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Found 8 results

  1. Salaam all, I thought I would share some research for anyone interested in how the imamate was taken from Imam 'Ali (عليه السلام). I hope it is educational for those interested in this topic please share any other resources you have: Did you know that that Abu Bakr, Umar, Abu Ubaydah al-Jarrah and Salim are known as the 'people of the contract/agreeement' (ahl al-Sahifah/ahl al-'Uqd) because they were all collectively involved in making sure the caliphate never reached Imam 'Ali? At Saqifa Abu Bakr offered Umar and Abu Ubaydah to the helpers (ansar) but then Umar pledged allegience to Abu Bakr when things became heated: The Ansar gathered in a roofed building of the Banu Sa'idah to render their oath of allegiance to Sa'd b. Ubadah. This news reached Abu Bakr, so he came to them with 'Umar and Abu 'Ubaydah b. al-Jarrah, asking [them] why [they had gathered]. They replied, "Let us have a ruler (amir) from us and another from you." Abu Bakr said, "The rulers will be from us, and the viziers from you." Abu Bakr then added, "I am pleased [to offer] you one of these two men: 'Umar or Abu 'Ubaydah. Some people came to the Prophet asking him to send a trustworthy man with them. The Messenger of God said that he would send a truly trustworthy man with them, and he sent Abu 'Ubaydah b. al-Jarrah. I am pleased [to offer] you Abu 'Ubaydah." 'Umar stood up saying, "Who among you would be agreeable to leave Abu Bakr whom the Prophet gave precedence? And he gave him the oath of allegiance. The people followed ['Umar]. The Ansar said, or some of them said, "We will not give the oath of allegiance [to anyone] except 'Ali." (Tabari Vol 9 Pg 186) For what reason did Abu Bakr have special designs for Abu Ubaydah and Umar? We see their names together again at the passing of Umar: In the Musnad of Ahmad that Umar said: If my term overtakes me, and Abu Ubaydah al-Jarrah is still alive, then I would appoint him as khalifah. If my Lord asked me, I would say, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, "Every Prophet has a trustworthy (companion), and my trustworthy (companion) is Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah.’” If my term overtakes me, and Abu Ubaydah al-Jarrah has died, I would appoint Mucadh Ibn Jabal as khalifah. If my Lord asked me, ‘Why did you appoint him as khalifah? I would say, ‘I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying, “He will be raised up on the Day of Resurrection a distance in front of the men of knowledge.’” They had both died during his khilafah. Also in the Musnad there is from Abu Rafi that someone spoke to Umar at his death about the appointment of a khalifah, so he said, ‘I have seen among my companions an unfortunate eagerness. If one of two men had reached me, and then I had entrusted this command to him, I would have been sure of him: Salim the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfah and Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah.’ (History of the Caliphs Who Took the Right Way Pg 140-141 - Suyuti) If we turn to Shia sources we see that these people created a document and were known as the "ahl al-Sahifa" or people of the parchment. They have also been narrated about in Sunni sources and are known as people of the agreement (ahl al-'Uqd) although they are not named explictly unlike Shia sources. Here the prominent sahabi Ubayy bin Ka'b (رضي الله عنه) describes them as doomed because they have mislead the people: It was narrated that Qais bin 'Ubad said: "While I was in the Masjid in the first row, a man pulled me from behind and moved me aside, and took my place. By Allah, I could not focus on my prayer, then when he left I saw that it was Ubayy bin Ka'b. He said: '0 boy, may Allah protect you from harm. This is what the Prophet instructed us to do, to stand directly behind him.' Then he (Ubayy) turned to face the Qiblah and said: 'Doomed are Ahl Al-'Uqd, by the Lord of the Ka'bah! - three times.'Then he said: 'By Allah, I am not sad for them, but I am sad for the people whom they have misled.' I said: '0 Abu Ya'qub, what do you mean by Ahl Al-'Uqd?' He said: 'The rulers."' https://sunnah.com/nasai/10/32 An 'Aqd is an agreement or contract so the narration is saying that the people who created the contract (ahl al-'Uqd) have misguided the people! If you research this Qays ibn Ubad is in fact Sulaym ibn Qays who records plenty of information about the people of the contract in his book now known as Kitab Sulaym. In his book he names Abu Bakr, Umar, Abu Ubaydah and Salim although I will just quote 1 or 2 examples: Imam Ali said to them: ‘You have been faithful to the accursed document which you contracted to him in the Kabah that stated, “If Allah Kills Mohammed or he passes away, we will keep away this matter (Caliphate) from us the Peopleasws of the Household”. Abu Bakr said, ‘What is your knowledge of that? We have not informed you of this’. Heasws said: ‘You, O Zubeyr, and you, O Salman , and you, O Abu Dharr , and you, O Miqdad , I ask you for the sake Allah and for the sake of the Islam, but did you not hear the Messenger of Allah say that, and you were listening: ‘So and so, and so and so – until he counted these five – have written between them a writing, and they have taken an oath in it, if I am killed or were to pass away?’ They said, ‘Our Allah , yes. We have indeed heard the Messenger of Allah say that to youasws that they have made an agreement between them and have vowed to keep to it, and wrote out an agreement among them that if he were to be killed or passed away, they will make appear against you these happenings, O Ali’. (Kitab Sulaym Hadith 4) Imam 'Ali also mentioned this document when 'Umar passed away: So Ali stood up at that – and he was angry from the words of Talha – so he took out something which he had kept hidden, and explained something about it, and said about the day Umar died, and he (Talha) did not understand what heasws meant by it, and came in front of Talha – and the people were listening – so he said: ‘O Talha, but by Allah , there is none from the parchments, that I shall meet Allah with, which is more beloved to me than the parchment (agreement) of those five who had vowed to remain faithful to it, which they placed in the Kaaba during the farewell Pilgrimage that, ‘If Allah Kills Muhammad or he were to pass away, they would collectively plot against me so that I would never arrive to the Caliphate’. (Kitab Sulaym Hadith 11) This can also be found in Sunni sources but Imam 'Ali's name has been changed to "a man" to save the embarassment I presume: According to Ibn Hibban's account: Abu Bakr then addressed people: "if you would prefer, you could gather and consult and give the guardianship to whomever you would like, and if you prefer my personal opinion, …". He cried at this time and people cried too. They told him, "O the successor of the messenger of God! You are better and more knowledgeable than us …". He then called 'Umar and gave him the letter so that he reads it to people. On his way to the mosque, "a man" told 'Umar: "Abu Hafs! What is in the letter?" He replied, "I do not know. But whatever it is, I will be the first person to listen and obey." The man said, "I swear to God that I know what is in the letter. The first year you made him the emir, and this year he has made you the emir." [Ibn Qutayba, al-Imāma wa l-siyāsa, vol. 1, p. 19-20; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaghāt al-kubrā, vol. 3, p. 199-200; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 3, p. 428-430.] To also cover up the embarassment a counter-hadith was also fabricated to say that Imam 'Ali would like to meet Allah with Umar's "book of deeds" which has no doubt been substituted for the agreement: Ibn Abu Mulaika reported: I heard Ibn 'Abbas as saying: When 'Umar b. Khattab was placed in the coffin the people gathered around him. They praised him and supplicated for him before the bier was lifted up, and I was one amongst them. Nothing attracted my attention but a person who gripped my shoulder from behind. I saw towards him and found that he was 'Ali. He invoked Allah's mercy upon 'Umar and said: You have left none behind you (whose) deeds (are so enviable) that I love to meet Allah with them. By Allah, I hoped that Allah would keep you and your two associates together. I had often heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: I came and there came too Abu Bakr and 'Umar; I entered and there entered too Abu Bakr and 'Umar; I went out and there went out too Abu Bakr and 'Umar, and I hope and think that Allah will keep you along with them. https://sunnah.com/muslim/44/18 Of course this is an Umayyad fabrication which is often used as a "proof" still today. The scribes must of been on a role because we see the people of the contract again by the same narrator: Ibn Abu Mulaika reported: I heard `A'isha as saying and she was asked as to whom Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) would have nominated as his successor if he had to nominate one at all. She said: Abu Bakr. It was said to her: Then whom after Abu Bakr? She said: `Umar. It was said to her. Then whom after `Umar? She said: Abu `Ubaida b. al-Jarrah, and then she kept quiet at this. https://sunnah.com/muslim/44/10 If we couple all of the above with the historical events that took place after the death of the prophet (s) it seems logical that these people did indeed work to keep the imamate away from Imam 'Ali. There are people who say Kitab Sulaym is completely fabricated but this cannot be true, as some of the topics found in his book can be corroborated with the wider sources. It would seem logical to take what is common from the book and leave was is rare or not narrated across all sources.
  2. Most of us have heard that the foundation of Karbala was laid at Saqifah. Here is how: 01. Abu Bakr became Caliph at Saqifah (632 AD) 02. Caliph Abu Bakr made Yazid bin Abu Sufiyan a general for the invasion of Roman Syria (634 AD) 03. Caliph Umar and Abu Sufiyan were extremely close (throughout the Meccan years of the Prophet (saw) and post Mecca victory) 04. Caliph Umar made Yazid bin Abu Sufiyan the governor of Syria (639 AD) 05. Caliph Umar made Muawiya bin Abu Sufiyan the governor of Syria after the death of Yazid bin Abu Sufiyan (639 AD) 06. Caliph Umar left Muawiya bin Abu Sufiyan unchecked while rotated all other governors (639 - 656 AD) 07. Marwan bin Hakam and Muawiya heavily influenced Caliph Uthman reign (644 - 656 AD) 08. Muawiya was able to create a huge army and amass a tremendous amount of wealth under caliphs Umar and Uthman (639 - 656 AD) 09.Muawiya broke the treaty with Imam Hasan (as) and made his son Yazid caliph (680 AD) 10. Karbala happened (680 AD)
  3. Saudi Crown pricne said: Prince Mohammed bin Salman said in a television interview broadcast on Tuesday that his country could crush Iran-backed Houthi rebels in Yemen where a Saudi-led military coalition is fighting to restore the government of president Abdrabu Mansur Hadi. Asked if Saudi Arabia was ready to open a direct dialogue with Tehran, Prince Mohammed said it was impossible to talk with a power that was planning for the return of the Imam Mahdi. Shiites believe Imam Mahdi was a descendant of the Prophet Mohammed who went into hiding 1,000 years ago and will return to establish global Islamic rule before the end of the world. "How do you have a dialogue with this (Iran)?" Prince Mohammed said. "Its (Iran’s) logic is that the Imam Mahdi will come and they must prepare the fertile environment for the arrival of the awaited Mahdi and they must control the Muslim world." Under Iran’s constitution, in place since the 1979 revolution, the country’s supreme leader is the earthly representative of the Imam until his return. http://www.thenational.ae/world/middle-east/saudi-arabias-prince-mohammed-bin-salman-rules-out-dialogue-with-iran Trump to visit Saudi capital Riyadh to meet 50 countries alliance. The summit agenda is expected to focus on combating Islamist militants and the growing regional influence of Iran. Mr Trump has been a fierce critic of the Iran deal which eased sanctions in return for a curb on its nuclear activities. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-39979189 so modern day Saqifa is in process to deny the Chosen representative Mahdi and his supporters and those awaiting for him.
  4. Details and truth about such historical event is mentioned in THIS DOCUMENT with all references.
  5. وَلَا تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۚ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَٰئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولًا [ISRA-36] And do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge. Indeed, the hearing, the sight and the heart - about all those [one] will be questioned. حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْجَعْدِ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعْبَةُ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي مَنْصُورٌ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رِبْعِيَّ بْنَ حِرَاشٍ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيًّا، يَقُولُ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم"‏ لاَ تَكْذِبُوا عَلَىَّ، فَإِنَّهُ مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَىَّ فَلْيَلِجِ النَّارَ ‏"‏‏ Narrated Ali: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Do not tell a lie against me for whoever tells a lie against me (intentionally) then he will surely enter the Hell-fire." Bukhari #106, Muslim #1 The basis or foundation of most of the twelver shia beliefs including Ghadir, Saqifa, Imamat or Khilafat, Fadak, Attack on Sayeda, Compilation of Quran and many more, is only one book, namely Book of Sulaym Bin Qais (2BH-76AH) https://www.hubeali.com/kitab-e-sulaym/. Which is the first compilation of ideological historical narrations of twelver shias. Before this book such concepts were not present anywhere in the way as they are described and interpreted in the book. They all were written/scripted in secrecy. And according to its sole narrator, witness and care taker Abban Bin Abi Ayash Feroz, this book was given to him by Sulaym before his death. Then Abban showed this book to some other people including the famous Umar bin Uzaina. All prominent shia scholars including Kulayni, Sadooq, Toosi, Numani, Majlisi etc etc etc had narrated from this book narrations concerning alomost all their core beliefs and collected other reports making the Book of Sulaym their nucleus and basis. In every era majority of shia scholars made this book their foundation for all major beliefs and propagated the book and its concepts to the people of their time. This is the book that made them “RAWAFIDH”, i.e enemies and haters of many true companions of Prophet s.a.w.w which are highly praised by Prophet s.a.w.w in many authentic and mutawatir ahadith. Ibn Abi Zaynab al-Nu’mani (d. 360AH) has said regarding the book of Sulaym bin Qais: “There is no conflict among the entire Shiites who were learned and who transmitted (Shiite learning) from the Imams, that the book of Sulaym bin Qais al-Hilali, is one of the fundamental and oldest source books reported by scholars and transmitters of the traditions of Ahl al-Bayt. It was one of the most important reference books the Shiites refer to and depend on”. [Al-Ghabah by Shaikh Numani, Died 360AH] https://www.al-islam.org/kitab-al-ghayba-book-occultation-sheikh-an-numani/preface-verifier#about-author AUTHENTICITY OF BOOK OF SULAYM BIN QAIS (2BH-76AH) WHICH IS THE FIRST COMPILATION OF IDEOLOGICAL HISTORICAL NARRATIONS OF TWELVER SHIAS. About Sulaym Bin Qais whatever information is available comes from Abban bin abi Ayash, the sole narrator and the witness of the book. While Abban himself is an extremely weak narrator. And it is one of those lucky persons about which there is consensus b/w both shia and sunni rijal scholars that he is weak and liar. But twelver shias have accepted from this weak/liar narrator not just few narrations but an entire book, which is sadly the foundation of all their major core beliefs. Status of Abban bin Abi Ayash Feroz in Shia Rijal. ZAEEF (WEAK) AND KAZAB (LIAR). And there is ijma among shia rijal scholars about his weakness and on being his fabricator, teller of untruths. 1. Rijal Al-Khoi No.22 , Abban bin Abi Ayash is weak according to Shaikh Toosi and Ibn Ghadairi. 2. See Rijal Tusi 3. See Rijal Ibn Gadairi Other shia rijal books, confirming the same. 4. See Rijal Ibn Dawud 5. See Jami‘ Al-Ruwat 6. See Al-Mufid min Mujam Rijal Al-Hadith 7. See Mustadrakat Ilm Al-Rijal Abban bin Abi Ayyash in Sunni Rijal is also WEAK (ZAEEF), LIAR (KAZAB) http://www.al-milani.com/library/lib-pg.php?booid=4&mid=3&pgid=186 https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%86_%D8%A8%D9%86_%D8%A3%D8%A8%D9%8A_%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B4 REMINDER يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاءَ لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِنْ يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَاللَّهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الْهَوَىٰ أَنْ تَعْدِلُوا ۚ وَإِنْ تَلْوُوا أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm in justice, witnesses for Allah , even if it be against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is more worthy of both. So follow not [personal] inclination, lest you not be just. And if you distort [your testimony] or refuse [to give it], then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted. Surah Nisa – 135 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ لِلَّهِ شُهَدَاءَ بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَلَا يَجْرِمَنَّكُمْ شَنَآنُ قَوْمٍ عَلَىٰ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا ۚ اعْدِلُوا هُوَ أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah , witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah ; indeed, Allah is Acquainted with what you do. Surah Maida - 8
  6. Assalam O Alaikum, For ballanced and more approperiate explanation regarding major conflicts and disputes between shias and sunnies watch these videos. May Allah guide us to true teachings of Quran and Sunnah. Ameen
  7. اِس سوال پر اسلامی تاریخ کے ہردور میں اظہارِ خیال کیاگیا ہے اور اِس تحریک اور قیام کے مختلف مقاصد ومحرکات بیان کئے گئے ہیں۔اظہارِ خیال کرنے والے بعض حضرات نے انتہائی جزئی مطالعے، کوتاہ فکری، کسی خاص فکری رجحان سے وابستگی یا بدنیتی کی بنا پرامام حسین ؑ کے قیام کا مقصد ایسی چیزوں کو قرار دیا ہے جو اسلام کی روح، تاریخی حقائق، امام حسین ؑ کی شخصیت اور آپ ؑ کے مقامِ عصمت وامامت کے یکسرمنافی ہیں۔ مثلاً یہ کہنا کہ نواسہ رسول کا اقدام نسلی یا قبائلی چپقلش کا نتیجہ تھا، یا امام ؑ نے امت کے گناہوں کی بخشش کے لیے اپنے خون کا نذرانہ پیش کیاوغیرہ وغیرہ اِسی قسم کے مقاصد میں سے ہیں۔ آپ کی اس حوالے سے کیا رائے ہے؟ اور آج کے دور میں ہم سے امام کا کیا تقاضہ ہے؟
  8. (bismillah) (salam) Sahih Bukhari volume 8, Hadith 817: Narrated Ibn `Abbas: I used to teach (the Qur'an to) some people of the Muhajirln (emigrants), among whom there was `Abdur Rahman bin `Auf. While I was in his house at Mina, and he was with `Umar bin Al−Khattab during `Umar's last Hajj, `Abdur−Rahman came to me and said, "Would that you had seen the man who came today to the Chief of the Believers (`Umar), saying, 'O Chief of the Believers! What do you think about so−and−so who says, 'If `Umar should die, I will give the pledge of allegiance to such−and−such person, as by Allah, the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr was nothing but a prompt sudden action which got established afterwards.' `Umar became angry and then said, 'Allah willing, I will stand before the people tonight and warn them against those people who want to deprive the others of their rights (the question of rulership). `Abdur−Rahman said, "I said, 'O Chief of the believers! Do not do that, for the season of Hajj gathers the riff−raff and the rubble, and it will be they who will gather around you when you stand to address the people. And I am afraid that you will get up and say something, and some people will spread your statement and may not say what you have actually said and may not understand its meaning, and may interpret it incorrectly, so you should wait till you reach Medina, as it is the place of emigration and the place of Prophet's Traditions, and there you can come in touch with the learned and noble people, and tell them your ideas with confidence; and the learned people will understand your statement and put it in its proper place.' On that, `Umar said, 'By Allah! Allah willing, I will do this in the first speech I will deliver before the people in Medina." Ibn `Abbas added: We reached Medina by the end of the month of Dhul−Hijja, and when it was Friday, we went quickly (to the mosque) as soon as the sun had declined, and I saw Sa`id bin Zaid bin `Amr bin Nufail sitting at the corner of the pulpit, and I too sat close to him so that my knee was touching his knee, and after a short while `Umar bin Al−Khattab came out, and when I saw him coming towards us, I said to Sa`id bin Zaid bin `Amr bin Nufail "Today `Umar will say such a thing as he has never said since he was chosen as Caliph." Sa`id denied my statement with astonishment and said, "What thing do you expect `Umar to say the like of which he has never said before?" In the meantime, `Umar sat on the pulpit and when the callmakers for the prayer had finished their call, `Umar stood up, and having glorified and praised Allah as He deserved, he said, "Now then, I am going to tell you something which (Allah) has written for me to say. I do not know; perhaps it portends my death, so whoever understands and remembers it, must narrate it to the others wherever his mount takes him, but if somebody is afraid that he does not understand it, then it is unlawful for him to tell lies about me. Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and revealed the Holy Book to him, and among what Allah revealed, was the Verse of the Rajam (the stoning of married person (male & female) who commits illegal sexual intercourse, and we did recite this Verse and understood and memorized it. Allah's Apostle did carry out the punishment of stoning and so did we after him. I am afraid that after a long time has passed, somebody will say, 'By Allah, we do not find the Verse of the Rajam in Allah's Book,' and thus thus they will go astray by leaving an obligation which Allah has revealed. And the punishment of the Rajam is to be inflicted to any married person (male & female), who commits illegal sexual intercourse, if the required evidence is available or there is conception or confession. And then we used to recite among the Verses in Allah's Book: 'O people! Do not claim to be the offspring of other than your fathers, as it is disbelief (unthankfulness) on your part that you claim to be the offspring of other than your real father.' Then Allah's Apostle said, 'Do not praise me excessively as Jesus, son of Marry was praised, but call me Allah's Slave and His Apostles.' (O people!) I have been informed that a speaker amongst you says, 'By Allah, if `Umar should die, I will give the pledge of allegiance to such−and−such person.' One should not deceive oneself by saying that the pledge of allegiance given to Abu Bakr was given suddenly and it was successful. No doubt, it was like that, but Allah saved (the people) from its evil, and there is none among you who has the qualities of Abu Bakr. Remember that whoever gives the pledge of allegiance to anybody among you without consulting the other Muslims, neither that person, nor the person to whom the pledge of allegiance was given, are to be supported, lest they both should be killed. And no doubt after the death of the Prophet we were informed that the Ansar disagreed with us and gathered in the shed of Bani Sa`da. `Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr. I said to Abu Bakr, 'Let's go to these Ansari brothers of ours.' So we set out seeking them, and when we approached them, two pious men of theirs met us and informed us of the final decision of the Ansar, and said, 'O group of Muhajirin (emigrants) ! Where are you going?' We replied, 'We are going to these Ansari brothers of ours.' They said to us, 'You shouldn't go near them. Carry out whatever we have already decided.' I said, 'By Allah, we will go to them.' And so we proceeded until we reached them at the shed of Bani Sa`da. Behold! There was a man sitting amongst them and wrapped in something. I asked, 'Who is that man?' They said, 'He is Sa`d bin 'Ubada.' I asked, 'What is wrong with him?' They said, 'He is sick.' After we sat for a while, the Ansar's speaker said, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah,' and praising Allah as He deserved, he added, 'To proceed, we are Allah's Ansar (helpers) and the majority of the Muslim army, while you, the emigrants, are a small group and some people among you came with the intention of preventing us from practicing this matter (of caliphate) and depriving us of it.' When the speaker had finished, I intended to speak as I had prepared a speech which I liked and which I wanted to deliver in the presence of Abu Bakr, and I used to avoid provoking him. So, when I wanted to speak, Abu Bakr said, 'Wait a while.' I disliked to make him angry. So Abu Bakr himself gave a speech, and he was wiser and more patient than I. By Allah, he never missed a sentence that I liked in my own prepared speech, but he said the like of it or better than it spontaneously. After a pause he said, 'O Ansar! You deserve all (the qualities that you have attributed to yourselves, but this question (of Caliphate) is only for the Quraish as they are the best of the Arabs as regards descent and home, and I am pleased to suggest that you choose either of these two men, so take the oath of allegiance to either of them as you wish. And then Abu Bakr held my hand and Abu Ubaida bin `Abdullah's hand who was sitting amongst us. I hated nothing of what he had said except that proposal, for by Allah, I would rather have my neck chopped off as expiator for a sin than become the ruler of a nation, one of whose members is Abu Bakr, unless at the time of my death my own−self suggests something I don't feel at present.' And then one of the Ansar said, 'I am the pillar on which the camel with a skin disease (eczema) rubs itself to satisfy the itching (i.e., I am a noble), and I am as a high class palm tree! O Quraish. There should be one ruler from us and one from you.' Then there was a hue and cry among the gathering and their voices rose so that I was afraid there might be great disagreement, so I said, 'O Abu Bakr! Hold your hand out.' He held his hand out and I pledged allegiance to him, and then all the emigrants gave the Pledge of allegiance and so did the Ansar afterwards. And so we became victorious over Sa`d bin Ubada (whom Al−Ansar wanted to make a ruler). One of the Ansar said, 'You have killed Sa`d bin Ubada.' I replied, 'Allah has killed Sa`d bin Ubada.' `Umar added, "By Allah, apart from the great tragedy that had happened to us (i.e. the death of the Prophet), there was no greater problem than the allegiance pledged to Abu Bakr because we were afraid that if we left the people, they might give the Pledge of allegiance after us to one of their men, in which case we would have given them our consent for something against our real wish, or would have opposed them and caused great trouble. So if any person gives the Pledge of allegiance to somebody (to become a Caliph) without consulting the other Muslims, then the one he has selected should not be granted allegiance, lest both of them should be killed." Sahih Muslim Book 31, Number 5877: Ibn Abu Mulaika reported: I heard A'isha as saying and she was asked as to whom Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) would have nominated his successor if he had to nominate one at all. She said: Abu Bakr. It was said to her: Then whom after Abu Bakr? She said: Umar. It was said to her. Then whom after 'Umar ? She said: Abu Ubaida b. Jarrah, and then she kept quiet at this. Is it a coincidence that the three people the Prophet (pbuh) would allegedly have chosen as successor after him were the same three Muhajirs that were at Saqifa? Or did `Aisha make it up? Which is more plausible? By the way, in case anyone is wondering, Abu `Ubaida's full name is Abu `Ubaida `Amir ibn `Abdullah ibn al-Jarrah, so these are the same persons.
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