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  1. Did “Mu’awiyah” die non-Muslim? Is “Mu’awiyah” in a coffin in the “Hell”? Description of the question? Does “Balādhurī’s narrative about “Mu’awiyah” that he dies while he’s unbeliever or he’ll be in a coffin at bottom of the “Hell”, have valid document ? Response: Both narratives have valid documents. It’s necessary to deal with the opinion of Sunni scholars about the book “Ansab al Ashraf”, before studding about each narrator: The praise of Sunni scholars from the book “Ansab Al ashraf” “Abi jeradah Aqili”: He praises “Belazery” and the book “Ansab al Ashraf”: وقيل أبو جعفر، وقيل أبو الحسن، البلاذري البغدادي الكاتب، كاتب، أديب، شاعر، مصنف، له كتب حسنة (116- ظ) منها كتاب «أنساب الأشراف» وهو كتاب ممتع كثير الفائدة والنفع ومات ولم يتمه؛ وكتاب «البلدان وفتوحها وأحكامها» وهو أيضا كتاب كثير الفوائد. Two surnames have been said for “Belazeri” first one is “Abu Ja’far” and second one is “Abu Al Hasan”, “Belazeri Iraqi” is poet, author and scholar, he has good books either, one of them is “Ansab al Ashraf” that is very helpful book. He died while his book was unfinished and the book “two countries and their conquers and rules” is a very useful book. Kamal al-Din Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Jeradah (d. 660 AH) “Haji caliph” He’s a Sunni scholar and writes: أنساب الأشراف : لأبي الحسن: أحمد بن يحيى البلاذري ... وهو: كتاب كبير، كثير الفائدة. Ansab al Ashraf”, written by “Ahmad Yahya Belazeri”…. Is a great, helpful book. Mustafa ibn Abdullah (known as: Haji caliph) (d. 1067 AH) the discovery of doubts, v 1, p 179 “Seddiq Hasan qunooji” He’s a Sunni contemporary scholar, he praises the book “Ansab al Ashraf”: منها: أنساب الأشراف لأبي الحسن أحمد بن يحيى البلاذري وهو كتاب كبير كثير الفائدة. Amongst logarithms book is “Ansab al Ashraf” from “Belazeri” which is grate and helpful. And other Sunni scholars write about the fame of the book “Ansab al Ashraf” as follow: وله من الكتب كتاب البلدان الصغير كتاب البلدان الكبير ولم يتم كتاب جمل أنساب الأشراف وهو كتابه المعروف المشهور كتاب الفتوح. Among his books are: “big countries” and “small countries” but he didn’t complete the book “Ansab al Asraf” which is a popular book, this book is about “conquers”. Al katbi, Mohammad ibn Shaker ibn Ahmad [died in: 764 H] fawat al fawat, v 1, p 191 “Akram ibn Ziya’ ” writes about this book: ويعد البلاذري أبرز المؤرخين المسلمين بعد الطبري من حيث سعة المعلومات التي دونها والفترات التاريخية التي غطاها، لكن كتابه (أنساب الأشراف) أحسن انتقاء للروايات وأنقى أسانيد وأكثر اتفاقاً مع روايات أهل الثقة والصدق من تأريخ الطبري. After “Tabari”, “Belazeri” is amongst the greatest Muslims’ historians in terms of expansion of knowledge that he wrote about and historical eras that he dealt with them, but in the book “Ansab al Ashraf” compared to the book “History” form “Tabari”, he has selected narratives better and in terms of documents they’re more valid and are closer to the narratives of reliable and honest narrators. Studying about the narrative: First narration: وحدثني إسحاق وبكر بن الهيثم قالا حدثنا عبد الرزاق بن همام انبأنا معمر عن ابن طاوس عن أبيه عن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص قال: كنت عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: يطلع عليكم من هذا الفج رجل يموت على غير ملتي، قال: وكنت تركت أبي قد وضع له وضوء، فكنت كحابس البول مخافة أن يجيء، قال: فطلع معاوية فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : هو هذا. “Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al- 'As” says: I was with prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)], he said: someone will appear who will die non-Muslim. “Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al- 'As” says: I had brought water for my father performing “Wudu” and I was so anxious; fearing of my father’s arrival, “Abdullah” says: “Mua’wiyah” came in and prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said: he’s the same person. [He will die as unbeliever]. Ansab Al Ashraf/ v 2, p 120 Surveying the document “Ahmad ibn yahya ibn Al belazeri” Ibn sa’ad: He say about “Belazery” the author of this book: أحمد بن يحيى بن جابر البلاذري (ت 279هـ) المؤرخ المعروف، صاحب (فتوح البلدان) و (أنساب الأشراف). “Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Belazeri” died in: 279 H, he’s a famous historian, the owner of the books “conquering of the countries” and “Ansab al Ashraf”. Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Sa 'd ibn Mane’ al-Hashemi, al basri, al-Baghdadi , known as: ibn sa’d (died in: 230 E), Al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, p 53. Shams Al din zahabi: He’s a Sunni famous scholar, he says about “Belazeri”: البَلاَذُرِيُّ أَبُو بَكْرٍ أَحْمَدُ بنُ يَحْيَى بنِ جَابِرٍ: العَلاَّمَةُ، الأَدِيْبُ، المُصَنِّفُ، أَبُو بَكْرٍ أَحْمَدُ بنُ يَحْيَى بنِ جَابِرٍ البَغْدَادِيُّ، البَلاَذُرِيُّ، الكَاتِبُ، صَاحِبُ (التَّارِيْخِ الكَبِيْرِ). “Al-Belazeri” is: scholar, author, he’s the writer of the book “great history”. Al zahabi Shafei, Shams al-Din Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Osman (d. 748 AH), al a’lam al nabala’, vol 13, p 162, “Safdi”: He praises “Belazeri”: وَكَانَ أَحْمد بن يحيى بن جَابر عَالما فَاضلا شَاعِرًا راوية نسّابة متقناً. “Belazeri” was scholar, narrator, poet, genealogist, and learned. “Suyuti” He says about “Belazeri”: وَالْكَبِير: أَحْمد بن يحيى صَاحب التَّارِيخ فِي طبقَة أبي دَاوُد السجسْتانِي حَافظ أخباري عَلامَة. [after describing the biography of little “Belazeri”] he writes: great “Belazeri”, “Ahmad ibn Yahya” is the owner of “History” and he’s level is the same as “Abu Dawud Sajestani”. He knew narrators by his heart, he was narrator and scholar. Suyuti Jalal Din Abu al-Fadl Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr (died: 911 AH), classes of retentives, Page 366. First narrator: “Ishaq ibn Mansur ibn bahram” He’s among the narrators of “sahih bukhari”, “sahih Muslem”,”termezi traditions” and “ibn majeh traditions” and according to Sunni principles he doesn’t need to be studied about because, Sunnis say: any narrator that “Muslem” and “Bukhari” have quoted narrative from them, wouldn’t need to be studied. “Ibn hajar” writes: قال ابن حجر: وقد نقل ابن دقيق العيد عن ابن المفضل وكان شيخ والده انه كان يقول فيمن خرج له في الصحيحين هذا جاز القنطرة. “Ibn Hajar” says: “Ibn daqiq al eid” quotes from his father’s master “Ibn Fadl”: those whom their name is written [narrators] in “shaih Bukari and Muslem”, have passed the bridge. [They’re reliable] Al asqalany Al-Shafei, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), Fath Al-Bari, description of sahih Bukhari, vol 13, p 382 “Ibn qim juziyah” writes: ورجال الصحيحين قد جاوزوا القنطرة فلا التفات الي کلام من تکلم فيهم بما يقتضي رد حديثهم. The narrators of “Sahih Bukhari” and “muslem” have passed the bridge [they’re reliable] and the talk of those who’ve said something about them and have doubt about their reliability, is ignored. Let’s take a look at Sunni scholars’ opinion about his character: “IbnHajar Asqalany” writes about him: إسحاق بن منصور بن بهرام الكوسج أبو يعقوب التميمي المروزي ثقة ثبت. “Ishaq ibn Mansur ibn bahram” is reliable. Al asqalany Al-Shafei, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), taqrib al tahzib, vol. 1, p. 103 “Mezy” writes about biography: خ م ت س ق : إسحاق بن منصور بن بهرام الكوسج ، أبو يعقوب التميمي المروزي ، نزيل نيسابور... قال مسلم : ثقة مأمون ، أحد الائمة من أصحاب الحديث. وَقَال النَّسَائي : ثقة ثبت. وَقَال أبو حاتم : صدوق. “Bukhari”, “Termezy”, “Muslem”,”Nesaei” and “Abu Davud” say: “Ishaq ibn Mansur ibn Bahram” settled in “Neyshabur” …”Muslem” says: he’s trustworthy, reliable, and among the companions of hadith, he was one the Imams of Hadith. “Nesaei” says: he was reliable, and “Abu Hatam” knows him as honest. Al Mezzy, Abu Al hajaj Yusuf, purification of perfection, v 2, p 474 “Ibn Hayan” says he’s reliable: إسحاق بن منصور بن بهرام التميمي الكوسج كنيته أبو يعقوب من أهل مرو. “Ishaq ibn Mansur ibn Bahram”, his surname is “Abu Ya’qub” and was from “Marv” Muhammad ibn Hayan ibn Ahmad [died: 354 H], classes of Second narrator: “Abd Al Razaq ibn humam ibn nafe’” He’s amongst the narrators of Sunni six main books. “Ibn Hajar” writes about his character: عبد الرزاق بن همام بن نافع الحميري مولاهم أبو بكر الصنعاني ثقة حافظ مصنف شهير. “Abd Al Razaq” was freed by “Hamir” tribe, “Abu Bakr sana’ny” was reliable and famous author and reliable “Al Asqalani Shafei, Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar, taqrib al tahzib, v 1, p 354 “Abi Hatam” quotes his name in “Al seqat”: عبد الرزاق بن همام بن نافع الحميري الصنعاني. “Abu hatam Muhammad ibn hayan ibn Ahmad” Al seqat, v 8, p 412 “Hakim Neishabury” quotes from “Muhammad ibn Ismael al serary”: فخرجت من صنعاء إلى مكة فوافقت بها يحيى بن معين وقلت له يا أبا زكريا ما الذي بلغنا عنكم في عبد الرزاق فقال ما هو فقلنا بلغنا انكم تركتم حديثه ورغبتم عنه فقال يا أبا صالح لو ارتد عبد الرزاق عن الإسلام ما تركنا حديثه. I left “Sana’a” to “Mecca” and encountered “Yahya ibn Moin” on my way, I told him: O’ “Abu Zakaria” we’ve received news about “Abd al razaq” related to you. He said what news? I answered: what news: I answered: we were told that you don’t live up to “Abd Al razaq’s Hadith. “Yahya ibn Moin” said to me: “Aba salih” if “Abd al razaq” even becomes apostate, we won’t leave his Hadith. Al Hakim neysaburi, [died in: 405 H], the knowledge of Hadith science, v 1, p 139 Third narrator: Ma’mar ibn Rashed” He’s amongst the narrators of Sunni six main books [sahih Bukhri, sahih Muslem, Termezy traditions, Abu dawud traditions, nesaei traditions, ibn Majah traditions]. “Ibn Hajar asqalani” says: معمر بن راشد الأزدي مولاهم أبو عروة البصري نزيل اليمن ثقة ثبت فاضل. “Ma’mar ibn Rashed” freed by “Azd” tribe, “Abu Orvah Al basry” lived in “Yemen”, he was reliable and learned. Al- Asqalani shafei, Taqrib al tahzib, v 1, p 541 “Ejly kufi” writes about him: معمر بن راشد يكنى أبا عروة بصرى سكن اليمن ثقة رجل صالح. “Ma’mar ibn Rashed” his surname is “Aba Orvah Basri”, lived in “Yemen”, he was reliable and righteous. Al ejly, Abi Ahmad ibn Abdullah ibn Saleh al-Hasan (d. 261 AH), knowing the reliable narrators and citing their religions and narrators, v 2, p 290 “Ibn haban” says he’s reliable: معمر بن راشد مولى. Al-Tamimi Al basti, Muhammad ibn Haban ibn Ahmad Abu Hatam (d. 354 AH), reliable narrators, vol 7, p 484 “Zahabi” says that he’s Imam: معمر بن راشد الامام الحجة أبو عروة الأزدي مولاهم البصري أحد الاعلام وعالم اليمن. “Ma’mar ibn Rshed” is from “Basra”, relaeased bt “Azd” tribe. He was Imam and one of the elders and “Yaman” scholar. “Zahabi” restates that if someone is “Imam”, others talks about him are ignored. لكن إذا ثبتت إمامة الرجل وفضله ، لم يضره ما قيل فيه. But, if one’s Emamat and excellence are proved, what was said about him is ignored. Zahabi Shafei, Shams al-Din Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Osman (d. 748 AH), seir Al a’alm, v 8, p 448, It’s written in the book “Rejal” about his character: معمر بن راشد ... وكان فقيها متقنا حافظا ورعا. “Ma’mar ibn Rashed” was faqih, Hadith retentive and pious. Al esbahany, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ali (d: 428 e) Rejal of Sahih Muslem, vol 2, p 227 “Zahabi” writes in his biography: معمر بن راشد أبو عروة إمام ثقة. “Ma’mar ibn Rashed” was reliable and Imam. Fourth narrator: “Abdullah ibn Tavus ibn kisan” He’s one of followers and the narrator of Sunni six major books “Ibn Hajar” writes about him: عبد الله بن طاوس بن كيسان اليماني أبو محمد ثقة فاضل عابد. “Abdullah ibn Tavus ibn kisan” was reliable, worshiper and learned. Al asqalany al-Shafei, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), Taqrib al tahzib, vol. 1, p. 308 After writing “Abdullah ibn Tavus ibn kisan’s name, “Ibn Hajar writes: وقال النسائي في الكنى ثقة مأمون وكذا قال الدارقطني في الجرح والتعديل وقال العجلي ثقة وذكره بن حبان في الثقات. “Nesaei” writes in the book “Surnames”: “Abdullah ibn tavos” was reliable, trustworthy. “Dar Al qatny” restates to such point in the book “wound and amendment”, “Ejli” says that he’s reliable. عبد الله بن طاوس بن كيسان اليماني ثقة. “Abdullah ibn Tavus ibn kisan” was reliable. Al ejly, Abi Ahmad ibn Abdullah ibn Saleh al-Hasan (d. 261 AH), knowing the reliable narrators and citing their religions and narrators, v 2, p 38 “Ibn Hayan” says that he’s reliable: عبد الله بن طاوس بن كيسان الخولاني. Al Bastan Al-Tamimi, Muhammad ibn Haban ibn Ahmad Abu Hatam (d. 354 AH), reliable narrators, vol. 7, p. 4 “Zahabi” restates in the book “THE history of Islam” that Sunny Imams have called him reliable: عبد الله بن طاوس بن كيسان أبو محمد اليماني. قال معمر : كان من أعلم الناس بالعربية وأحسنهم خلقاً ما رأينا ابن فقيه مثله . قلت : وثقوه. “Mu’mar” has said about “Abdullah ibn Tavos”: he was the wisest person towards Arabic, good-tempered and I’ve not seen faqih like him. I [Zahaby] say that scholars have said that he’s reliable. Zahabi Shafei, Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Osman (d. 748 AH), the history of Islam vol 8, p 463 “Zahabi” writes about him: طاوس بن كيسان الإمام أبو عبد الرحمن اليماني من أبناء الفرس وقيل اسمه ذكوان فلقب فقال بن معين لأنه كان طاوس القراء عن أبي هريرة وابن عباس وعائشة وعنه الزهري وسليمان التيمي وعبد الله ابنه قال عمرو بن دينار ما رأيت أحدا مثله قط مات بمكة. “Tavos ibn Kiasan” was Imam. It’s said that his name “Zakwan” and then was known as “Ibn Tavos”. “Yahya ibn moin” says: he would read narrators from “Ibn Abbas” and “Ayesha” and “Zahry” and “Suleiman timy” and his son have quoted narration from him. “Omar ibn dinar” says: I’ve not seen someone like him. He died in “Mecca”. “Ibn Hajar Asqalani” writes: طاوس بن كيسان اليماني أبو عبد الرحمن الحميري مولاهم الفارسي يقال اسمه ذكوان وطاوس لقب ثقة فقيه فاضل من الثالثة. “Tavos ibn kisan” was from “Fars” and the servant of “Hamir” tribe. It’s said his name was “Zakvan” and his surname is “Tavos”. He was reliable, Faqih and learned. And is from the third level of narrators. Al asqalany al-Shafei, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), Taqrib al tahzib, vol. 1, p. 281 “Ibn Hayan” says that he’s reliable: طاوس بن كيسان اليماني الهمداني . Al Basty Al-Tamimi, Muhammad ibn Haban ibn Ahmad Abu Hatam (d. 354 AH), reliable narrators, v 4, p 391 Fifth narrator: “Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al- 'As” He was prophet’s [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] companion, and according to Sunni principles, all companions are just. And he’s amongst the narrators of Sunni Six important books. “Zahabi” writes about him: عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص ...الإمام الحبر العابد صاحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم . وله مناقب وفضائل ومقام راسخ في العلم والعمل حمل عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم علما جما . “Abd Allah ibn amr ibn al-‘As” ….. was Imam, scholar, worshiper and amongst prophet’s [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] companions. He had virtues and high position in both knowledge and practicing and learned many things from Prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]. Zahabi Shafei, Shams al-Din Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Osman (d. 748 AH), seir a’elam, vol. 3, p 80 So, All narrators of this narrative are reliable, in the perspective of Sunni’s principles, and its document is valid too. Second narrative: Its document is valid just as first narrative: حدثني خلف بن هشام البزاز حدثنا أبو عوانة عن الأعمش عن سالم بن أبي الجعد قال، قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : " معاوية في تابوت مقفل عليه في جهنم. Prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said: “Mu’awiyah” is in a locked coffin in the “Hell”. Belazery, Ahmad ibn yahya ibn Jaber, Ansab Al- ashraf, v 2, p 121 Surveying of the document First narrator: “Khalf ibn Hesham ibn Tha’lab” He’s amongst the narrators of “Shaih muslem” and “Abi davod” narrators. “Ibn Hajar Asqalany” writes about him: خلف بن هشام بن ثعلب ... ثقة. He’s reliable. Al asqalany al-Shafei, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), Taqrib al tahzib, vol. 1, p. 281 And he restates that he’s amongst narrators of “Sahih Muslem” and “Abi Davod”: م د مسلم وأبي داود، خلف بن هشام بن ثعلب ويقال طالب بن غراب البزار البغدادي المقري. “Muslem” and “Abi Davod”: “Khalf ibn Hesham ibn Tha’lab” and he’s called “[khalf ibn Hesham ibn] Talib ibn qarab bezar Baghdadi” as well. Al asqalany al-Shafei, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), Tahzib al Tahzib, vol. 1, p. 281 “Mezi” quotes from “Nesaei” and “Dar qatny”: وَقَال النَّسَائي : بغدادي ثقة. وَقَال الدار قطني : كان عابدا فاضلا. “Nesaei” has said: he was from “Baghdad” and reliable. “Dar qatny” says: he was learned and worshiper. Al mezy, Abu al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf ibn Abdul Rahman (d. 742 AH), purification of perfection, v 8, p 302 “Ibn Al-juzy” writes خلف بن هشام بن ثعلب ويقال خلف بن هشام بن طالب بن غراب أبو محمد البزار المقرىء ... وكان ثقة فاضلا عابدا. “Khalf ibn Hesham ibn Tha’lab” was reliable, learned and worshiper. “Ibn Mufleh” writes: وقال يحيى بن معين أنه الصدوق الثقة وقال الدارقطنى كان عابدا فاضلا. “Yahya ibn Mo’in” has said: he’s honest and reliable. “Dar al qatny” has said: he’s worshiper and learned. Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Mufleh (d. 884 AH), senior direction in citing the companions of Imam Ahmad vol. 1, p. 378 Second narrator “Vazah ibn Abd Allah” He’s amongst the narrators of Sunni’s six major books. “Zahaby” says about him: وضاح بن عبد الله الحافظ ...ثقة متقن. “Vazah ibn Abd Allah” is reliable and proof. “Ibn Hajar Asqalany” writes: الستة الوضاح بن عبد الله اليشكري. وقال أبو زرعة ثقة. وقال بن سعد كان ثقة صدوقا. “Vazah ibn Abdu Allah” is amongst the narrators of Sunni six major books. “Abu zare’” and “Ibn sa’d” have said that he’s reliable. Al asqalany Al-Shafi’i, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), Tahzib Al-tahzib, vol 11, p 103 “Mezy” writes in “purification of perfection”: قال أبو حاتم الرازي: سمعت هشام بن عُبَيد الله الرازي يقول : سألت ابن المبارك : من أروى الناس وأحسن الناس حديثًا. “Abu Hatam Razi” says: I heard from “Hesham ibn Razi”: I asked “Ibn Malek” about “Vuzah ibn Abdu Allah”, he said: he was amongst those who would narrate a lot and was honest narrator. Al mezy, Abu al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf Al zaky Abd al Rahman (d. 742 AH), purification of perfection, v 30, p 445 Third narrator: “Suleiman ibn Mehran [A’mash] He’s amongst narrators of Sunni’s six major books. “Ejli” writes about him: سليمان بن مهران الأعمش يكنى أبا محمد ثقة كوفي وكان محدث أهل الكوفة في زمانه. “Suleiman ibn mehran”, he’s surname is “Aba Muhammad”. He’s from “Kufah”, he was reliable and the narrator of the people of “Kufah”. “Ibn Abi Hatim” has quoted from “Yahya ibn mo’in”: عن يحيى بن معين انه قال سليمان بن مهران الأعمش ثقة. “Suliman ibn Mehran [A’mash]” is reliable. Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, al-Tamimi, Wound and the amendment, v 4, p 146, Abu Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hatim Muhammad ibn Idris (d. 327 AH), “Ibn Hajar Asqalany” writes: سليمان بن مهران الأسدي الكاهلي أبو محمد الكوفي الأعمش ثقة حافظ. “Suleiman ibn Mehran Al- Asady” is reliable and Hadith-retentive. Al asqalany al-Shafi’i, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), Taqrib al tahzib, vol. 1, p. 254 “Ibn Hajar” writes about him in the book “lisan al-Mizan”: سليمان بن مهران الأسدي الكاهلي مولاهم أبو محمد الكوفي الأعمش أحد الاعلام الحفاظ والقراء. “Suleiman ibn Mehran Al Asadi” the servant of “Kahely” tribe was one of elders of Hadith and he was hadith-retentive and reader. Al asqalany al-Shafei, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), Lisan al-Mizan, vol. 7, p. 238 “Zahaby” writes about him: سليمان بن مهران الحافظ أبو محمد الكاهلي الأعمش أحد الأعلام. “Suleiman ibn Mehrab Al Asadi”, was Hadith-retentive and one of elders. “Zahaby” says in the book “the biography of retentives”: ع الأعمش الحافظ الثقة شيخ الإسلام أبو محمد سليمان بن مهران الأسدي الكاهلي. The narrator of Sunni’s six major books, “A’mash Abu Suleiman ibn Mehran Al asady” was Hadith-retentive, reliable, Sheikh Al-Islam. Zahabi Shafi’i, Shams al din Abu abd Allah Mohammed ibn Ahmad ibn Othman (died: 748 AH), the biography of retentives, 1, p. 154, “Zahaby” writes in another book: ع سليمان بن مهران الأعمش ثقة جبل. The narrator of Sunni’s six major books, “A’mash” was reliable and the mountain of knowledge. “Ibn Halkan” writes about him: أبو محمد سليمان بن مهران مولى بني كاهل من ولد أسد المعروف بالأعمش الكوفي الإمام المشهور كان ثقة عالما فاضلا. “Abu Muhammad Suleiman ibn Meharan” known as “A’mash”, was from “Kufa”, famous leader, reliable and learned. “Abi al-Faraj” writes about him: سليمان بن مهران الأعمش الأسدى يكنى أبا محمد مولى لبنى كاهل عن عيسى بن يونس قال ما رأينا في زماننا مثل الأعمش . إبراهيم بن عرعرة قال سمعت يحيى القطان إذا ذكر الأعمش قال كان من النساك وكان محافظا على الصلاة في الجماعة وعلى الصف الأول قال يحيى وهو علامة الإسلام . His surname is “Aba Muhammad”, freed by “Bani Kahil” tribe, and “Isa ibn Yunus” has quoted: at our time, I didn’t see someone like “A’mash”. “Yahya ibn Qatan” says: he was pious, and would say his prayer in congregation in the first line and he was scholar of Islam. The trait of elite, v 3, p 113, author’s name: “Abd al Rahman ibn Ali ibn Muhammad. Fourth narrator: “Salim ibn Rafe’” He’s amongst followers and the one of the narrators of Sunni’s six major books. “Zahaby” says about him: سالم بن أبي الجعد الأشجعي مولاهم الكوفي عن عمر وعائشة وهو مرسل وعن بن عمر وابن عباس وعنه منصور والأعمش توفي سنة مائة ثقة ع. “Salim ibn Abi al-Ja’d”, was from “Kufa” and his narratives from “Omar” and “Ayesha” were “Mursal” [the name of some of narrators were deleted], and has quoted narrative from “Ibn Oamr” and “Ibn Abbas”, he died in: 100 AH, he was reliable and one of the narrators of Sunni’s six major books. “Zahaby” writes in another book: سالم بن أبي الجعد الأشجعي الغطفاني مولاهم الكوفي الفقيه أحد الثقات. “Salim ibn abi Ja’d” was from “Kufa”, he was Faqih and reliable. Zahaby al-Shafei, Shams al-din Abu abD Allah Mohammed Ibn Ahmed ibn Osman [died in:748 H), Seir al-A’lam, v 5, p 108 “Ibn Kathir” writes about him: ( سالم بن أبي الجعد الأشجعي ) مولاهم الكوفي أخو زياد وعبد الله وعبيد الله وعمران ومسلم وهو تابعي جليل روى عن ثوبان وجابر وعبد الله بن عمر وعبد الله بن عمرو والنعمان ابن بشير وغيرهم وعنه قتادة والأعمش وآخرون وكان ثقة نبيلا جليلا. “Salim ibn abi Ja’d” was from “Kufa”, his brothers are: “Zyad” and “Abd Allah” and “Obeid Allah” and “Omran”, he was a follower and dignified, and “Jabir” and “Abd Allah ibn Oamr” and “Na’man ibn Bashir” and others have quoted narrative from him, and “Qetadah” and “A’mash” were amongst his pupils and he was dignified, learned and reliable. Al damask, Ibn Kathir, Abu Ismail ibn Omar al-Qurashi (d. 774 AH), beginning and the end , v 9, p 190 “Ibn Hajar” writes about him: سالم بن أبي الجعد رافع الغطفاني الأشجعي مولاهم الكوفي ثقة. “Salim ibn Abi al-ja’d” freed by “Ashja’” tribe, he was from “Kufa” and reliable. Al asqalany al-Shafi’i, Abu al-Fadl Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH), taqrib Al tahzib, vol. 1, p. 226 He writes in another book: ع الستة سالم بن أبي الجعد رافع الأشجعي ...قال بن معين وأبو زرعة والنسائي ثقة... وكذا قال بن حبان في الثقات وقال بن سعد كان ثقة كثير الحديث... . He’s amongst the narrators of Sunni’s six major books, “Ibn Ma’en” , “Abu zara’” and “Nesae” have said that he’s reliable. And “Ibn Habban” has quoted his name in the book “Reliable narrators” and “Ibn sa’d” has said that he would narrate hadith a lot and was reliable. Al Asqalani Shafi 'i, Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Zahab [ died in: 852 AH), Tahzib al tahzib , v 3, p 373 “Ejly” writes about him: سالم بن أبي الجعد الغطفاني كوفى تابعي ثقة. “Salim ibn Abu Ja’d” is from “Kufa” and is amongst followers and is reliable. Notice: “follower” means: someone who’s met or accompanied some of companions and was believer but didn’t meet prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]. Is a follower’s quotation from prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] acceptable?! Though, he’s amongst followers and can’t quote narrative from prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] directly, but Sunnis accept followers’ “Mursal” narratives. Notice: “Mursal narrative” is a narrative that some of its narrators’ names have been deleted. The validity of followers’ “Mursal” narratives: Some of Sunni scholars’ opinion about the validity of followers’ “Mursal” narratives: 1: “Ibn Bahadur” “Ibn Bahadur” quotes from “Qazi Abu Bakr”: لكن قال القاضي أبو بكر في التقريب الجمهور على قبول المرسل ووجوب العمل به إذا كان المرسل ثقة عدلا وهو قول مالك وأهل المدينة وأبي حنيفة وأهل العراق. “Qazi Abu Bakr” has said in the book “Taqrib”: most of scholars accept “Mursal” quotation, and when a person who quotes “Mursal” narrative is reliable and just, most of scholars say that it’s obligatory to live up to that narrative. This is the opinion of “Malik” and “Medina” scholars, “Abu Hanifah” and “Iraq” scholars. 2: “mulla Ali Qary” He writes about the validity of followers’ “Mursal” narratives: وأيضاً مراسيل الصحابة معتبرة إجماعاً بخلاف مرسل التابعي فإنه حجة عند الجمهور خلافاً للشافعي . ولا بد في كونه حجة أقله أن يكون إسناده حسناً. According to scholars’ consensus, companions’ “Mursal” narratives are valid, on the contrary of followers, because the followers’ “Mursal” narratives are valid amongst most of scholars except “Shafi’I”, and the least thing that we can say about the validity of followers’ “Mursal” narratives is that the document of such narrative is well [one of the types of valid narrative]. He writes in another book: مرسل التابعي حجة عند الجمهور. Follower’s “Mursal” narratives are proof amongst most of [Sunni] scholars. إذ مراسيل الصحابة حجة مقبولة اتفاقاً بخلاف مراسيل التابعين فإنها معتبرة عند الجمهور. Companions’ “Mursal” narratives are proof unanimously and are acceptable, on the contrary of followers’ “Mursal” narratives which are valid amongst most of [Sunni] scholars. 3: “Abu Bakr Sarakhsy” “Sarakhsy” is a Sunni Hanafi-faith scholar, he writes about the validity of the “Mursal” narratives of second and third centuries [the centuries of followers and their followers]: فأما مراسيل القرن الثاني والثالث حجة في قول علمائنا رحمهم الله. But the “Mursal” narratives of second and third centuries are valid amongst our scholars. Al sarakhsy Hanafi, Shams al-Din Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Sahl (d 483 AH), Al sarakhsy principles, vol. 1, p. 360 4: “Abū-Sa 'īd Muhammad Omar sarbazy” أما القائلون بقبول مراسيل التابعين وأتباعهم دون أهل القرن الرابع وهو ما حكاه جماعة من الأصوليين عن عيسى بن أبان ولم يحكه أبو بكر الرازي إلا عن بعض شيوخهم والذي حكاه عن ابن أبان أنه قال من أرسل من أهل زماننا حديثا عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فإن كان من أئمة الدين وقد نقله عن أهل العلم فإن مرسله مقبول كما يقبل مسنده. But those who believe in accepting the “Mursal” narrative of followers and their followers, before fourth century, some of scholars of “Principles” science have quoted from “Isa ibn Abbn” that if someone, in our time, quotes a narrative from prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] and is amongst religion’s Imams and quotes from scholars, his “Mursal” narrative is acceptable like his “Musnad” narrative. [A narrative with document and the name of all narrators is written is in that document] 5: “Mulavi Muhammad Omar Sarbazy” He’s amongst Sunni contemporary scholars in “Balochistan” region, he writes about the validity of “Mursal” narratives: Just “Shafi’I” [Imam] out of four Imams, has denied the validity of “Mursal” narrative, though, there’s denying quotation related to “Ahmad ibn Hanbal” [Imam] but his preferred is the validity of “Mursal” narrative. “Abu Dawod” has quoted from “Ibn Jarir”: before “Shafi’I” [Imam] “Salaf”, had consensus on the validity of “Mursal” narrarives. Sarbazy, Muhammad Omar, the religious decrees of resource of sciences, vol. 5, p. 33 So, despite this narrative is “Mursal” but it’s valid from the perspective of Sunni scholars. Result: The documents of both narratives are valid and faultless and what prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said is valid.
  2. Response: According to many narratives in Sunni and Shia books, “Muawiyah bin Sufyan” sent poison for “Ja’da”, daughter to “Ash’ath bin Qays” the same hypocrite who had fundamental role in all incidents at the time of Commander of faithful [AS], and promised her to marry her off to his son “Yazid” if she martyrs Imam “Hassan” [AS]. “Ja’da” did Muawiyah’s order and martyred Imam “Hassan” [AS] by that poison when Imam “Hassan” [AS] returned home for “Iftar”. Preface: Before talking about main topic and showing proof for above issues, it’s necessary to talk about the position of Imam “Hassan” [AS] in the perspective of prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]. Imam “Hassan” [AS] had high dignity and position with Prophet Muhammad [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)], so that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] would put his grandson on his back and say: god I like him, you like him too. “Bukhari” and “Muslim” write in their books: “ اخبرني عَدِيٌّ قال سمعت الْبَرَاءَ رضي الله عنه قال رأيت النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم وَالْحَسَنُ بن عَلِيٍّ علي عَاتِقِهِ يقول اللهم إني أُحِبُّهُ فَأَحِبَّهُ” “Baraa’” says: I saw prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] while having “Hassan bin Ali” [AS] on his back and said: god I like him, you like him too. “Al-Bukhari Ju’fi”- Sahih al-Bukhari, v3, p1370 /// “Muslim bin Hajjaj”- Sahih Muslim- v4,p1883 Enmity towards Imam “Hassan” [AS], enmity with god and prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]! And Sunni scholars have quoted with valid document that enmity with Imam “Hassan” [AS] is enmity with prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]. “Ibn Habban” writes in his book: “حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ إِِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ أَسْبَاطِ بْنِ نَصْرٍ عَنِ السُّدِّيِّ عَنْ صُبَيْحٍ مَوْلَي أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَرْقَمَ أَنّ النَّبِيَّ صلي الله عليه وسلم قَالَ لِفَاطِمَةَ وَالْحَسَنِ وَالْحُسَيْنِ أَنَا حَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَكُمْ وسلم لِمَنْ سَالَمَكُمْ” It’s been quoted from “Zeid bin Arqam” that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said to “Fatimah”, “Hassan”, “Hussein”[AS]: I’ll be the enemy of the one who is your enemy and will compromise with the one compromises with you. “Muhammad bin Habban”- Sahih ibn Habban- v15, p434 “Hakim Neishapuri” writes: “أخبرنا أحمد بن جعفر القطيعي ثنا عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل حدثني أبي ثنا تليد بن سليمان ثنا أبو الجحاف عن أبي حازم عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال نظر النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم إلي علي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين فقال أنا حرب لمن حاربكم وسلم لمن سالمكم هذا حديث حسن من حديث أبي عبد الله أحمد بن حنبل عن تليد بن سليمان فإني لم أجد له رواية غيرها وله شاهد عن زيد بن أرقم” It’s been quoted from “Abū Hurairah” that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said to “Ali”, “Fatimah”, “Hassan”, “Hussein”[AS]: I’ll be the enemy of the one who is your enemy and will compromise with the one who compromises with you. “Al-Hakim Nishapuri”- al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain- v3, p161 “Shams ad-Din Dhabi” writes: “أحمد بن حنبل حدثنا تليد بن سليمان حدثنا أبو الجحاف عن أبي حازم عن أبي هريرة نظر النبي (ص) إلي علي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين فقال: أنا حرب لمن حاربكم سلم لمن سالمكم. رواه الحاكم في المستدرك وفيه من طريق أبان بن تغلب عن أبي بشر عن أبي نضرة عن أبي سعيد قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم لا يبغضنا أهل البيت أحد إلا أدخله الله النار” “Ahmad bin Hanbal” has quoted from “Abu Hurairah” that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] looked at “Ali”, “Fatimah”, “Hassan” and “Hussein” and said: I’ll be the enemy of the one who is your enemy and will compromise with the one who compromises with you. “Hakim” has quoted this narrative in the book “Al-Mustadrak” that prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] said: the one who is our enemy, god will put him in the Hell. “ad-Dhahabi Shafi’i”- Siyar al-A’lam al-Nubala, v2, p123 So, according to narratives, enmity with “Ahl al-Bayt” [AS] and fighting them that Imam “Hassan” [AS] is definitely amongst them as Sunni narratives restate, are like fighting and enmity with prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]. After this short preface, we take a look at evidences that prove that “Muawiyah” is the main murderer of Imam “Hassan” [AS] and he sent poison for “Ja’da” and provoked her by promising her to marry “Yazid” to poison prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]’s grandson. Sending poison by “Muawiyyah” in Sunni resources: To keep the reputation of caliphs, Sunni scholars have not mentioned many of their crimes or they’ve distorted after saying them in a book! For instance the story of Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s poisoning at the instruction of “Muawiyah” has been distorted by Sunni scholars. Manipulating facts by clean hands! As Sunni scholars have admitted, “Ibn Sa’d” and “Tabari” have quoted the story of Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s poisoning at the instruction of “Muawiyah” in their books but this issue has been deleted from these books! After mentioning the name of group of Sunni scholars who believed that “Muawiyah” ordered “Hassan bin Ali” [AS] to be poisoned, “Sibt bin Jawzi al-Hanafi” writes: قال علماء السير: منهم ابن عبد البر سمته زوجته جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس الكندي. وقال السدي: دس اليها يزيد بن معاوية أن سمي الحسن وأتزوجك فسمته فلما مات ارسلت الي يزيد تسأله الوفاء بالوعد فقال أنا والله ما ارضاك للحسن افنرضاك لأنفسنا. وقال الشعبي: إنما دس اليها معاوية فقال سمي الحسن وأزوجك يزيد وأعطيك مائة الف درهم فلما مات الحسن بعث الي معاوية تطلب انجاز الوعده فبعث اليها بالمال وقال: إني احب يزيد وأرجو حياته لولا ذلك لزوجتك اياه. وقال الشعبي: ومصداق هذا القول أن الحسن كان يقول عند موته وقد بلغه ما صنع معاوية لقد عملت شربته وبلغ امنيته والله لا يفي بما وعد ولا يصدق فيما يقول. وقد حكي جدي في كتاب الصفوة قال: ذكر يعقوب بن سفيان في تاريخ أن جعدة التي سمته وقال الشاعر في ذلك: تغر فكم لك من سلوة تفرح عنك غليل الحزن بموت النبي وقتل الوصي وقتل الحسين وسم الحسن وقال ابن سعد في الطبقات: سمه معاوية مرارا لأنه كان يقدم عليه الشام هو وأخوه الحسين (ع). Scholars including “Ibn ‘Abd al-barr” have said:”Ja’da”, daughter of “Asha’th bin Qays”,Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife, has poisoned him. “Suddi” has said: “Yazid bin Muawiyah” sent her message secretly that if you poison “Hassan”, I’ll marry you to my son, “Ja’da” did so, when Imam “Hassan” passed away, she sent someone to “Yazid” to fulfill his promise, he answered: swear to god we were dissatisfied of what you did to Hassan, will it accept it about ourselves? “Shu’bi” has said: “Muawiyah” sent her message secretly and said: poison “Hassan”, I’ll let you marry “Yazid” and will give you one hundred thousand Dirhams. When “Hassan” left the world , she sent someone to “Muawiya” to grant his promise, “Muawiya” sent the money for her and said: I like “Yazid” and want him to live, if it didn’t happen I’d let you to marry him. “Shu’bi” has said: the reason of this saying is that Imam “Hassan” who had realized this act of “Muawiya” said: you made his wish coming true, swear by god he won’t fulfill his promise and won’t live up to what he said. “Ibn al-Jawzi Hanbali” has said in his book “as-Sifat”: “Ya’qub” bin Sufyan” has written in his “history book”: “Ja’da” is the one who poisoned Imam Hassan and poet has said in this regard: {O World} you deceive! How enjoyable you are {that you can tempt people}/// despite the pressure of grief, but people are happy because of you! /// the grief made by the demise of prophet and his successor and Hussein’s martyrdom and Hassan’s poisoning! And “ibn Sa’d” in his book “Al-Tabaqat”: “Muawiyah” poisoned Imam “Hassan” [AS] several times; because he and his brother “Hussein” would come to “Sham”. {city in Syria} Sibt al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, “Tazkirat al-Khawas- p191, 192 Since some might find fault with “Ibn al Jawzi” and don’t trust his saying or might accuse him of being Shia, we’ll quote his biography from Sunni elders till no one can make any excuse. “Shams ad-Din al-Dhahabi” says about him: “يوسف بن قُزْغْلي بن عبد الله. الإمام، الواعظ، المؤرخ شمس الدين، أبو المظفر التركي، ثم البغدادي العوني الحنفي. سِبْط الإمام جمال الدين أبي الفرج ابن الجوزي ؛ نزيل دمشق. وُلِد سنة إحدي وثمانين وخمسمائة... وكان إماما، فقيها، واعظا، وحيدا في الوعظ، علاّمةً في التاريخ والسير، وافر الحرمة، محبباً إلي الناس... ودرّس بالشبلية مدة، وبالمدرسة البدرية التي قبالة الشبلية. وكان فاضلا عالما، ظريفا، منقطعا، منكرا، علي أرباب الدول ما هم عليه من المنكرات، متواضعا صاحب قبول تام” “Yusuf bin Ghazqali Hanafi”, was Imam, Jurisprudent, historian, and unique eloquence, he was so knowledgeable in history and biography, people would respect him a lot and was popular. He would teach in “Badriyah” school for a while, he was knowledgeable, scientist, punctilious and would oppose authorities who would do obscene acts. “Ad-Dhahabi”- Islam history, v48, p183 “Sa’di Khazraji” has also restated that “Tabari” has quoted in his history book that “Muawiyah” sent poison for “Ja’da” and provoked her poisoning Imam “Hassan”: “وفي تاريخ الطبري أن الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنهما مات مسموما في أيام معاوية وكان عند معاوية كما قيل دهاء فدس إلي جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس وكانت زوجة الحسن رضي الله عنه شربة وقال لها إن قتلت الحسن زوجتك بيزيد فلما توفي الحسن بعثت إلي معاوية تطلب قوله فقال لها في الجواب أنا أضن بيزيد” It’s written in Tabari’s history book that “Hassan bin Ali” died due to poisoning at the time of “Muawiyah”, “Muawiyah” who was tricky and smart sent “Ja’da” a juice and said to her, if you kill “Hassan” I’ll marry you to “Yazid”, when “Hassan” passed away, she sent someone to “Muawiyah” telling him to live up to his promise, he answered: I don’t give “Yazid” to anyone. “Al-Sa’di khazraji”- Uyoon al-Anba’ fi Tabaqat-v1, p174 But unfortunately this issue isn’t written in current editions of the book “Tabari history” and has been deleted from this book by the hands of Sunni trustees. Undistorted evidences! “Al-Qurtubi Hanafi” writes: “ومات الحسن مسموما سمته زوجته بنت الأشعث الكندية دسه إليها معاوية” “Hassan” [AS] left the world, his wife, daughter of “Asha’th” poisoned him with Muawiyah’s plots. “Al-Qurtubi Hanafi”- al-Ta’rif bi al-Ansab”- v1, p3 “قال: وقال أبو قتادة وأبو بكر بن حفص: سم الحسن ابن علي رضي الله عنهما: سمته امرأته جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس الكندي. قال: وقالت طائفة كان ذلك منها بتدسيس معاوية إليها وما بذل لها في ذلك، وكان لها ضرائر وأنه وعدها بخمسين ألف درهم، وأن يزوجها من يزيد، فلما فعلت وفي لها بالمال، وقال: حبنا ليزيد يمنعنا من الوفاء لك بالشرط الثاني” “Abu Qatada” and “Abu-Bakr” have said: Imam “Hassan bin Ali” was poisoned by his wife “Ja’da”, daughter of “Ash’ath”. some have said: she did so with Muawiyah’s plot and to gain what Muawiyah had promised her and because Imam [AS] had several wives “Muawiyah” had promised to give her fifty thousand dirhams and marry her to “Yazid”, after poisoning “Hassan” [AS], he gave her the money and said: liking “Yazid” doesn’t let me to live up to the second promise. “Zamakhshari” Sunni famous scholar and interpreter writes: “جعل معاوية لجعدة بنت الأشعث امرأة الحسن مائة ألف حتي سمته، ومكث شهرين وإنه ليرفع من تحته كذا طستاً من دم. وكان يقول: سقيت السم مراراً ما أصابني فيها ما أصابني في هذه المرة، لقد لفظت كبدي فجعلت أقلبها بعود كان كان في يدي. وقد ورثته جعدة بأبيات منها: يا جعد بكيه ولا تسأمي... بكاء حق ليس بالباطل إنك لن ترخي علي مثله... سترك من حاف ولا ناعل وخلف عليها رجل من قريش فأولدها غلاماً، فكان الصبيان يقولون له: يا ابن مسممة الأزواج” “Muawiyah” promised “Ja’da”, daughter of “Ash’ath” to give her one hundred thousand dinars after poisoning Imam “Hassan” [AS], Imam [AS] lived two month after that, poison was so effective that small washbasin would fill with blood, Imam “Hassan” [AS] said: they made me poisonous by such poison several times, but it wasn’t effective, but this time die is cast. After Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom, “Ja’da” married a man from “Quraysh” tribe and gave birth to a boy, his friends would tell him: the son of woman who’s poisoned her husband. “Al-Zamakhshari Kharazmi”- Rabi’al-Abrar- v1, p438 “Al-Baladhuri” says in the book “Ansab al-Asharaf”: “وقد قيل أن معاوية دس إلي جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس امرأة الحسن، وأرغبها حتي سمته وكانت شانئة له. وقال الهيثم بن عدي: دس معاوية إلي ابنة سهيل بن عمرة امرأة الحسن مائة ألف دينار علي أن تسقيه شربة بعث بها إليها ففعلت” It’s been said that “Muawiyah” sent a secret message to daughter of “Ash’ath”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife and encouraged her to poison him, “Ja’da” didn’t like Imam “Hassan”. “Heitham bin Adi” has said: “Muawiyah” plotted and promised the daughter of “Suhail bin Umrah”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife to give her one hundred thousand dinars provided she poisons Imam “Hassan” [AS] and she did so. “Al-Baladuri”- Ansab al-Ashraf”- v1, p389 “Ahmad Nakari Hnafi” writes: “وفي (حبيب السير) مكتوب أن مروان بن الحكم الذي كان حاكما للمدينة من قبل معاوية بن أبي سفيان قد أرسله معاوية ومعه منديل ملطخ بالسم وقال له أن عليه بأي تدبير يستطيعه أن يخدع جعده بنت الأشعث بن قيس زوجة الحسن حتي تقدم بعدها علي إزالة وجود الحسن من هذه الدنيا بواسطة هذا المنديل، وقل لها عني أنها إذا أرسلت الحسن إلي العالم الآخر وأتمت المهمة فإن لها خمسين ألف درهم وأنها ستكون زوجا ليزيد. فأسرع مروان بن الحكم إلي المدينة ليقوم بما قاله معاوية وسعي جاهدا إلي خداع جعدة التي كان لقبها (أسماء) التي انطلت عليها الحيلة ونفذت ما قاله معاوية ودست السم للإمام الحسن عليه السلام الذي سري في جسده فنقل إلي دار السلام” It’s written in the book “Habib al-Siyar” that “Marwan bin Hakam” was the ruler of “Medina” appointed by “Muawiyah”, he summoned him and gave him poisonous tissue and told him: no matter what, just deceive “Ja’da”, daughter of “Ash’ath”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife to kill Imam “Hassan” by this tissue and tell her that I’ll give her fifty thousand dinars if she kills him and will be soon Yazid’s wife. “Marwan” moved to “Medina” quickly to carry out Muawiyah’s order and used different tricks to deceive “Ja’da” to do what “Muawiyah” wants and make her to accept poisoning Imam secretly; she did so and Imam “Hassan” passed away. “Al-Ahmad Nakari”- Dastur al-Ulama’-v4, p50 “Shihāb al-Dīn al-Nuwayri” writes in the interpretation of a poem sung about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s dissentions with “Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan” over caliphate: “وفي ابن هندٍ وفي ابن المصطفي حسنٍ أتت بمعضلة الألباب و الفكر فبعضنا قائلٌ ما اغتاله أحدٌ وبعضنا ساكتٌ لم يؤت من حصر ابن هند الذي أشار إليه هو معاوية بن أبي سفيان، أراد ما كان بينه وبين الحسن بن علي في أمر الخلافة. وأراد بالبيت الثاني ما وقع الاختلاف فيه من أن الحسن مات مسموماً وأن معاوية وعد زوجة الحسن جعدة بنت قيسٍ الكندي بمائة ألف درهمٍ ويزوجها لابنه يزيد إن قتلت الحسن، ففعلت وسمته. ولما مات الحسن وفي لها بالمال وقال: حب حياة يزيد منعني تزويجه منك” There is a proverb about Hend’s son “Muawiyah” and Ali’s son “Hassan” which has confused mind and thought. Some of us believe no one assassinated him! And some have remained silent and don’t say their certain opinion. The son of the “Hend” mentioned in here is “Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan” and it means dissentions occurred between him and “Hassan bin Ali” over caliphate state. And by second verse, poet mentions to differences about this issue that “Hassan bin Ali” died due to poisoning, that “Muawiyah” promised the daughter of “Qays”, “Ja’da” to give her one thousand dirhams after killing “Hassan” and marry her to “Yazid”, “Ja’da” poisoned Imam “Hassan”, after he passed away, “Muawiyah” gave her the money and said: liking Yazid’s life doesn’t let me to marry you to him. “Al-Nuwayri”- Nahayat al- arab fi funoun al-Adab- v5, p193 Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, famous scholar accepted by Sunni writes in the book “Maqatil al-Talibin”: “ودس معاوية إليه حين أراد أن يعهد إلي يزيد بعده، وإلي سعد بن أبي وقاص سماً فماتا منه في أيام متقاربة. وكان الذي تولي ذلك من الحسن زوجته " جعدة " بنت الأشعث بن قيس لمال بذله لها معاوية. وسنذكر الخبر في ذلك” When “Muawiyah” wanted to take allegiance from people in favor of his son as the next caliph, he plotted against Imam “Hassan” and “Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas”, and sent poison secretly and both of them died several days apart from each, Imam “Hassan” wife “Ja’da”, daughter of “Asha’th bin Qays”; was in charge of poisoning him, because of properties that “Muawiyah” gave her that will be soon mentioned. “Isfahani”- Maqatil al-Talibin- v1, p13 Then he quotes this narrative: “عن مغيرة، قال: أرسل معاوية إلي ابنة الأشعث إني مزوجك بيزيد ابني، علي أن تسمي الحسن بن علي، وبعث إليها بمائة ألف درهم، فقبلت وسمت الحسن، فسوغها المال ولم يزوجها منه، فخلف عليها رجل من آل طلحة فأولدها، فكان إذا وقع بينهم وبين بطون قريش كلام عيروهم، وقالوا: يا بني مسمة الأزواج” It’s been quoted from “Mughiyra” that “muawiyah” messaged “Ja’da” that if you poison “Hassan” I’ll marry you to my son “Yazid”. “Ja’da” was Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife,”Muawiyah” sent her one hundred thousand dirhams and she poisoned Imam “Hassan” [AS], he gave the money to her but didn’t marry her to his son. After a while, a man from “Talha” dynasty married “Ja’da” and she gave birth to a child, whenever there was quarrel between them and other families of “Quraysh” tribe, they would reproach Ja’da’s children saying: you’re the sons of a woman who’s poisoned her husband. “al-Isfahani”- Maqatil al-Talibin- v1, p20 “Ibn A’atham Shafi’i” writes: “سمعنا من الثقات أنه حين قرر معاوية بن أبي سفيان أن يجعل ولده يزيدا ولي عهده، مع علمه بأن هذا الأمر صعب المنال نظر لأن الصلح الذي أبرم بينه وبين الحسن بن علي كان من بين شروطه أن يترك معاوية أمر المسلمين شوري بينهم بعد وفاته. لذلك سعي في موت الحسن بكل جهده، وأرسل مروان بن الحكم (طريد النبي صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) إلي المدينة وأعطاه منديلا مسموما وأمره بأن يوصله إلي زوجة الحسن جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس بما استطاع من الحيل لكي تجعل الحسن يستعمل ذلك المنديل المسموم بعد قضاء حاجته وأن يتعهد لها بمبلغ خمسين ألف درهم ويزوجها من ابنه. فذهب مروان تنفيذا لأمر معاوية واستفرغ جهده حتي خدع زوجة الحسن ونفذت المؤامرة وعلي إثر ذلك انتقل الحسن إلي دار السلام واغترت جعدة بمواعيد مروان وأقدمت علي تلك الجريمة الشنعاء” I heard from reliable guys that “Muawiyah” decided to put his son “Yazid” as his successor but he knew that it’s impossible because one of the conditions of treaty made between him and Imam “Hassan” was that “Muawiyah” should abdicate selecting Muslims’ caliph to the council; that’s why he left no stone unturned killing Imam “Hassan”, and “Muawiyah” gave a poisonous handkerchief to “Marwan”- the guy who had been exiled by Prophet- and ordered him giving it to “Ja’da”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife and telling her to use different tricks so that Imam uses this poisonous handkerchief, and to promise “Ja’da” giving her fifty thousand dirhams and marry her to his son “Yazid”. “Marwan” went to “Medina” and did his best to deceive Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife, his effort produced in result and Imam “Hassan” left the world. “Ja’da” was deceived by Marwan’s promises and committed this nefarious sin. “Al-Kufi”- kitab al-Futouh- v4, p319 “Ansari al-Talamsani” writes: “ومات الحسن، رضي الله عنه، مسموما يُقال إن امرأته " جَعْدة " بنت الأشعث بن قيس سمَّته. دَسَّ إليها معاوية أن تسمَّه فإذا مات أعطاها أربعين ألفا، وزوَّجها من يزيد فلما مات الحسن وفَّي لها بالمال وقال لها: حاجة هذا ما صنعت بابن فاطمة، فكيف تصنع بابن معاوية؟ فخسرت وما ربحت” “Hassan” [AS] died while poisoning. It’s been said that “ja’da”, his wife, daughter of “Asha’th bin Qays” has poisoned her, “Muawiyah” messaged her secretly that if she poisons him and he dies, she will be given forty thousand dinars and will marry her to his son “Yazid”. When “Hassan” died, he gave her promised money and said: when you did so to “Fatimah” [AS]’s son what you will do to my son; thus that woman got no benefit. “Al-Kufi”- the book of conquers, v4, p319 “Ibn Abd al-Barr” writes: وقال قتادة وأبو بكر بن حفص سم الحسن بن علي سمته إمرأته جعدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس الكندي. وقالت طائفة كان ذلك منها بتدسيس معاوية إليها وما بذل لها من ذلك وكان لها ضرائر والله أعلم. “Qatada” and “Abu-Bakr bin Hafs” have said: “Hassan bin Ali” was poisoned by his wife “Ja’da”, and some have said: she did so because of Muawiyah’s plots and what he gave her. “Ibn Abd al-Barr al-Qurtubi”- al-Estiab fi Ma’rifa al-Ashab”- v1, p389 And “Masudi Shafi’i” Sunni famous historian, writes: “وذكر أن امرأته جَعْدة بنت الأشعث بن قيس الكندي سقته السم، وقد كان معاوية دسَّ إليها: إنك إن احتلْتِ في قتل الحسن وَجَّهت إليك بمائة ألف درهم، وزوَّجتك من يزيد، فكان ذلك الذي بعثها علي سَمّه، فلما مات وَفَي لها معاوية بالمال، وأرسل إليها: إنا - نحب حياة يزيد، ولولا ذلك لوفينا لك بتزويجه” “Ja’da”, was daughter of “Ash’ath bin Qays”, Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife who poisoned Imam “Hassan”, “Muawiyah” messaged her that if you poison “Hassan”, I’ll give you one thousand dirhams and marry you to “Yazid” and such promises provoked her caring out Muawiyah’s plot, after doing so, “Muawiyah” gave her the money but messaged her that I like “Yazid” otherwise I’d live up to my second promise. “Al-Masudi”- the meadows of gold- v1, p346 And “Ibn abi al-Hadid Shafi’i” writes in the book “Comments on the Peak of Eloquence”: “قال أبو الحسن المدائني: وكانت وفاته في سنة تسع وأربعين، وكان مرضه أربعين يوما، وكانت سنه سبعا وأربعين سنة، دس إليه معاوية سما علي يد جعدة بنت الأشعث ابن قيس زوجة الحسن، وقال لها: إن قتلتيه بالسم فلك مائة ألف، وأزوجك يزيد ابني. فلما مات وفي لها بالمال، ولم يزوجها من يزيد. قال: أخشي أن تصنع بابني كما صنعت بابن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم” “Abu al-Hassan Madaeni” says: Imam “Hassan” died in the Year 49 AH at the age 47, and he was sick forty days, “Muawiyah” plotted and sent poison for “Ja’da”, wife of imam “Hassan” [AS] and said: if you kill him by poison I’ll give you one hundred thousand dirhams and marry you to “Yazid”, when she martyred Imam “Hassan”, he gave her the money didn’t let her marring his son and said: I’m afraid that you do to my son what you did to prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]’s grandson. “Ibn Abi’l-Hadid, Comments on the Peak of Eloquence, v16, p7 “Abu’l-Fida” tries to put the blame of “Muawiyah” on his son “Yazid”: “وتوفي الحسن من سم سقته زوجته جعدة بنت الأشعث، قيل فعلت ذلك بأمر معاوية، وقيل بأمر يزيد بن معاوية، ووعدها أنه يتزوجها إِن فعلت ذلك، فسقته السم وطالبت يزيد أن يتزوجها فأبي” Imam “Hassan” [AS] left the world by the poison that his wife “Ja’da”, daughter of “Asha’th” gave him, some have said that “Muawiyah” has ordered, some other have said that “Yazid” ordered and promised her to marry her if she kills “Hassan”, so she did so and asked “Yazid” to marry her but he refused. “Abu’l-Fida”- concise history of humanity - v1, p127 “Ibn al-Wardi” says in his book: “وقيل إن زوجته جعدة بنت الأشعث سمته، قيل بأمر معاوية، وقيل بأمر يزيد أطمعها بالتزوج بها ولم يف” Some have said that “Ja’da” Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s wife poisoned him, some have said that “Muawiyah” ordered it to be done, some have said that “Yazid” ordered her and provoked her that I’ll marry you {if you poison “Hassan”}, although he didn’t do so. “Ibn al-Wardi”- History of ibn al-Wardi- v1, p158 Mentioned issues are some of proofs that prove that “Muawiyah” sent poison. Muawiyah’s happiness of imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom: Many of Sunni historians have written that “Muawiyah” did gratitude prostration after he was notified about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom. ما بلغ معاوية موته سمع تكبيره من الخضراء، فكبرأهل الشام لذلك التكبير، فقالت فاختة بنت قريظة لمعاوية: أقر الله عينك ما الذي كبرت لأجله؟ فقال: مات الحسن، فقالت أ علي موت ابن فاطمة تكبر؟. فقال: والله ما كبرت شماتة بموته، ولكن استراح قلبي. ودخل عليه ابن عباس رضي الله تعالي عنهما فقال له: يا ابن عباس هل تدري ما حدث في أهل بيتك؟ فقال: لا أدري ما حدث؟ إلا أني أراك مستبشرا وقد بلغني تكبيرك وسجودك فقال: مات الحسن فقال ابن عباس يرحم الله أبا محمد ثلاثا، والله يامعاوية لاتسد حفرته حفرتك، ولايزيد عمره في عمرك، ولئن كنا قد أصبنا بالحسن، فلقد أصبنا بإمام المتقين وخاتم النبيين، فجبر الله تلك الصدعة، وسكن تلك العبرة، وكان الله الخلف علينا من بعده. When “Muawiyah” was notified of Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s demise, the sound of his “Takbir” was heard from “green” palace, people of “Sham” said “Takbir” for his success, “Fakhtah”, wife of “Muawiyah” told him: why did say “Takbir”? He answered: “Hassan” left the world, she said: do you say “Takbir” because of the demise of son of “Fatimah”, “Muawiyah” said: swear by god, I didn’t say “Takbir” due to happiness of his death; but my heart is at ease. “Ibn Abbas” went to “Muawiyah”, he told “Ibn Abbas”: are you aware of what has happened to your family? “Ibn Abbas” said: No I’m not, but I see you happy and heard of your “Takbir” and gratitude prostration, “Muawiyah” said: ”Hassan” passed away. “Ibn Abbas” said: May god bless “Abu Ahmad”- he repeated it three times- swear to god, “Muawiyah”, reducing his life won’t increase your life, if we join him, we’d have joined the leader of the righteous and the ring of prophets and god will make up this apartness and relieve this sorrow; and then god will select successor for us. “Ibn Samu’n al-Baghdadi”- Amali ibn Samu’n- v1,p165 /// “Zamakhshari”- Rabi’ al-Abrar”- v1, p438 /// “Ibn KhalLikan”- wafiyat al-A’yan-v2, p66 In addition, “Zamakhshari” has quoted this issue: “لما بلغ معاوية موت الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنه، سجد معاوية وسجد من حوله شكراً. فدخل عليه ابن عباس فقال له: يا ابن عباس أمات أبو محمد ؟ قال: نعم، وبلغني سجودك، والله يا ابن آكلة الكبود لا يسدن جسدك إياه حفرتك، ولا يزيد انقضاء أجله في عمرك” When “Muawiyah” was told about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom, he and people around him did gratitude prostration, then “Ibn Abbas” came to “Muawiyah”, He told “Ibn Abbas”: did Imam “Hassan” die? He said: Yes he did, I’ve heard that you did gratitude prostration! Swear to god, they won’t put him in your grave and his demise won’t increase your life! “Rabi’ al-Abrar”- Zemakhshari- v1, p431 “Ahmad Zaki Safwat” writes: “لما بلغ معاوية نعي الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنه أظهر الفرح والسرور حتي سجد وسجد من كان معه فبلغ ذلك عبد الله بن عباس وكان بالشام يومئذ فدخل علي معاوية فلما جلس قال معاوية يا بن عباس هلك الحسن بن علي ولم يظهر حزنا فقال ابن عباس نعم هلك إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ترجيعا مكررا وقد بلغني الذي أظهرت من الفرح والسرور لوفاته أما والله ما سد جسده حفرتك ولا زاد نقصان أجله في عمرك ولقد مات وهو خير منك ولئن أصبنا به لقد أصبنا بمن كان خيرا منه جده رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم فجبر الله مصيبته وخلف علينا من بعده أحسن الخلافة” When “Muawiyah” was told about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom, He celebrated openly he and people around him did gratitude prostration, “Ibn Abbas” was notified of it and went to “Muawiyah”, He told “Ibn Abbas”: why aren’t you upset? “Hassan” perished, He said: Yes he left the world, I’ve heard that you celebrated his death openly! Swear to god, they won’t put him in your grave, the shortness of his life won’t increase your life, he left the world while he was better than you, if we join him, we’d have joined someone better than him and his grandfather prophet Muhammad [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)], god will make up his tragedy and after him god will send good successors. “Ahmadi Zaki”- Jamhara Khutab al-Arab- v2, p99 “Ibn Qatib Dinwari” writes in the book “Imamate and policy”, v1, p142 فلما كانت سنة إحدي وخمسين، مرض الحسن بن علي مرضه الذي مات فيه، فكتب عامل المدينة إلي معاوية يخبره بشكاية الحسن، فكتب إليه معاوية: إن استطعت ألا يمضي يوم يمر بي إلا يأتيني فيه خبره فافعل، فلم يزل يكتب إليه بحاله حتي توفي. “فكتب إليه بذلك، فلما أتاه الخبر أظهر فرحا وسرورا، حتي سجد وسجد من كان معه، فبلغ ذلك عبد الله بن عباس، وكان بالشام يومئذ، فدخل علي معاوية، فلما جلس قال معاوية: يا بن عباس هلك الحسن بن علي، فقال ابن عباس: نعم هلك ( إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ) ترجيعا مكررا، وقد بلغني الذي أظهرت من الفرح والسرور لوفاته. أما والله ما سد جسده حفرتك، ولا زاد نقصان أجله في عمرك، ولقد مات وهو خير منك، ولئن أصبنا به لقد أصبنا بمن كان خيرا منه، جده رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم، فجبر الله مصيبته، وخلف علينا من بعده أحسن الخلافة. ثم شهق ابن عباس وبكي، وبكي من حضر المجلس، وبكي معاوية، فما رأيت يوما أكثر باكيا من ذلك اليوم، فقال معاوية: بلغني أنه ترك بنين صغارا. فقال ابن عباس: كلنا كان صغيرا فكبر. قال معاوية: كم أتي له من العمر ؟ فقال ابن عباس: أمر الحسن أعظم من أن يجهل أحد مولده. قال: فسكت معاوية يسيرا، ثم قال: يا بن العباس: أصبحت سيد قومك من بعده، فقال ابن عباس: أما ما أبقي الله أبا عبد الله الحسين فلا. قال معاوية: لله أبوك يا بن عباس، ما استنبأتك إلا وجدتك معدا” In the year 50 AH, Imam “Hassan” [AS] got sick and led to his death, “Medina” ruler wrote letter to “Muawiyah” made him aware of Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s status, “Muawiyah” wrote him in response: do so every day if it’s possible, from then one “Median” ruler would message “Muawiyah” about “Hassan” [AS]’s state till he passed away. After his demise, “Median” ruler notified “Muawiyah”, then he celebrated and prostrated, others did so as well. “Ibn Abbas” was notified of it and went to “Muawiyah”, he told “Ibn Abbas”: O son of “Abbas”: “Hassan” perished, why aren’t you sad? “Ibn Abbas” said: Yes he left the world, all of us belong to god and will return to him- he repeated this sentence- I’ve heard that you celebrated openly due to his demise, swear by god, his body won’t fill your grave, and his short life won’t increase your life, if we join hive, we’ve joined someone better than him and his grandfather prophet Muhammad [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)], so god will make up his tragedy and send good successors. Then “Ibn Abbas” cried loudly and those who were there cried as well, “Muawiyah” cried either, he’d not been seen like this before, then “Muawiyah” said: I’ve heard that he’s left little kids, “Ibn Abbas” said: all of us were little and grew up, “Muawiyah” said: how old was he? “Ibn Abbas” said: Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s status is more clear than that someone doesn’t know his birth date, after a while silence, “Muawiyah” said: O son of “Abbas”, today you became the elder of your tribe, “Ibn Abbas” said: As for what God has left Abu Abdullah Al-Hussein, then no. “Muawiyah” said: I saw you ready whenever I tested you! “Ibn Abd Rabbih” writes: “ولما بلغ معاويةَ موتُ الحسن بن علي خر ساجداً لله، ثم أرسل إلي ابن عباس، وكان معه في الشام، فعزاه وهو مُستبشر، وقال له: ابن كم سنة مات أبو محمد؟ فقال له: سنِه كان يُسمع في قُريش، فالعجب من أن يجهله مثلُك! قال: بلغني أنه ترك أطفالاً صغاراً. قال: كُل ما كان صغيراً يَكْبُر، وإن طِفْلَنَا لكَهْل، وإن صغيرَنا لكَبير. ثم قال: مالي أراك يا معاويةُ مُستبشراً بموت الحسن ابن علي ؟ فوالله لا ينْسأ في أجلك، ولا يَسُد حُفرتك، وما أقَل بقاءَك وبقاءَنا بعده” After “Muawiyah” was notified about Imam “Hassan” [AS]’s martyrdom, he did gratitude prostration and sent someone to get “Ibn Abbas” was in “Sham” . then he condoled “Ibn Abbas” while being happy and told him: how old was “Abu Muhammad” when he left the world? Ibn “Abbas” said: all people of “Quraysh” tribe know his age, it’s weird that a guy like doesn’t know that. Then “Muawiyah” said: I’ve heard he’s left little kids?! Ibn Abbas” said: every little kid will grow up. Then “Ibn Abbas” said: O “Muawiyah” why are you happy of “Hassan bin Ali” [AS]’s martyrdom? Swear by god his demise won’t delay your death and his body won’t fill yours. And how short me and you will live after Imam “Hassan” [AS]. “Ibn Abd Rabbih” al-Iqd al-Farid- v2, p125 Now we recall you prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)]’s sayings about enmity and fighting against “Ahl al-Bayt” [AS]: “أَنَا حَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَكُمْ وسلم لِمَنْ سَالَمَكُمْ” “لا يبغضنا أهل البيت أحد إلا أدخله الله النار” Our question from Sunni is that how you judge “Muawiyah” according to what prophet [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] has said and mentioned proofs?
  3. “Ibn Taymiyyah” writes about forging hadith: و قد وضع الناس أحاديث كثيرة مكذوبة على رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم و سلم في الأصول والأحكام و الزهد و الفضائل و وضعوا كثيرا من فضائل الخلفاء الأربعة و فضائل معاوية. People {Sunnis} made many narratives and lie in the topic of principle of religion, Ahkam, piety and virtues and ascribe them to Prophet Muhammad [(صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)] and they’ve also made many virtues about four caliphs and “Muawiyah”. “Minhaj al-Sunnah”- vol. 7, p 312
  4. “Ibn Abi Shaybah”, the master of “Muhammad Ismael Bukhari” (The one who compiled Sahih al-Bukhari) writes in his “Al-Musannaf” book: حدثنا الفضل حدثنا حشرج بن نباتة قال حدثني سعيد بن جمهان قلت لسفينة إن بني أمية يزعمون أن الخلافة فيهم قال كذب بنو الزرقاء بل هم ملوك من شر الملوك وأول الملوك معاوية. “Saed ibn Jahman” says: I told “Safinah”: “Bani Umayya” think that caliphate belongs to them. He said: “Bani Zarqa’” {children of Hind} lied. They’re amongst the worst rulers and their first ruler is “Muawiyah”. “Al-Musannaf” – vol. 13, p 63 Can you still claim that “Muawiyah” was commander of the faithful and one of best guys?
  5. have questions as I start the knowledge journey. Who were Amavides?
  6. See 37:39 in this video, he says the Imams like Imam Jaffer (عليه السلام) taught Shiism, yet still chooses to follow Imam Malik who he says did not narrate from Imam Jaffer because he knew he was Shia, he also claims most of our perspective on the holy Imams ((عليه السلام)) is correct (unlike other Sunni scholars who say most of it is fabricated). This should raise many question as to why he chooses to follow Imam Malik over the Imams ((عليه السلام)): He seems to oppose how some shias want to bring their children up with a very black and white view of history (good guy vs bad guy), where they hate and curse muawiya and say that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was surrounded by his enemies (which he says would imply he primarily failed his mission); he keeps asking "what is the end goal" of all this hatred, and claims history was a lot more nuanced than the shias make it out to be (see min 55 +). He also says this sort of "tunnel vision" is why children are leaving Islam, turning to kufr ideologies, becoming atheists: Note: whilst I disagree with him, I respect how he promotes shia-sunni unity and his interactions with the Shia community.
  7. Salaam, The recent sectarianism in Pakistan has been caused by shia views on Abu Sufiyan, Muawiya and Yazeed. Below are a few hadith on Muawiya. Shias can consider this a tool to make a case against Muawiya should there be a need. Sunnis can consider this a learning tool. I will not be responding to this thread to maintain my objectivity. Others are free to respond of course. Amir b. Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas reported on the authority of his father that Muawiya b. Abi Sufyan appointed Sa'd as the Governor and said: What prevents you from abusing Abu Turab (Hadrat 'Ali), whereupon be said: It is because of three things which I remember Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) having said about him that I would not abuse him and even if I find one of those three things for me, it would be more dear to me than the red camels. I heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) say about 'Ali as he left him behind in one of his campaigns (that was Tabuk). 'Ali said to him: Allah's Messenger, you leave me behind along with women and children. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said to him: Aren't you satisfied with being unto me what Aaron was unto Moses but with this exception that there is no prophethood after me. And I (also) heard him say on the Day of Khaibar: I would certainly give this standard to a person who loves Allah and his Messenger, and Allah and his Messenger love him too. He (the narrator) said: We had been anxiously waiting for it, when he (the Holy Prophet) said: Call 'Ali. He was called and his eyes were inflamed. He applied saliva to his eyes and handed over the standard to him, and Allah gave him victory. (The third occasion is this) when the (following) verse was revealed: "Let us summon our children and your children." Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) called 'Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain and said: O Allah, they are my family. Sahih Muslim Book 44, Hadith 50 https://sunnah.com/muslim/44/50 Zirr reported: 'Ali observed: By Him Who split up the seed and created something living, the Apostle (may peace and blessings be upon him) gave me a promise that no one but a believer would love me, and none but a hypocrite would nurse grudge against me. Sahih Muslim Book 1, Hadith 146 https://sunnah.com/muslim/1/146 Narrated Ibn Al-Musaiyab: The companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Some men from my companions will come to my Lake-Fount and they will be driven away from it, and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It will be said, 'You have no knowledge of what they innovated after you left: they turned apostate as renegades (reverted from Islam). Sahih Bukhari Book 81, Hadith 174 https://sunnah.com/bukhari/81/174 (there are 6 other narrations like this one) Based on this simple evidence, is a discussion even required on Muawiya being RA or LA?
  8. I decided to Update the thread because we have more Sunnis on Shia Chat, I would like someone to debate me on this, @Cherub786 @eThErEaL @Maulana Than after I Pick someone than I will debate him/her, similar to my last debate, so we can maintain a peaceful and uninterrupted Debate
  9. Plz don't curse Muawiya, or any other person in your posts, Doing that will only make our relations worse.
  10. https://historyofislam.com/contents/the-age-of-faith/muawiya/ I strongly Advise you read the above link. A Sunni' professor, describing Sunni perspective of the History of Muawiya. For those among my Shia brothers who believe their Sunni Brothers say RadiAllahu 'Anhu after Muawiyah, you can see that the Sunni's do not do that, at all. For those of you who want to see a Shia Acadamic, who is well known (and whom I saw lectures at UMAA this year), I refer you to Nabil Hussayn :http://scholar.princeton.edu/nhussen/links/term/400 and if you're lazy, here http://scholar.princeton.edu/nhussen/links/pro-alid-sunnis-المنزهون من اهل الحديث The above is a scholarly study on the Pro-'Ali Sunni scholars, that many of you may or may not know The reason I made this post is because I came across certain rhetoric over here making ill based sweeping generalizations that the MAJORITY of their Sunni brother's despise Ali and Revere Muawiyah so much so that they say RA after his name, The first step in Unity is to dispel ignorance and misconceptions from both sides. I've gone through great lengths with my Sunni' brothers to dispel and normalize their misconceptions of the Shia', now I feel I must do the same here. This: Modern Sunni literature Despite his endeavours in the expansion of the Caliphate and the establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty, the persona of Caliph Muawiyah I evokes a controversial figure in standard Islamic history whose legacy has never quite been able to shed the taint of his opposition to the Rashidun Caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib. The late (Sunni) theologian Mawdudi (founder of Jamaat-E-Islami) wrote that the establishment of the caliphate as (essentially) a monarchy began with the caliphate of Muawiyah I. It wasn't the kind where Muawiyah was appointed by the Muslims. Mawdudi elaborated that Muawiyah wanted to be caliph and fought in order to attain the caliphate, not really depending upon the acceptance of the Muslim community. The people did not appoint Muawiyah as a caliph, he became one by force, and consequently the people had no choice but to give him their pledge of allegiance (baiah). Had the people not given Muawiyah their allegiance at that time, it wouldn't have meant so much as losing their rank or position, as much as it would have meant bloodshed and conflict. This certainly couldn't have been given preference over peace and order. Following Hasan ibn Ali's abdication of the caliphate, all the Muslims (including the Sahabah and Tabi'een) gave their pledge of allegiance to Muawiyah I, bringing an end to civil war. That year was called the Aam Al Jamaat (Year of Congregation). As Mawdudi pointed out, Muawiyah's own speech during the initial days of his caliphate expressed his own awareness of this:[146] By Allah, while taking charge of your government I was not unaware of the fact that you are unhappy over my taking over of government and you people don’t like it. I am well aware of whatever is there in your hearts regarding this matter but still I have taken it from you on the basis of my sword… Now if you see that I am not fulfilling your rights, then you should be happy with me with whatever is there The above taken from Wikipedia, with proper citations. Legacy Mu'awiyah greatly beautified Damascus and developed a court to rival that of the Byzantines. He expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the very gates of Constantinople at one point, though failing to hold any territory in Asia Minor. Throughout the Umayyad dynasty which he founded, its borders would be commensurate with those of the Islamic community (with the exception of the short-lived rival caliphate in Mecca, 680–692). No later caliphate would share the same borders as the whole ummah. Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post civil war anarchy, although many are critical of his controversial decision to designate his son as his successor, thereby converting the caliphate from an elective office to a monarchy. He nonetheless attempted to preserve the form of the election however, by causing his nobles and the chiefs of the empire to elect and swear allegiance to his son in his own lifetime, a tradition that endured for several succeeding dynasties. Later Sunnis decided that preservation of unity was more important than how the leader was chosen, and concentrated more in their writing on the caliphate on the qualities that were needed rather than on how he should be selected. Like Uthman, he tended to favor Arabs in general (and his own family in particular) over others. However, his administrative skills are widely acknowledged. It is said that friends and critics alike recognized his quality of hilm (civilized restraint). He shared this with his predecessors but not their humility and simple lifestyle. In contrast to their simple dress and table, he dressed and ate like a king. He began the transformation of Damascus, his capital, into a center of culture and learning. The Sunni view of Mu'awiyah Mu'awiya is not recognized as one of the four rightly guided caliphs. Most of the early Sunni historians saw his rule, and that of the Umayyad dynasty that followed him, as a descent into mere worldly rule (mulk), kingship rather than religious leadership. These historians were writing after the fall of the Umayyad dynasty to the Abbasids, and hence their writings reflect the Abbasid justifications for the Umayyad overthrow. Few later Sunni historians wholeheartedly defend Mu'awiyah. However, they do not dispute his right to rule. Sunni clerics and scholars have generally preached submission to authority, even when authority is less than perfect. Sunnis tend to view communal dissension with horror and accept flawed rule as preferable to civil war (fitnah). @ The above taken from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Muawiyah @kirtc @Gaius I. Caesar @Abu-Jafar Herz @Tawheed313 @Sarah2016 @shiaman14
  11. As Salaamu Alaikum. I found this alleged secret letter from Umar to Muawiyyah. You may already know about it. If it is true then it will be an amazing revelation. It is in Urdu. Will you or someone you know translate it for me, as accurately as you can, from Urdu to English and post mail or email it back to me? I realize that this is not a high priority project and I know you are extremely busy. Therefore, if you know of someone who has the time and interest I would appreciate it if you could invite him to assume the task of translation. If you can provide me with the same letter in the original Arabic that would be helpful as well. I definitely would like to keep it for my own research and study and not publicize it due to its sensitive content. Let me know what you think. email: mujahidein@yahoo.com file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Ahmad/My%20Documents/Downloads/umars%20letter%20to%20mavia%20(3).pdf umars letter to mavia.pdf .
  12. This is an extremely important topic, and I don't want to be controversial; but it is important to discuss in my opinion, and the reasons why we are seeing a plague in Muslim societies today. I won't go into the specifics of what happened right after the death of the Prophet(S) to avoid sounding controversial. Let us say that Hazrat Umar was a good administrator of the Islamic empire, and kept a tight lid/control over affairs. The empire grew very rapidly after the death of Prophet(S), in fact, too rapidly, which caused a lot of problems. However, after the death of Hazrat Umar, rifts based on tribal affiliations and families started taking place within the Muslim community. The Ummayads started to influence matters, and challenged the writ of the state. I would say that the problem with the Muslim community even during the time of Prophet(S) was that the people that had directly fought Muslims in the Battles of Badr and Uhad, people/munafiqs such as Abu Sufyan and Khalid bin Waleed, started gaining prominence in the Muslim Ummah once they entered the realm of Islam, and after the life of the Prophet(S) during the caliph's times. It were these people, and their progeny (Muawiya was the son of Abu Sufyan, Yazid was the son of Muawiya) that caused the destruction of Muslim society, and caused tremendous pain and suffering to the family of the Prophet(S). It was clear from the death of Hazrat Umar, that the Muslim community started disintegrating rapidly, with the Ummayads (and Abbasids later on) trying to grab power at the expense of the state. Imam Ali (AS) saw Muawiya responsible for the first great fitna, and in-fighting between Muslims in the Battle of Jamal and Siffin. Imam Hasan (AS) had to settle with Muawiya through a peace treaty, and was then poisoned to death. It was abundantly clear that under Yazid, and bloodthirsty, power grabbing people; Islam would have gone undergone total destruction, and Imam Hussain (AS) made the ultimate sacrifice in Karbala. However, with the rise of ISIS and other militant groups throughout the world, we can see all this emanated after the life of Prophet(S), with the gradual disintegration of the Muslim Ummah. Green - Region under the control of Imam Ali (AS) Red - Region under the control of Muawiya Blue - Region under the control of Amr bin Aas It absolutely boggles me how anyone can call the progeny of Abu Sufyan (Muawiya, Yazid), and Abu Sufyan companions of the Prophet(S), when they were responsible for creating fitna in the Muslim society for their thirst for power; and are the reason why we see the plague in the Muslim world today. There are more and more Wahabi and Deobandi scholars coming out today, praising Yazid (calling him Yazeed ® nauzibillah) and claiming Imam Hussain (AS) was wrong. Calling Yazid the rightful caliph, and Imam Hussain (AS) a rebel. This is the reason why the Muslim world, and especially the Arab world, has its plague.
  13. Some Muslims expressed their unfavorable impressions of Mu'a`wiya in his time. They are as follows: 1. Ibn 'Abba`s: 'Abd Allah b. 'Abba`s, a great Muslim thinker, expressed his opinion of Mu'a`wiya saying: "Mu'a`wiya has no quality to bring him near to the Caliphate.(Al-Mas'u`di, Ha`mish b. al-Athïr, vol. 6, p. 7). 2. Sa'sa'a bin Soha`n Sa'sa'a bin Soha`n al-'Abdi, a great Muja`hid, met Mu'a`wiya in the days of his government, and he asked him: "Which Caliph you have seen me?" Sa'sa'a answered him courageously, saying: "He who rules the people by force, governs over them with pride, and sizes (power) with the means of falsehood, lying, and trickery, is not a caliph! By Allah, at the Battle of Badr, you had neither a sword nor an arrow! You and your father were among those who fought against Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family! You are a freedman, and son of a freedman. Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, released you. Therefore, how is the caliphate appropriate for a freedman?(Al-Mas'u`di, Ha`mish b. al-Athïr, vol. 6, p. 7). 3. Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba, Mu'a`wiya's friend and partner in sins, came to Mu'a`wiya and heard him saying a tradition thereby he slandered the great Prophet. Hence he was dissatisfied with him, left him, went to his son Yazid, and said to him: "I have come from the most malicious of all the people!" Then he related the tradition to him.(Al-Mas'u`di, Muru`jj al-Dhahab, vol. 2, p. 342). 4. Samra bin Jundub Samra bin Jundub, who was a hypocrite and liar, was among those who were indignant with Mu'a`wiya. That was when he removed him from the office of Basrah. Hence he said: "May Allah curse Mu'a`wiya! By Allah, if I had obeyed Allah as I obeyed Mu'a`wiya, He would never had chastised me! (Al-Tabari, Ta`rikh (first edition), vol. 6, p. 157). With this we will end our speech about Mu'a`wiya. He who carefully considers Mu'a`wiya's policy finds it full of acts of disobedience to Allah and His Messenger such as murdering the free, chasing the reformers, violating women, and spreading crimes and offenses.
  14. Leture of Wahabi ulema Ishaq on Mu'awiya. So some people those who say that Khilafat was not Mu'awiya's aim rather to take revenge,what will they response?
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