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A. The Awaited Mahdi The Messenger of Allah, (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) predicted that a time would come when oppression, injustice and aggression would become extremely rampant all over the globe. At that period, a man from the offspring of Muhammad would rise to power over the entire earth, and he would successfully make oppression, injustice and aggression very rare on its surface. 1. Imam Ahmad (d. 241 H) records the hadith in his Musnad: حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي قال الحسن بن موسى قال ثنا حماد بن سلمة عن أبي هارون العبدي ومطر الوراق عن أبي الصديق الناجي عن أبي سعيد الخدري قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم تملأ الأرض جورا وظلما فيخرج رجل من عترتي يملك سبعا أو تسعا فيملأ الأرض قسطا وعدلا ‘Abd Allah (b. Ahmad) – my father (Ahmad b. Hanbal) – al-Hasan b. Musa – Hammad b. Salamah – Abu Harun al-‘Abdi and Maṭar al-Warraq – Abu al-Siddiq al-Naji – Abu Sa’id al-Khudri: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “The earth will be filled with oppression and injustice. Then, a man from my offspring will come out. He will rule by kingdom for seven or nine years. He will fill the earth with equity and justice.”1 Shaykh al-Arnauṭ states: حديث صحيح دون قوله " يملك سبعا أوتسعا " It is a sahih hadith, with the exception of his statement: “he will rule by kingdom for seven or nine years.” 2. Imam Ibn Hibban (d. 354 H) also documents a mutaba’ah for it: أخبرنا أحمد بن علي بن المثنى قال حدثنا أبو خيثمة قال حدثنا يحيى بن سعيد قال حدثنا عوف قال حدثنا أبو الصديق عن أبي سعيد الخدري عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لا تقوم الساعة حتى تمتلئ الأرض ظلما وعدوانا ثم يخرج رجل من أهل بيتي أو عترتي فيملؤها قسطا وعدلا كما ملئت ظلما وعدوانا Ahmad b. ‘Ali b. al-Muthanna – Abu Khaythamah – Yahya b. Sa’id – ‘Awf – Abu al-Siddiq – Abu Sa’id al-Khudri – the Prophet, peace be upon him: The Hour will not occur until the earth is filled with injustice and hostility. Then, a man from my Ahl al-Bayt, or my offspring, will come out. So, he will fill it with equity and justice just as it had been filled with injustice and hostility.”3 Al-Albani (d. 1420 H) says: صحيح Sahih And al-Arnauṭ concurs: إسناده صحيح على شرط الشيخين Its chain is sahih upon the standard of the two Shaykhs. This man will be “sent” by Allah Himself, in the same way that He sent His prophets and messengers, to purify His earth. 3. Imam Abu Dawud (d. 275 H) in his Sunan – under the heading: “The Book of al-Mahdi” (Kitab al-Mahdi) records: حدثنا عثمان بن أبي شيبة ثنا الفضل بن دكين ثنا فطر عن القاسم بن أبي بزة عن أبي الطفيل عن علي رضي الله تعالى عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال "لو لم يبق من الدهر إلا يوم لبعث الله رجلا من أهل بيتي يملؤها عدلا كما ملئت جورا" ‘Uthman b. Abi Shaybah – al-Fadhl b. Dukayn – Fiṭr – al-Qasim b. Abi Barzah – Abu al-Tufayl – ‘Ali, may Allah the Most High be pleased with him – the Prophet, peace be upon him: “Even if there remains only one more day left before the end of Time, Allah will surely SEND a man from my Ahl al-Bayt. He will fill it with justice just as it had been filled with injustice.” ‘Allamah al-Albani says: صحيح Sahih Dr. al-Bastawi, commenting upon the same hadith, states: إسناده صحيح. Its chain is sahih. The same word has been employed to describe the appointment and mission of the prophets and messengers, ‘alaihim al-salam, as well in the Qur’an: كان الناس أمة واحدة فبعث الله النبيين مبشرين ومنذرين Mankind were one community and Allah SENT prophets as givers of glad tidings and warners. And: ولقد بعثنا في كل أمة رسولا Verily, We have SENT within every Ummah a messenger. Of course, this man will not be a prophet or messenger. However, he obviously will occupy a separate divine rank which will certainly be very similar in nature to both. One of the top Imams of the Ahl al-Sunnah from the senior Tabi’in, Ibn Sirrin (d. 110 H), indicated the status of this man in one of his brave pronouncements. 4. Imam al-Maruzi (d. 288 H) records: حدثنا ضمرة عن ابن شوذب عن محمد بن سيرين أنه ذكر فتنة تكون فقال إذا كان ذلك فاجلسوا في بيوتكم حتى تسمعوا على الناس بخير من أبي بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما قيل يا أبا بكر خير من أبي بكر وعمر؟ قال قد كان يفضل على بعض الأنبياء. Dhamrah – Ibn Shawdhab: Muhammad b. Sirrin mentioned a sedition that would occur. Then he said, “When that occurs, sit in your houses until you hear from the people about the one who is superior to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both.” So, it was said, “O Abu Bakr, someone superior to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?!” He replied, “He is even superior to some prophets.” Al-Hafiz (d. 852 H) says about the first narrator: ضمرة بن ربيعة الفلسطيني أبو عبد الله أصله دمشقي صدوق يهم قليلا Dhamrah b. Rubay’ah al-Filisṭini, Abu ‘Abd Allah, his origin was Damascus: Saduq (very truthful), hallucinates a little. Concerning the second narrator, he equally states: عبد الله بن شوذب الخراساني أبو عبد الرحمن سكن البصرة ثم الشام صدوق عابد ‘Abd Allah b. Shawdhab al-Khurasani, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman, he lived in Basra, then Syria: Saduq (very truthful), a devout worshipper of Allah. So, the sanad is hasan. 5. Al-Maruzi has included the report under the heading “Way of Life of the Mahdi and His Justice and Length of His Time.” Meanwhile, here is another riwayah about this Mahdi, ‘(عليه السلام) from the same Abu Dawud: حدثنا سهل بن تمام بن بزيع ثنا عمران القطان عن قتادة عن أبي نضرة عن أبي سعيد الخدري قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم " المهدي مني أجلى الجبهة أقنى الأنف يملأ الأرض قسطا وعدلا كما ملئت جورا وظلما ويملك سبع سنين " Sahl b. Tammam b. Buzay’ – ‘Imran al-Qaṭṭan – Qatadah – Abu Nadhrah – Abu Sa’id al-Khudri: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “The Mahdi is from me, with a broad forehead, a curved nose. He will fill the earth with equity and justice just as it had been filled with oppression and injustice, and he will rule by kingdom for seven years.”15 Al-Albani says: حسن Hasan. Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 H) also declares: الأحاديث التي يحتج بها على خروج المهدي أحاديث صحيحة The ahadith that are relied upon as hujjah (proof) for the coming out of the Mahdi are sahih ahadith. So, he will be “the Mahdi”, from the blood and flesh of the Messenger, and “will rule by kingdom”. He will be “sent” by Allah to reduce oppression and injustice on the earth to the barest minimum. He will rule the whole planet as a just, righteous and rightly guided royal khalifah, assisted by his Lord. 6. Interestingly, his personal name will be Muhammad, like that of our Prophet. Imam al-Tirmidhi (d. 279 H) documents: حدثنا عبيد بن أسباط بن محمد القرشي الكوفي قال حدثني أبي حدثنا سفيان الثوري عن عاصم بن بهدلة عن زر عن عبد الله قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لا تذهب الدنيا حتى يملك العرب رجل من أهل بيتي يواطئ اسمه اسمي ‘Ubayd b. Asbaṭ b. Muhammad al-Qurashi al-Kufi – my father – Sufyan al-Thawri – ‘Asim b. Bahdalah18 – Zirr – ‘Abd Allah (b. Mas’ud): The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “This world will not end until a man from my Ahl al-Bayt rules the Arabs by kingdom. His name will correspond with my name.” Al-Tirmidhi says: هذا حديث حسن صحيح This hadith is hasan sahih. And al-Albani agrees: حسن صحيح Hasan sahih. His government, obviously, will be that of the House of Muhammad, and he will bring the supreme glory to Islam all over the universe. He will achieve the impossible, with divine help, and will fulfill the dreams of all the prophets and messengers. 7. Meanwhile, there are certain quick points about the Mahdi that must not be overlooked. First, belief in his coming in an ‘aqidah of Islam, and has been so named by ‘ulama of the Ahl al-Sunnah too. For instance, al-Albani states: وما مثل هؤلاء إلا كمثل من ينكر عقيدة نزول عيسى عليه السلام في آخرالزمان التي تواتر ذكرها في الأحاديث الصحيحة، لأن بعض الدجاجلة ادعاها، مثل ميرزا غلام أحمد القادياني، وقد أنكرها بعضهم فعلا صراحة، كالشيخ شلتوت، وأكاد أقطع أن كل من أنكر عقيدة المهدي ينكرها أيضا These people are only like those who deny the ‘aqidah of the descent of ‘Isa, ‘(عليه السلام), at the end of Time - whose mention has reached the level of tawattur in sahih ahadith – simply because some impostors claim it, such as Mirza Ghulam Ahmad al-Qadiyani. Some of them, like Shaykh al-Shaltut, have explicitly denied it. Also, I am fairly certain that everyone who denies the ‘AQIDAH of the Mahdi also denies it too. This means that whoever does not believe in the descent of Prophet ‘Isa, ‘(عليه السلام), during the End Time or in the coming of the Mahdi and his mission and activities, has a defective iman (faith). Shaykh Ibn Baz (d. 1420 H) puts the matter forward in an even stronger manner: وقدصحت وتواترت هذه الأخبار عن رسول الله عليه الصلاة والسلام في نزول الممسيح ابن مريم من السمماء في آخر الزمان، ومن خروج يأجوج ومأجوج وخروج الدجال في آخر الزمان، ومن مجيء المهدي، كل هذا االأربعة ثابتة: المهدي في آخر الزمان يملأ الأرض قسطاً بعد أن ملئت جوراً، ونزول المسيح ابن مريم، وخروج الدجال في آخر الزمان، وخروج يأجوج ومأجوج، كل هذا ثابت بالأحاديث الصحيحة المتواترة عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فإنكارها كفر وضلال Sahih and mutawatir reports have been reported from the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, concerning the descent of the Masih Ibn Maryam from the sky during the End Time, and concerning the coming out of Yajuj and Majuj and the coming out of the Dajjal during the End Time, and concerning the arrival of the Mahdi. All these four are well-proved - the Mahdi during the End Time who will fill the earth with equity after it had been filled with oppression; the descent of the Masih Ibn Maryam; the coming out of the Dajjal during the End Time, and the coming out of Yajuj and Majuj – each of these is well proved through sahih, mutawatir ahadith from the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. THEREFORE, denial of them is kufr (disbelief and apostasy) and dhalal (heresy).23 8. We also read this Q&A by the same Shaykh: يوجد لدينا رجل ينكر المسيح الدجال والمهدي ونزول عيسى عليه السلام ويأجوج ومأجوج ولا يعتقد في شيء منها، ويدعي عدم صحة ما ورد في ذلك من أحاديث… وهو يصلي ويصوم ويأتي الفرائض. فما حكمه؟…. مثل هذا الرجل يكون كافراً (Question) There is a man with us who denies the Masih al-Dajjal, THE MAHDI, the descent of ‘Isa, ‘(عليه السلام), and Yajuj and Majuj, and does not believe any of it, and rejects the authenticity of the ahadith narrated about (all) that …. And he performs salat and fasts, and fulfils the obligatory duties (of Islam). So, what is his status?.... (Answer) Anyone like this man is a kafir. It is thus absolutely obligatory upon all Muslims to believe in the coming of Muhammad the Mahdi from the offspring and Ahl al-Bayt of the noble Rasul to overturn oppression and injustice in our world. Failure to uphold this belief may kick a Muslim out of Islam. Another point is that the supplication ‘(عليه السلام) (peace be upon him) is added after the name of the Mahdi too, like in the case of prophets and angels. Al-Albani again says about ‘Isa b. Maryam: فيأتم هو بالمهدي عليهما السلام He (‘Isa) himself will be led in salat by the Mahdi, ‘(عليه السلام) (peace be upon them both). And: كما فعل بعض الفرق قديما حين بادروا إلى إنكار القدر الإلهي إبطالا للجبر، وبعض العلماء في العصر الحاضر إلى إنكار عقيدة نزول عيسى وخروج المهدي عليهما السلام It is like how some sects did in the past when they denied the existence of divine destiny in order to invalidate the doctrine of fatalism, and how some contemporary ‘ulama deny the ‘aqidah of the descent of ‘Isa and the rise of al-Mahdi, ‘(عليه السلام). 9. Imam al-Mubarakfuri (d. 1282 H) submits too: قال الخطابي ويكون ذلك في زمن المهدي أو عيسى عليهما الصلاة والسلام أو كليهما Al-Khaṭṭabi (d. 388 H) said: “That will occur during the time of the Mahdi or ‘Isa, ‘alaihima al-salat wa al-salam (peace and blessings be upon them both), or during the time of both of them.”27 However, we have seen Sunni scholars who prefer to say radhiyallahu ‘anhu and other supplications instead. Lastly, one of the titles of the Mahdi is al-Muntazar (the Awaited). Imam al-Kattani (d. 1345 H) gives this heading in his book: خروج المهدي الموعود المنتظر الفاطمي. The coming out of the Promised Mahdi, the Awaited (al-Muntazar) al-Faṭimi (i.e. from the offspring of Faṭimah). 10. Al-Mubarakfuri also writes: وقال القاضي الشوكاني في الفتح الرباني الذي أمكن الوقوف عليه من الأحاديث الواردة في المهدي المنتظر خمسون حديثا Al-Qadhi al-Shawkani (d. 1250 H) said in al-Fath al-Rabbani: “What I have been able to study from the ahadith documented about the Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar) are fifty ahadith.”29 The title of one of Dr. al-Bastawi’s books bears the appellation as well: المهدي المنتظر في ضوء الأحاديث والآثار الصحيحة وأقوال العلماء وآراء الفرق المختلفة The Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar) in the Light of Sahih Ahadith and Athar and the Statements of the Scholars and the Views of Different Sects. In that same book, he mentions this book by Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haythami (d. 974 H): القول المختصر في علامات المهدي المنتظر A Concise Statement on the Signs of the Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar). 11. He further cites a book by Shaykh Mur’i b. Yusuf al-Hanbali (d. 1033 H): فوائد الفكر في ظهور المهدي المنتظر The Benefits of Thinking about the Appearance of the Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar). He gives also the title of a treatise by Shaykh ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-‘Abbad, whom he identifies as a former Vice Chancellor of the Islamic University of al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, published in the journal of the university of Dhu al-Qa’dah 1389 H, pp. 126-164: عقيدة أهل السنة والأثر في المهدي المنتظر The ‘Aqidah of the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Athar Concerning the Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar). This again reminds that the issue of the Mahdi is a matter of ‘aqidah. https://www.al-islam.org/imam-al-mahdi-twelfth-khalifah-sahih-sunni-ahadith-toyib-olawuyi/1-awaited-mahdi (......Continued)
There has not appeared via authentic isnads, hadiths testifying to the virtues of any Companion like what has appeared testifying to the virtues of Ali b. Abi Talib. ~ Ahmad ibn Hanbal Sunni source; Ibn Abi Ya’la, Tabaqat al-hanabila, vol. 2, page 156. As narrated to us by Jabir ibn Abdullah, the Prophet ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) said; Ali b. Abi Talib is the earliest to embrace Islam in my community, the most knowledgeable of them, the most correct in his religion, the most virtuous in his certainty, the most prudent, generous and brave of heart, and he is the imam and caliph after me. Shia source; Shaykh al-Saduq, Amali al-saduq, p. 7. The same hadith can be found in many Sunni collections, even early ones such as the Musannaf of al-Sanani and the Musnad of ibn-Hanbal. However, with absence of the last section referring to Imam Ali (عليه السلام) as a Caliph and Imam. Other hadiths such as Ghadir Khumm, ruled by al-Tirmidhi and al-Hakim al-Naysaburi to be sahih (authentic), and the hadith of two weighty things (Quran and Ahlul Bayt) ruled by al-Hakim, Ibn Khuzayma, Muslim b. al-Hajjaj to be sahih (authentic). Among some, al-Naysaburi declared the hadith narrated from the Prophet ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) “O Fatima, Allah is angered when you are angered, Allah is pleased when you are pleased”, to be sahih (authentic). Many times Shia narrations were openly stolen and incorporated into the Sunni books by giving them different authorship. For example, Shaykh al-Saduq quoted (Amali, p. 6) Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (عليه السلام) that the Prophet ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) had said that the best of Allah’s (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) slaves are those “Who, when they seek perfection in their acts, hope for good tidings, seek forgiven when they do wrong, are thankful to Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) when they give, persevere when they are tired, and forgive when they are angered.” The same hadith can be found in Hilyat al-awliya (volume 6, page 120) by Abu Nuy’am but through a very Sunni isnad. Shaykh al-Saduq died before Abu Nuy’am. Overall, at least 100 Shia narrators found themselves in the major Sunni “authentic” books. In rijal alshi'ah fii asaneed alsunnah we can find the names of 140 of them. al-Muraja’at lists 100 of them. For example, narrations from Adi ibn Thabit al-Kufi can be found in Sunan ibn Majah and other books. Ibn Ma`in has described him as a "Shi`a extremist," while Dar Qutni calls him "Rafidi, extremist, but also reliable." Al-Mas`udi says, "We have never seen anyone who is so outspoken in preaching his Shi`a views like `Adi ibn Thabit."
I am talking about these two ahadith found in Sunni books: Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Whoever prays like us and faces our Qibla and eats our slaughtered animals is a Muslim and is under Allah's and His Apostle's protection. So do not betray Allah by betraying those who are in His protection." Sahih al-Bukhari “Whoever offers the morning prayer, he is under the protection of Allah, so do not betray Allah by betraying those who are under His protection. Whoever kills him, Allah will seek him out until He throws him on his face into Hell.” Grade: Sahih So I should ask, how can the so called "Sunnis" who claim to be followers of the Sunnah, disbelieve in the above ahadith? Do they choose which part of the religion to believe in and which part to disbelieve in? Have they become like the Jews? Have they become so proud that now they and their scholars are better criteria for deeming a Muslim kafir than the Prophet himself? Or do they no longer believe in the near perfect authenticity of the Sahih al-Bukhari and their rijal books? My personal conclusion is that the vocal people among the Sunnis who do not consider Shias Muslim, are hypocrites. They are not subservient to God and his Prophet. Rather they are proud of themselves and the fact that they are not Shia. Now if anyone is willing to shed any light on these two ahadith or clear any misconception, I'm here to listen.
(salam) How authentic and sound are the narrations of our hadith compared to the 6 books of Sunnism (Bukhari muslim)? Our Sunni brethren argue that the hadith books that we refer to are a bunch of fabricated myths and stories. They say that the narrations are not very sound and that none of them root back to the prophet through a solid continuous chain of narrators. Do their scholars actually spend years to study our hadith like our scholars do in Hawza? I doubt that they do but how can this claim be refuted? I find this issue with hadith very hard to refute because I have limited knowledge on the basics of the science of Hadith (ilm al hadith) and the science of narrators(ilm al rejal). What do you guys think?
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