ما ارضاك للحسن افنرضاك لأنفسنا. وقال الشعبي: إنما دس اليها معاوية فقال سمي الحسن وأزوجك يزيد وأعطيك مائة الف درهم فلما مات الحسن بعث الي معاوية تطلب انجاز الوعده فبعث اليها بالمال وقال: إني احب يزيد وأرجو حياته لولا ذلك لزوجتك اياه. وقال الشعبي: ومصداق هذا القول أن الحسن كان يقول عند موته وقد بلغه ما صنع معاوية لقد عملت شربته وبلغ امنيته والله لا يفي بما وعد ولا يصدق فيما يقول. وقد حكي جدي في كتاب الصفوة قال: ذكر يعقوب بن سفيان في تاريخ أن جعدة التي سمته وقال الشاعر في ذلك: تغر فكم لك من سلوة تفرح عنك غليل الحزن بموت النبي وقتل الوصي وقتل الحسين وسم الحسن وقال ابن سعد في الطبقات: سمه معاوية مرارا لأنه كان يقدم عليه الشام هو وأخوه الحسين (ع). Scholars including “Ibn ‘Abd al-barr” have said:”Ja’da”, daughter of “Asha’th bin Qays”,Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife, has poisoned him. “Suddi” has said: “Yazid bin Muawiyah” sent her message secretly that if you poison “Hassan”, I’ll marry you to my son, “Ja’da” did so, when Imam “Hassan” passed away, she sent someone to “Yazid” to fulfill his promise, he answered: swear to god we were dissatisfied of what you did to Hassan, will it accept it about ourselves? “Shu’bi” has said: “Muawiyah” sent her message secretly and said: poison “Hassan”, I’ll let you marry “Yazid” and will give you one hundred thousand Dirhams. When “Hassan” left the world , she sent someone to “Muawiya” to grant his promise, “Muawiya” sent the money for her and said: I like “Yazid” and want him to live, if it didn’t happen I’d let you to marry him. “Shu’bi” has said: the reason of this saying is that Imam “Hassan” who had realized this act of “Muawiya” said: you made his wish coming true, swear by god he won’t fulfill his promise and won’t live up to what he said. “Ibn al-Jawzi Hanbali” has said in his book “as-Sifat”: “Ya’qub” bin Sufyan” has written in his “history book”: “Ja’da” is the one who poisoned Imam Hassan and poet has said in this regard: {O World} you deceive! How enjoyable you are {that you can tempt people}/// despite the pressure of grief, but people are happy because of you! /// the grief made by the demise of prophet and his successor and Hussein’s martyrdom and Hassan’s poisoning! And “ibn Sa’d” in his book “Al-Tabaqat”: “Muawiyah” poisoned Imam “Hassan” [AS] several times; because he and his brother “Hussein” would come to “Sham”. {city in Syria} Sibt al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, “Tazkirat al-Khawas- p191, 192 Since some might find fault with “Ibn al Jawzi” and don’t trust his saying or might accuse him of being Shia, we’ll quote his biography from Sunni elders till no one can make any excuse. “Shams ad-Din al-Dhahabi” says about him: “يوسف بن قُزْغْلي بن عبد الله. الإمام، الواعظ، المؤرخ شمس الدين، أبو المظفر التركي، ثم البغدادي العوني الحنفي. سِبْط الإمام جمال الدين أبي الفرج ابن الجوزي ؛ نزيل دمشق. وُلِد سنة إحدي وثمانين وخمسمائة... وكان إماما، فقيها، واعظا، وحيدا في الوعظ، علاّمةً في التاريخ والسير، وافر الحرمة، محبباً إلي الناس... ودرّس بالشبلية مدة، وبالمدرسة البدرية التي قبالة الشبلية. وكان فاضلا عالما، ظريفا، منقطعا، منكرا، علي أرباب الدول ما هم عليه من المنكرات، متواضعا صاحب قبول تام” “Yusuf bin Ghazqali Hanafi”, was Imam, Jurisprudent, historian, and unique eloquence, he was so knowledgeable in history and biography, people would respect him a lot and was popular. He would teach in “Badriyah” school for a while, he was knowledgeable, scientist, punctilious and would oppose authorities who would do obscene acts. “Ad-Dhahabi”- Islam history, v48, p183 “Sa’di Khazraji” has also restated that “Tabari” has quoted in his history book that “Muawiyah” sent poison for “Ja’da” and provoked her poisoning Imam “Hassan”: “وفي تاريخ الطبري أن الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنهما مات مسموما في أيام معاوية وكان عند معاوية كما قيل دهاء فدس إلي جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس وكانت زوجة الحسن رضي الله عنه شربة وقال لها إن قتلت الحسن زوجتك بيزيد فلما توفي الحسن بعثت إلي معاوية تطلب قوله فقال لها في الجواب أنا أضن بيزيد” It’s written in Tabari’s history book that “Hassan bin Ali” died due to poisoning at the time of “Muawiyah”, “Muawiyah” who was tricky and smart sent “Ja’da” a juice and said to her, if you kill “Hassan” I’ll marry you to “Yazid”, when “Hassan” passed away, she sent someone to “Muawiyah” telling him to live up to his promise, he answered: I don’t give “Yazid” to anyone. “Al-Sa’di khazraji”- Uyoon al-Anba’ fi Tabaqat-v1, p174 But unfortunately this issue isn’t written in current editions of the book “Tabari history” and has been deleted from this book by the hands of Sunni trustees. Undistorted evidences! “Al-Qurtubi Hanafi” writes: “ومات الحسن مسموما سمته زوجته بنت الأشعث الكندية دسه إليها معاوية” “Hassan” [AS] left the world, his wife, daughter of “Asha’th” poisoned him with Muawiyah’s plots. “Al-Qurtubi Hanafi”- al-Ta’rif bi al-Ansab”- v1, p3 “قال: وقال أبو قتادة وأبو بكر بن حفص: سم الحسن ابن علي رضي الله عنهما: سمته امرأته جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس الكندي. قال: وقالت طائفة كان ذلك منها بتدسيس معاوية إليها وما بذل لها في ذلك، وكان لها ضرائر وأنه وعدها بخمسين ألف درهم، وأن يزوجها من يزيد، فلما فعلت وفي لها بالمال، وقال: حبنا ليزيد يمنعنا من الوفاء لك بالشرط الثاني” “Abu Qatada” and “Abu-Bakr” have said: Imam “Hassan bin Ali” was poisoned by his wife “Ja’da”, daughter of “Ash’ath”. some have said: she did so with Muawiyah’s plot and to gain what Muawiyah had promised her and because Imam [AS] had several wives “Muawiyah” had promised to give her fifty thousand dirhams and marry her to “Yazid”, after poisoning “Hassan” [AS], he gave her the money and said: liking “Yazid” doesn’t let me to live up to the second promise. “Zamakhshari” Sunni famous scholar and interpreter writes: “جعل معاوية لجعدة بنت الأشعث امرأة الحسن مائة ألف حتي سمته، ومكث شهرين وإنه ليرفع من تحته كذا طستاً من دم. وكان يقول: سقيت السم مراراً ما أصابني فيها ما أصابني في هذه المرة، لقد لفظت كبدي فجعلت أقلبها بعود كان كان في يدي. وقد ورثته جعدة بأبيات منها: يا جعد بكيه ولا تسأمي... بكاء حق ليس بالباطل إنك لن ترخي علي مثله... سترك من حاف ولا ناعل وخلف عليها رجل من قريش فأولدها غلاماً، فكان الصبيان يقولون له: يا ابن مسممة الأزواج” “Muawiyah” promised “Ja’da”, daughter of “Ash’ath” to give her one hundred thousand dinars after poisoning Imam “Hassan” [AS], Imam [AS] lived two month after that, poison was so effective that small washbasin would fill with blood, Imam “Hassan” [AS] said: they made me poisonous by such poison several times, but it wasn’t effective, but this time die is cast. After Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom, “Ja’da” married a man from “Quraysh” tribe and gave birth to a boy, his friends would tell him: the son of woman who’s poisoned her husband. “Al-Zamakhshari Kharazmi”- Rabi’al-Abrar- v1, p438 “Al-Baladhuri” says in the book “Ansab al-Asharaf”: “وقد قيل أن معاوية دس إلي جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس امرأة الحسن، وأرغبها حتي سمته وكانت شانئة له. وقال الهيثم بن عدي: دس معاوية إلي ابنة سهيل بن عمرة امرأة الحسن مائة ألف دينار علي أن تسقيه شربة بعث بها إليها ففعلت” It’s been said that “Muawiyah” sent a secret message to daughter of “Ash’ath”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife and encouraged her to poison him, “Ja’da” didn’t like Imam “Hassan”. “Heitham bin Adi” has said: “Muawiyah” plotted and promised the daughter of “Suhail bin Umrah”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife to give her one hundred thousand dinars provided she poisons Imam “Hassan” [AS] and she did so. “Al-Baladuri”- Ansab al-Ashraf”- v1, p389 “Ahmad Nakari Hnafi” writes: “وفي (حبيب السير) مكتوب أن مروان بن الحكم الذي كان حاكما للمدينة من قبل معاوية بن أبي سفيان قد أرسله معاوية ومعه منديل ملطخ بالسم وقال له أن عليه بأي تدبير يستطيعه أن يخدع جعده بنت الأشعث بن قيس زوجة الحسن حتي تقدم بعدها علي إزالة وجود الحسن من هذه الدنيا بواسطة هذا المنديل، وقل لها عني أنها إذا أرسلت الحسن إلي العالم الآخر وأتمت المهمة فإن لها خمسين ألف درهم وأنها ستكون زوجا ليزيد. فأسرع مروان بن الحكم إلي المدينة ليقوم بما قاله معاوية وسعي جاهدا إلي خداع جعدة التي كان لقبها (أسماء) التي انطلت عليها الحيلة ونفذت ما قاله معاوية ودست السم للإمام الحسن عليه السلام الذي سري في جسده فنقل إلي دار السلام” It’s written in the book “Habib al-Siyar” that “Marwan bin Hakam” was the ruler of “Medina” appointed by “Muawiyah”, he summoned him and gave him poisonous tissue and told him: no matter what, just deceive “Ja’da”, daughter of “Ash’ath”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife to kill Imam “Hassan” by this tissue and tell her that I’ll give her fifty thousand dinars if she kills him and will be soon Yazid’s wife. “Marwan” moved to “Medina” quickly to carry out Muawiyah’s order and used different tricks to deceive “Ja’da” to do what “Muawiyah” wants and make her to accept poisoning Imam secretly; she did so and Imam “Hassan” passed away. “Al-Ahmad Nakari”- Dastur al-Ulama’-v4, p50 “Shihāb al-Dīn al-Nuwayri” writes in the interpretation of a poem sung about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s dissentions with “Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan” over caliphate: “وفي ابن هندٍ وفي ابن المصطفي حسنٍ أتت بمعضلة الألباب و الفكر فبعضنا قائلٌ ما اغتاله أحدٌ وبعضنا ساكتٌ لم يؤت من حصر ابن هند الذي أشار إليه هو معاوية بن أبي سفيان، أراد ما كان بينه وبين الحسن بن علي في أمر الخلافة. وأراد بالبيت الثاني ما وقع الاختلاف فيه من أن الحسن مات مسموماً وأن معاوية وعد زوجة الحسن جعدة بنت قيسٍ الكندي بمائة ألف درهمٍ ويزوجها لابنه يزيد إن قتلت الحسن، ففعلت وسمته. ولما مات الحسن وفي لها بالمال وقال: حب حياة يزيد منعني تزويجه منك” There is a proverb about Hend’s son “Muawiyah” and Ali’s son “Hassan” which has confused mind and thought. Some of us believe no one assassinated him! And some have remained silent and don’t say their certain opinion. The son of the “Hend” mentioned in here is “Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan” and it means dissentions occurred between him and “Hassan bin Ali” over caliphate state. And by second verse, poet mentions to differences about this issue that “Hassan bin Ali” died due to poisoning, that “Muawiyah” promised the daughter of “Qays”, “Ja’da” to give her one thousand dirhams after killing “Hassan” and marry her to “Yazid”, “Ja’da” poisoned Imam “Hassan”, after he passed away, “Muawiyah” gave her the money and said: liking Yazid’s life doesn’t let me to marry you to him. “Al-Nuwayri”- Nahayat al- arab fi funoun al-Adab- v5, p193 Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, famous scholar accepted by Sunni writes in the book “Maqatil al-Talibin”: “ودس معاوية إليه حين أراد أن يعهد إلي يزيد بعده، وإلي سعد بن أبي وقاص سماً فماتا منه في أيام متقاربة. وكان الذي تولي ذلك من الحسن زوجته " جعدة " بنت الأشعث بن قيس لمال بذله لها معاوية. وسنذكر الخبر في ذلك” When “Muawiyah” wanted to take allegiance from people in favor of his son as the next caliph, he plotted against Imam “Hassan” and “Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas”, and sent poison secretly and both of them died several days apart from each, Imam “Hassan” wife “Ja’da”, daughter of “Asha’th bin Qays”; was in charge of poisoning him, because of properties that “Muawiyah” gave her that will be soon mentioned. “Isfahani”- Maqatil al-Talibin- v1, p13 Then he quotes this narrative: “عن مغيرة، قال: أرسل معاوية إلي ابنة الأشعث إني مزوجك بيزيد ابني، علي أن تسمي الحسن بن علي، وبعث إليها بمائة ألف درهم، فقبلت وسمت الحسن، فسوغها المال ولم يزوجها منه، فخلف عليها رجل من آل طلحة فأولدها، فكان إذا وقع بينهم وبين بطون قريش كلام عيروهم، وقالوا: يا بني مسمة الأزواج” It’s been quoted from “Mughiyra” that “muawiyah” messaged “Ja’da” that if you poison “Hassan” I’ll marry you to my son “Yazid”. “Ja’da” was Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife,”Muawiyah” sent her one hundred thousand dirhams and she poisoned Imam “Hassan” [AS], he gave the money to her but didn’t marry her to his son. After a while, a man from “Talha” dynasty married “Ja’da” and she gave birth to a child, whenever there was quarrel between them and other families of “Quraysh” tribe, they would reproach Ja’da’s children saying: you’re the sons of a woman who’s poisoned her husband. “al-Isfahani”- Maqatil al-Talibin- v1, p20 “Ibn A’atham Shafi’i” writes: “سمعنا من الثقات أنه حين قرر معاوية بن أبي سفيان أن يجعل ولده يزيدا ولي عهده، مع علمه بأن هذا الأمر صعب المنال نظر لأن الصلح الذي أبرم بينه وبين الحسن بن علي كان من بين شروطه أن يترك معاوية أمر المسلمين شوري بينهم بعد وفاته. لذلك سعي في موت الحسن بكل جهده، وأرسل مروان بن الحكم (طريد النبي صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) إلي المدينة وأعطاه منديلا مسموما وأمره بأن يوصله إلي زوجة الحسن جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس بما استطاع من الحيل لكي تجعل الحسن يستعمل ذلك المنديل المسموم بعد قضاء حاجته وأن يتعهد لها بمبلغ خمسين ألف درهم ويزوجها من ابنه. فذهب مروان تنفيذا لأمر معاوية واستفرغ جهده حتي خدع زوجة الحسن ونفذت المؤامرة وعلي إثر ذلك انتقل الحسن إلي دار السلام واغترت جعدة بمواعيد مروان وأقدمت علي تلك الجريمة الشنعاء” I heard from reliable guys that “Muawiyah” decided to put his son “Yazid” as his successor but he knew that it’s impossible because one of the conditions of treaty made between him and Imam “Hassan” was that “Muawiyah” should abdicate selecting Muslims’ caliph to the council; that’s why he left no stone unturned killing Imam “Hassan”, and “Muawiyah” gave a poisonous handkerchief to “Marwan”- the guy who had been exiled by Prophet- and ordered him giving it to “Ja’da”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife and telling her to use different tricks so that Imam uses this poisonous handkerchief, and to promise “Ja’da” giving her fifty thousand dirhams and marry her to his son “Yazid”. “Marwan” went to “Medina” and did his best to deceive Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife, his effort produced in result and Imam “Hassan” left the world. “Ja’da” was deceived by Marwan’s promises and committed this nefarious sin. “Al-Kufi”- kitab al-Futouh- v4, p319 “Ansari al-Talamsani” writes: “ومات الحسن، رضي الله عنه، مسموما يُقال إن امرأته " جَعْدة " بنت الأشعث بن قيس سمَّته. دَسَّ إليها معاوية أن تسمَّه فإذا مات أعطاها أربعين ألفا، وزوَّجها من يزيد فلما مات الحسن وفَّي لها بالمال وقال لها: حاجة هذا ما صنعت بابن فاطمة، فكيف تصنع بابن معاوية؟ فخسرت وما ربحت” “Hassan” [AS] died while poisoning. It’s been said that “ja’da”, his wife, daughter of “Asha’th bin Qays” has poisoned her, “Muawiyah” messaged her secretly that if she poisons him and he dies, she will be given forty thousand dinars and will marry her to his son “Yazid”. When “Hassan” died, he gave her promised money and said: when you did so to “Fatimah” [AS]’s son what you will do to my son; thus that woman got no benefit. “Al-Kufi”- the book of conquers, v4, p319 “Ibn Abd al-Barr” writes: وقال قتادة وأبو بكر بن حفص سم الحسن بن علي سمته إمرأته جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس الكندي. وقالت طائفة كان ذلك منها بتدسيس معاوية إليها وما بذل لها من ذلك وكان لها ضرائر والله أعلم. “Qatada” and “Abu-Bakr bin Hafs” have said: “Hassan bin Ali” was poisoned by his wife “Ja’da”, and some have said: she did so because of Muawiyah’s plots and what he gave her. “Ibn Abd al-Barr al-Qurtubi”- al-Estiab fi Ma’rifa al-Ashab”- v1, p389 And “Masudi Shafi’i” Sunni famous historian, writes: “وذكر أن امرأته جَعْدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس الكندي سقته السم، وقد كان معاوية دسَّ إليها: إنك إن احتلْتِ في قتل الحسن وَجَّهت إليك بمائة ألف درهم، وزوَّجتك من يزيد، فكان ذلك الذي بعثها علي سَمّه، فلما مات وَفَي لها معاوية بالمال، وأرسل إليها: إنا - نحب حياة يزيد، ولولا ذلك لوفينا لك بتزويجه” “Ja’da”, was daughter of “Ash’ath bin Qays”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife who poisoned Imam “Hassan”, “Muawiyah” messaged her that if you poison “Hassan”, I’ll give you one thousand dirhams and marry you to “Yazid” and such promises provoked her caring out Muawiyah’s plot, after doing so, “Muawiyah” gave her the money but messaged her that I like “Yazid” otherwise I’d live up to my second promise. “Al-Masudi”- the meadows of gold- v1, p346 And “Ibn abi al-Hadid Shafi’i” writes in the book “Comments on the Peak of Eloquence”: “قال أبو الحسن المدائني: وكانت وفاته في سنة تسع وأربعين، وكان مرضه أربعين يوما، وكانت سنه سبعا وأربعين سنة، دس إليه معاوية سما علي يد جعدة بنت الأشعث ابن قيس زوجة الحسن، وقال لها: إن قتلتيه بالسم فلك مائة ألف، وأزوجك يزيد ابني. فلما مات وفي لها بالمال، ولم يزوجها من يزيد. قال: أخشي أن تصنع بابني كما صنعت بابن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم” “Abu al-Hassan Madaeni” says: Imam “Hassan” died in the Year 49 AH at the age 47, and he was sick forty days, “Muawiyah” plotted and sent poison for “Ja’da”, wife of imam “Hassan” [AS] and said: if you kill him by poison I’ll give you one hundred thousand dirhams and marry you to “Yazid”, when she martyred Imam “Hassan”, he gave her the money didn’t let her marring his son and said: I’m afraid that you do to my son what you did to prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]’s grandson. “Ibn Abi’l-Hadid, Comments on the Peak of Eloquence, v16, p7 “Abu’l-Fida” tries to put the blame of “Muawiyah” on his son “Yazid”: “وتوفي الحسن من سم سقته زوجته جعدة بنت الأشعث، قيل فعلت ذلك بأمر معاوية، وقيل بأمر يزيد بن معاوية، ووعدها أنه يتزوجها إِن فعلت ذلك، فسقته السم وطالبت يزيد أن يتزوجها فأبي” Imam “Hassan” [AS] left the world by the poison that his wife “Ja’da”, daughter of “Asha’th” gave him, some have said that “Muawiyah” has ordered, some other have said that “Yazid” ordered and promised her to marry her if she kills “Hassan”, so she did so and asked “Yazid” to marry her but he refused. “Abu’l-Fida”- concise history of humanity - v1, p127 “Ibn al-Wardi” says in his book: “وقيل إن زوجته جعدة بنت الأشعث سمته، قيل بأمر معاوية، وقيل بأمر يزيد أطمعها بالتزوج بها ولم يف” Some have said that “Ja’da” Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife poisoned him, some have said that “Muawiyah” ordered it to be done, some have said that “Yazid” ordered her and provoked her that I’ll marry you {if you poison “Hassan”}, although he didn’t do so. “Ibn al-Wardi”- History of ibn al-Wardi- v1, p158 Mentioned issues are some of proofs that prove that “Muawiyah” sent poison. Muawiyah’s happiness of imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom: Many of Sunni historians have written that “Muawiyah” did gratitude prostration after he was notified about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom. ما بلغ معاوية موته سمع تكبيره من الخضراء، فكبرأهل الشام لذلك التكبير، فقالت فاختة بنت قريظة لمعاوية: أقر الله عينك ما الذي كبرت لأجله؟ فقال: مات الحسن، فقالت أ علي موت ابن فاطمة تكبر؟. فقال: والله ما كبرت شماتة بموته، ولكن استراح قلبي. ودخل عليه ابن عباس رضي الله تعالي عنهما فقال له: يا ابن عباس هل تدري ما حدث في أهل بيتك؟ فقال: لا أدري ما حدث؟ إلا أني أراك مستبشرا وقد بلغني تكبيرك وسجودك فقال: مات الحسن فقال ابن عباس يرحم الله أبا محمد ثلاثا، والله يامعاوية لاتسد حفرته حفرتك، ولايزيد عمره في عمرك، ولئن كنا قد أصبنا بالحسن، فلقد أصبنا بإمام المتقين وخاتم النبيين، فجبر الله تلك الصدعة، وسكن تلك العبرة، وكان الله الخلف علينا من بعده. When “Muawiyah” was notified of Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s demise, the sound of his “Takbir” was heard from “green” palace, people of “Sham” said “Takbir” for his success, “Fakhtah”, wife of “Muawiyah” told him: why did say “Takbir”? He answered: “Hassan” left the world, she said: do you say “Takbir” because of the demise of son of “Fatimah”, “Muawiyah” said: swear by god, I didn’t say “Takbir” due to happiness of his death; but my heart is at ease. “Ibn Abbas” went to “Muawiyah”, he told “Ibn Abbas”: are you aware of what has happened to your family? “Ibn Abbas” said: No I’m not, but I see you happy and heard of your “Takbir” and gratitude prostration, “Muawiyah” said: ”Hassan” passed away. “Ibn Abbas” said: May god bless “Abu Ahmad”- he repeated it three times- swear to god, “Muawiyah”, reducing his life won’t increase your life, if we join him, we’d have joined the leader of the righteous and the ring of prophets and god will make up this apartness and relieve this sorrow; and then god will select successor for us. “Ibn Samu’n al-Baghdadi”- Amali ibn Samu’n- v1,p165 /// “Zamakhshari”- Rabi’ al-Abrar”- v1, p438 /// “Ibn KhalLikan”- wafiyat al-A’yan-v2, p66 In addition, “Zamakhshari” has quoted this issue: “لما بلغ معاوية موت الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنه، سجد معاوية وسجد من حوله شكراً. فدخل عليه ابن عباس فقال له: يا ابن عباس أمات أبو محمد ؟ قال: نعم، وبلغني سجودك، والله يا ابن آكلة الكبود لا يسدن جسدك إياه حفرتك، ولا يزيد انقضاء أجله في عمرك” When “Muawiyah” was told about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom, he and people around him did gratitude prostration, then “Ibn Abbas” came to “Muawiyah”, He told “Ibn Abbas”: did Imam “Hassan” die? He said: Yes he did, I’ve heard that you did gratitude prostration! Swear to god, they won’t put him in your grave and his demise won’t increase your life! “Rabi’ al-Abrar”- Zemakhshari- v1, p431 “Ahmad Zaki Safwat” writes: “لما بلغ معاوية نعي الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنه أظهر الفرح والسرور حتي سجد وسجد من كان معه فبلغ ذلك عبد الله بن عباس وكان بالشام يومئذ فدخل علي معاوية فلما جلس قال معاوية يا بن عباس هلك الحسن بن علي ولم يظهر حزنا فقال ابن عباس نعم هلك إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ترجيعا مكررا وقد بلغني الذي أظهرت من الفرح والسرور لوفاته أما والله ما سد جسده حفرتك ولا زاد نقصان أجله في عمرك ولقد مات وهو خير منك ولئن أصبنا به لقد أصبنا بمن كان خيرا منه جده رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم فجبر الله مصيبته وخلف علينا من بعده أحسن الخلافة” When “Muawiyah” was told about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom, He celebrated openly he and people around him did gratitude prostration, “Ibn Abbas” was notified of it and went to “Muawiyah”, He told “Ibn Abbas”: why aren’t you upset? “Hassan” perished, He said: Yes he left the world, I’ve heard that you celebrated his death openly! Swear to god, they won’t put him in your grave, the shortness of his life won’t increase your life, he left the world while he was better than you, if we join him, we’d have joined someone better than him and his grandfather prophet Muhammad [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)], god will make up his tragedy and after him god will send good successors. “Ahmadi Zaki”- Jamhara Khutab al-Arab- v2, p99 “Ibn Qatib Dinwari” writes in the book “Imamate and policy”, v1, p142 فلما كانت سنة إحدي وخمسين، مرض الحسن بن علي مرضه الذي مات فيه، فكتب عامل المدينة إلي معاوية يخبره بشكاية الحسن، فكتب إليه معاوية: إن استطعت ألا يمضي يوم يمر بي إلا يأتيني فيه خبره فافعل، فلم يزل يكتب إليه بحاله حتي توفي. “فكتب إليه بذلك، فلما أتاه الخبر أظهر فرحا وسرورا، حتي سجد وسجد من كان معه، فبلغ ذلك عبد الله بن عباس، وكان بالشام يومئذ، فدخل علي معاوية، فلما جلس قال معاوية: يا بن عباس هلك الحسن بن علي، فقال ابن عباس: نعم هلك ( إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ) ترجيعا مكررا، وقد بلغني الذي أظهرت من الفرح والسرور لوفاته. أما والله ما سد جسده حفرتك، ولا زاد نقصان أجله في عمرك، ولقد مات وهو خير منك، ولئن أصبنا به لقد أصبنا بمن كان خيرا منه، جده رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم، فجبر الله مصيبته، وخلف علينا من بعده أحسن الخلافة. ثم شهق ابن عباس وبكي، وبكي من حضر المجلس، وبكي معاوية، فما رأيت يوما أكثر باكيا من ذلك اليوم، فقال معاوية: بلغني أنه ترك بنين صغارا. فقال ابن عباس: كلنا كان صغيرا فكبر. قال معاوية: كم أتي له من العمر ؟ فقال ابن عباس: أمر الحسن أعظم من أن يجهل أحد مولده. قال: فسكت معاوية يسيرا، ثم قال: يا بن العباس: أصبحت سيد قومك من بعده، فقال ابن عباس: أما ما أبقي الله أبا عبد الله الحسين فلا. قال معاوية: لله أبوك يا بن عباس، ما استنبأتك إلا وجدتك معدا” In the year 50 AH, Imam “Hassan” [AS] got sick and led to his death, “Medina” ruler wrote letter to “Muawiyah” made him aware of Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s status, “Muawiyah” wrote him in response: do so every day if it’s possible, from then one “Median” ruler would message “Muawiyah” about “Hassan” [AS]’s state till he passed away. After his demise, “Median” ruler notified “Muawiyah”, then he celebrated and prostrated, others did so as well. “Ibn Abbas” was notified of it and went to “Muawiyah”, he told “Ibn Abbas”: O son of “Abbas”: “Hassan” perished, why aren’t you sad? “Ibn Abbas” said: Yes he left the world, all of us belong to god and will return to him- he repeated this sentence- I’ve heard that you celebrated openly due to his demise, swear by god, his body won’t fill your grave, and his short life won’t increase your life, if we join hive, we’ve joined someone better than him and his grandfather prophet Muhammad [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)], so god will make up his tragedy and send good successors. Then “Ibn Abbas” cried loudly and those who were there cried as well, “Muawiyah” cried either, he’d not been seen like this before, then “Muawiyah” said: I’ve heard that he’s left little kids, “Ibn Abbas” said: all of us were little and grew up, “Muawiyah” said: how old was he? “Ibn Abbas” said: Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s status is more clear than that someone doesn’t know his birth date, after a while silence, “Muawiyah” said: O son of “Abbas”, today you became the elder of your tribe, “Ibn Abbas” said: As for what God has left Abu Abdullah Al-Hussein, then no. “Muawiyah” said: I saw you ready whenever I tested you! “Ibn Abd Rabbih” writes: “ولما بلغ معاويةَ موتُ الحسن بن علي خر ساجداً لله، ثم أرسل إلي ابن عباس، وكان معه في الشام، فعزاه وهو مُستبشر، وقال له: ابن كم سنة مات أبو محمد؟ فقال له: سنِه كان يُسمع في قُريش، فالعجب من أن يجهله مثلُك! قال: بلغني أنه ترك أطفالاً صغاراً. قال: كُل ما كان صغيراً يَكْبُر، وإن طِفْلَنَا لكَهْل، وإن صغيرَنا لكَبير. ثم قال: مالي أراك يا معاويةُ مُستبشراً بموت الحسن ابن علي ؟ فوالله لا ينْسأ في أجلك، ولا يَسُد حُفرتك، وما أقَل بقاءَك وبقاءَنا بعده” After “Muawiyah” was notified about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom, he did gratitude prostration and sent someone to get “Ibn Abbas” was in “Sham” . then he condoled “Ibn Abbas” while being happy and told him: how old was “Abu Muhammad” when he left the world? Ibn “Abbas” said: all people of “Quraysh” tribe know his age, it’s weird that a guy like doesn’t know that. Then “Muawiyah” said: I’ve heard he’s left little kids?! Ibn Abbas” said: every little kid will grow up. Then “Ibn Abbas” said: O “Muawiyah” why are you happy of “Hassan bin Ali” [AS]’s martyrdom? Swear by god his demise won’t delay your death and his body won’t fill yours. And how short me and you will live after Imam “Hassan” [AS]. “Ibn Abd Rabbih” al-Iqd al-Farid- v2, p125 Now we recall you prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]’s sayings about enmity and fighting against “Ahl al-Bayt” [AS]: “أَنَا حَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَكُمْ وسلم لِمَنْ سَالَمَكُمْ” “لا يبغضنا أهل البيت أحد إلا أدخله الله النار” Our question from Sunni is that how you judge “Muawiyah” according to what prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] has said and mentioned proofs?
  2. What are the views of Shi'a scholars of rijal on authenticity of the book "Dalāʾil al-Imāma (دَلائِل الإمامَة)" by Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari? I came across a narration of this book quoted in Bihar al-Anwar which Ayatollah Sheikh Muhammad Asif Mohseni (رضي الله عنه) has deemed unreliable (gair-e-mautbar). I don't know whether he deems the entire book unreliable or that particular narration only. Somebody told me even authorship of the book is disputed. Can this book be relied upon?
  3. Recently, I was asked to read Tarikh Al-Tabari's Volume 19 related to Karbala. I made a comment that I was not a fan of Tabari and was told: I even listed my reason (Ibn Saba) as a main reason. I also wrote that history is always written from the perspective of the historian and was given grief over it by another member. Full disclosure: When I read Tabari's Volume 19 related to Yazid's reign several years ago, I had focused primarily on the account of Karbala. I read it this time from a more critical angle and realized how Pro-Yazid or pro-Ummayya Tabari was. Then I read the Translator's Foreword that re-affirmed my theory. Here are some excerpts from Tabari related to Yazid: There may, however, have been a little more to it than that. According to both Balidhuri and Ibn A`tham, Mu`iwiyah had agreed, in the treaty he made with al-Hasan b. `All on the latter's abdication, that there should be a consultative council (shard) to decide the succession after him. However, Tabari fails to mention this. Translator's Foreword For this Ibn al-Kalbi's account, or Tabari's version of it, leaves the main source, Abu Mikhnaf, and adopts the account of `Awanah b. al-Hakam. In this account, Yazid's appointment of Ubaydallah is as the result of advice from his Christian adviser Sarjun, who presents it as Mu`awiyah's advice. Clearly the appointment of `Ubaydallah is being laid at the door of the Christian Sarjun and blame for what ensues is in some way removed from Yazid. Translator's Foreword It is `Awinah, too, who reports the three choices given by Yazid of dealing with Muslim b. `Agil: (a) the first to imprison him; (b) the second to kill him; (c) and the third to banish him. The fact that Ubaydallah chooses to kill him again in some way diminishes the responsibility of Yazid for that action. Translator's Foreword The Baran historian Wahb b. lair (d. 2o7/82s) has Muslim, before he is killed, declare at the behest of `Ubaydallah that he is a leader of rebels, in this way detracting from any heroism Muslim may have shown. This historical report is completely ignored by Tabari. Translator's Foreword According to Abu Mikhnaf, the consensus of historians at this time was that al-Husayn had offered `Omar b. Sad, `Ubaydallah's commander of his forces against al-Husayn at Karbala', three options: (a) he would go back; (b) he would go to a frontier post; or (c) he would go to Yazid and put his hand in his and see what his view was. If these were really offered, then `Ubaydallah's task was over. All he had to do was send al-Husayn to Yazid. However, Ubaydallah insisted that al-Husayn must submit to him; this was too much for al-Husayn. He, his followers, and his family accepted death. The blame for al-Husayn's death according to this is clearly the responsibility of `Ubaydallah, and not Yazid. The purpose of this version originally may have been merely intended to transfer the blame for al-Husayn's death from Yazid to'Ubaydallah. Translator's Foreword Abu Mikhnaf himself has reports for both Yazid and Ubaydallah, poking at the teeth in al-Husayn's head. In'Awanah's version, when the surviving prisoners are sent to Yazid, he treats them well and declares that if he had been there he would never have killed a1-Husayn. From the extracts we have from `Awanah's account, it seems that he is transferring all the blame he can from Yazid to `Ubaydallah. Translator's Foreword There is the same tendency in the sources to try to mitigate the responsibility of Yazid for these crimes against Islam by thrusting the blame on his generals, in this case, Muslim b. Ugbah and Hugayn b. Numayr al-Sakuni. Translator's Foreword When the letters reached Yazid-and there were only two days between their letters-he summoned Sarjun, a mawli of Mu'iwiyah and asked him, "What is your view of the fact that Husayn has directed his attention toward al-Knfah, and Muslim b. 'Agil is in al-KUfah receiving the oath of allegiance on his behalf? I have also learnt that al-Nu'man is weak, I have had other bad reports of him." Then he read him their letters land asked), "Whom do you think that I should appoint as governor of al-Kufah ?" Now Yazid was angry with 'Ubaydallah b. Ziyad, so Sarjun answered him, "Do you think, if Mu' awiyah were recalled to life for you, that you would take his advicel " He answered, "Yes." Sarjun produced a letter of appointment for'Ubaydallah b. Ziyad as governor of al- Kufah and said, " This is the advice of Mteiwiyah written before he died." So he took his advice, joined the two cities under the authority of'Ubaydallah, and sent him his letter of appointment. PG30-31 Yazid's eyes filled with tears , and he said, "I would have been satisfied with your obedience without killing al-Husayn. May God curse Ibn Sumayyah. By God! If it had been I who had accompanied him, I would have let him off. May God have mercy on al-Husayn." Yaziid gave the messenger nothing. PG 169 When the heads were put in front of Yazid-the head of al-Husayn and those of his family and his followers-Yazid recited: [Swords] split the skulls of men who are dear to us, but they were more disobedient and oppressive.547 [Then he added,) "Yet, by God, Husayn, if I had been to fight you, I would not have killed you." PG170 Yazid summoned the women and the children and they were made to sit in front of him. He saw a dreadful sight. He said, "May God detest Ibn Marjinah. If there had been any kinship between him and you, he would not have done this to you; he would not have sent you thus." PG171 According to Abu Mikhnaf-al-Harith b. Ka'b-Fitimah, daughter of `All-:554 When we were made to sit before Yazid, he showed pity to us, ordered things for us and was kind to us. PG171 Yazid never ate lunch or dinner without inviting All b. al-Husayn to join him . PG172 When they were about to leave, he summoned `All b. al -Husayn and said, "God curse Ibn Marjanah , if I had been with your father, he would never have asked a favor from me without my granting it to him; I would have protected him from death with all my power, even through the destruction of some of my own children. But God has decreed what you have seen . Write to me from Medina and report everything that you need." PG172 Then the womenfolk of al-Husayn were brought in to Yazid. The womenfolk of Yazid's family, the daughters of Mu`awiyah and his family, shrieked with grief and lamentation. Falimah, daughter of al-Husayn--she was older than Sukaynah-asked, "Are the daughters of the Apostle of God prisoners , Yazid?" Yazid replied, "Cousin, I was unwilling for this to happen." She said , "By God! Not even an earring has been left to us " He answered, "Cousin, what will be given to you will be greater than what has been taken from you." Then they were taken out and taken to the house of Yazid b. Mu`awiyah. There was not a woman of Yazid's family who did not begin to lament and grieve . Yazid sent to each of the women, "What has been taken from you ?" No woman claimed anything, however expensive, without his giving double its value. Sukaynah used to say, "I never saw a man who did not believe in God who was better than Yazid b. Mu'awiyah." PG173 Tabari mentions the events of Karbala in great detail. Then he lays blame of it on Ibn ZIyad. When Yazi'd forces attacked Medina and Makkah, Tabari has a chapter on it with very limited details. He doesnt mention the plunder, pillage and rape of Medina, the desecration of the Prophet's mosque, etc. So now I have to ask this question: How many of you are fans of Tabari? The choice presented to me was that if I am not a fan of Tabari, then I should throw out 80% of my knowledge of Islamic history. If accepting 80% of Islamic knowledge comes with the price of absolving Yazid for his crimes as Tabari has done, then call me ignorant, uneducated, illiterate, narrow-minded, close-minded, jahil, brain-washed BUT I throw out 80% KNOWLEDGE OF Islamic HISTORY.
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