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  1. http://alhaydari.com/ar/2019/12/68591/ Translation by me :) THOUGHTS ON MODERNITY AND POST-MODERNISM BY KAMAL AL-HAYDARI Lecture 1 One of the most important facts that we must turn to, That Modernity movement that started in the West one and a half to two centuries ago with regard to the rights of women and theories that were born from this movement, which are lots and in many directions. If we want to understand them well, we must understand the intellectual, social and economic reality that generated This movement that led to the flourish of West. Look at Islamic states. see these forty or fifty years in the system of these states. You find many ideas raised that does not exist at all before, but it is now the intellectual and cultural reality that led to it. How much was the scientific researches, thought, culture and official institutions concerned with the issue of governance in Islam? But now hundreds of studies, writings and lessons are all looking for governance in Islam Why? Because social streaks became this way. However, you do not find a counterpart in the past. Why? Because the social, political, intellectual and cultural realities have led to it and even might you don’t find such things in other regions. From here we conclude this fact, which is that ideas, philosophies and philosophical theories are not above time and place and this is what post-modernism has stated, they said that we cannot put a philosophical theory above time and place. So, on this basis, if this fact becomes clear when we come to the western theories and feminist’s movement, etc. how we must read them now? We must read it in its cultural, social and intellectual realities that produced these theories. The question I want to enter with it, how should we deal with the thought presented to us taking into account where these ideas originate from? Should we close the door on it and never study it or as some people accept it as if they are absolute facts or there is another direction behind these? In the introduction I must refer to the historical epochs that Western thought went through, if we use the language of contemporary European historians, history will be divided into three basic stages: • Greco-Roman world This is the first stage that spanned from the fifth century B.C. Socrates era to the fifth century A.D. and lasted for ten centuries. • Middle Ages lasted from the fall of Roman in the West in 476 in the fifth century to the fall of the Byzantine empire by the Ottoman Turks 1453, also approximately ten other centuries • Modern era Post-Middle Ages era about 4-5 centuries and continues to this day. These are what we have with in the history of West. Of course, there are multiple branches and diversities. But What do Muslims have? The Golden Islamic era are within the time of Middle Ages, However the West were in the era of darkness. Muslim used to live in the age of modernity, but rather the Islamic modernity and It was the center of the world, but since the naming of the Middle Ages is infamous with the West and surrounded by negativity in the Arab and European consciousness because the Middle Ages were the centuries of darkness, we feel great pain and anger because the best of us is classified in the name medieval, this leads me to re-search the history of Islam in a way In line with the respect of our history, so then what are the periods that Islam went through? • Production Age The emergence of Islam in the seventh century AD ending with the death of Ibn-Rushd in the twelfth century. These five six centuries that produced all of our ideas and thoughts in various directions from Sunnis, Shiites, Mu'tazila and Ash'ari that govern our reality regardless of scientific, natural researches and the discoveries in astronomy, physics, chemistry were all connected to those centuries, the stage of production was the era of transculturation as well? Because in these centuries the other thought began translated through the House of Wisdom established by Al-Maamoun for the expalme the Greek, Indian, and Persian philosophy in other words philosophy in all its dimensions also from the various human sciences and medicine that came from that period. • The era of decadence The age of rumination and repetition to the past works It represents our Middle Ages, which were the ages of darkness starting from the six seven century AH (13th century AD) to the thirteenth century AH (19th century AD) remains for six to seven centuries however still remains some intellectual flashes like Ibn-Khaldoun in the eighth century AH(the end of 13th century AD), but these were exceptions from the rule. Muslim in That era was outside history does not know what's going on in the world in contrast West From the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and after they entered into fights with Catholic church and extremist ideas and with the shocking industrial, digital revolutions until they brought Western thought to this day. The West is moving forward and the Muslims are in a deep sleep, until they turned in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and found that these are ahead by light years and not by ordinary years. Look at us, where are we? So, Muslims started the movement in the nineteenth century. But do you know the difference? They started in the fifteenth century and Muslims started in the nineteenth century How many? How do you want to fill the gap? Muslims may not believe because of the miserable situation that we have reached that we were once masters of this civilized world and that our philosophers and our scholars were seven centuries ago representing the supreme authority of the great thinkers of the European continent of dozens and when I say thinkers then I mean Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Bajah and Ibn Rushd mainly who renew the philosophical thought and this is what led the other to need us. Then how we should deal with the thought presented to us with that huge gap? The answer is philosophy, that you live the questions of your time and the truth of philosophy in two things: to live the questions of your time and raise the problems of your time. You are the son of your time, I mean, what are the questions of your time and answering those questions? In various dimensions, there is never a red line in the question. Any question in your era must be raised and you must find the answer to it. The Muslims died the day when philosophy died. I mean, when they died, they stop asking about the problems of their times. They only contented themselves to read the questions of the times of their ancestors. The secret of philosophy is translation and opening up to others. Whoever does not translate does not allow a new blood flow in his veins, dries a little and dies, and this is what happened in Islamic history. Translation and openness are what excites and provokes you, A world of new questions and new excitements requires a new mind of philosophers to solve. In the past ten years, all my concern in my scientific work pose a new question, no but provocations that provoked the Arab mind and never answer? Because I want you to live the problem and say what is the solution? Otherwise if I gave you the question and the solution to it Do you think or not? Your mind becomes what? Thinking mind or resigned mind? Until now Muslims are sitting here and consuming West ideas, intellectual, industrial and natural production even in the way they cut their hair they also imitate them. Look at our culture and people in all of our societies. go to Europe, but are they drowning or not? Thousands drowning, are they stop going to Europe or not? Why? Because they want to live a decent life, not least. His sense of a decent life. Now he may be mistaken, but their feeling is that a decent life is in there? why is this sensation? How do we deal with the other, so what is the way? My dear, there are several ways these are: The first position: To go to the West and be obedient follower of the Western thought, and this is what you now find in many of the writings. did they mention about Islam or not? Never they have nothing to do with it. The second position: reverence for heritage only, and this is the Salaf trend now, Of course, when I say Salafi, your mind does not only go to Wahhabism and Ibn Taymiyyah or Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab, no. Everyone who sees that the first century of Islam is the best of the centuries. The third position: (a lot more severe) revering the West and insulting the Islamic thought, being ridiculous of the whole heritage, past, thoughts, culture, customs, gains and what we have saved for centuries, we put them in the trash. The fourth position: reverence the heritage and delete everything that comes from the West as their thought being dangerous and may cause devastation of the society, Really, I don’t know how this came from. These are the main 4 positions however I will share my position later in this book.
  2. Those who deny the hadith of the prophet saww are called hadith rejectors . They consider normally quran sufficient alone to follow for the religion without recognizing the need to follow the sunna ie sayings or actions of the prophet saww. What the other Muslims brothers consider these hadith rejectors? A muslim, hypocrite, kafir, or mis-guided etc? (Whatever is you opinion ,the evidence of it from quran or hadith may be mentioned too for information /discussion, please). Wasalam
  3. This is something i've been thinking about and interested in for quite some time. First of all i made a poll, so, you might like to answer (totally anonymous) that if you hold strong views and have a good backing of information already. If you don't you might like to read some of the things i linked to get a general idea or some of the things that will (hopefully) be posted by other people. Liberal Islam is really a huge umbrella term though, ranging from those who favour relatively minor, mostly sensible and uncontriversial positions like slavery should not be practiced today, all the way to the quranists and things like that. So, its really hard to generalise things as "Liberal Islam". One thing i've noticed though is a distinct lack or low number of what you would call alternative interpretations or positions, compared to the diversity within Christianity or Judaism. Christianity has a very rich tradition of splintering into different schools of belief over theological issues (eg the protestant reformation). I've also noticed a strong tendancy towards these movements in Judaism with Progressive , Liberal , Reform and Conservative as some noted examples of varying from the orthodox positions. The amount of major differing schools of thought in Islam seems to be very small as compared to that of Christianity. Granted Christianity is older but i think there are other reasons (which i will mention below). Within Judaism, i notice a lot of jews follow schools outside the orthodox whereas in comparison, most muslims seem to be within schools that could be classified as tradition or orthodox. That got me thinking, Why? One of the reasons, i believe, is of scripture. The Jewish and Christian scriptures are usually claimed to be written by humans inspired by God, recounting stories and events. I think this fact allows for significantly different interpretations because for one, humans do make errors and if you think there is such an error, maybe its the result of a human or the times and you can reform around that. There has also been errors in translation and cultural factors that heavily influence the practice of Christianity throughout time, since christian culture became blended with that of the state. You are not going directly against God in your reform efforts in this way either and there is significantly more leeway for interpretation. My understanding of the quran is that it is not like the Christian scriptures. It is not mere inspired by God and written by humans. It is the word of God just simply scribed and recorded by humans. The direct word of God handed down. So, you can't really claim theres error and interpret around it. It can't be the error of humans. Either you need to admit there is somehow an error in the quran or the error or wrongness you percieve isn't really there or that it is meant to be and you simply have to accept it, no matter what you feel. I also think that opposed to the blending of Christian and Local culture to a certain extent, Islam became the culture, due to the nature of Islam. So, it would be hard to argue against in that fashion as well. Also, any kind of reform or re-interpretation would seem to some people as almost going against God and the words he handed down and i can understand the considerable difficulties that this would cause. Another reason i think is the political enviroment surrounding muslim majority countries. Many do not do so well on indicies of freedom or democracy (https://en.wikipedia...x#2010_rankings https://en.wikipedia...ountry_rankings (lower is better) ). In some of these places access to information is severely limited. In other cases a certain version of Islam is preferred by the state and if you don't follow this you could be outcast socially, attacked violently or other things like this (eg saudi arabia, afghanistan under the taliban). Some muslim countries are less educated or less developed than their counterparts as well and this would also reduce access to information about issues like this. This lack of education and in some countries not yet reached by western ideals of freedom and democracy would also have an impact. It would lead to not fully appreciating the alternatives or your rights. I think in countries like this as well the significant local thoughts would seem to be Islamic or take a certain interpretation (misguided or not) and make everyone follow that. Think along the lines of honour killings or some of the things that went on in afghanistan. I'd like to see how everone answers the poll and if you have some times, maybe your thoughts on why liberal islam originated, why liberal movements in Islam aren't all that prevalent (or so as far as i can tell), whether you think its good or bad, whether you think the future of Islam will look like that and why some of my reasons may be right or wrong. Feel free to mention anything regarding the topic in general, i'm very interested in your responses. I'll link some information about Liberal Islam below: https://en.wikipedia...i/Liberal_islam http://studyofislam....iberalIslam.pdf (Good academic paper summarising liberal islam as a whole and the differing variations, origins, and reasons for why it hasn't been more successful or prevalent (eg dictatorships ect) ) http://www.liberalislam.net/ - Some essays by a man who supposedly studied at harvard theological college and holds liberal islam views.
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