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Assalam o Alaikum, KHILAFAT OR IMAMAT Mansoos minallah or by shoora (First century shias VS Today's shias) GHADIR E KHUM IS NOT ABOUT KHILAFAT Incident of Saqifa itself is a big evidence about the fact that Ghadir e Khum is not about khilafat. As all the ansar (Helpers) were gathered there and were thinking about who will be the caliph after Rasoolullah and they were also of the opinion that caliph should be from us (Ansar). Forget about Immigrants, even Helpers were unaware about any text (nass) or that Prophet had announced caliphate for Imam Ali at Ghadir. On the other hand we see that those ansar were both praised by Allah and His Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment. Surah Tauba verse 100. It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Apostle (may peace and blessings be upon him) said: The love of the Ansar is the sign of faith and hatred against them is the sign of dissemblance. Ref: Sahih Muslim 74 It is narrated on the authority of Abu Sa'id Khudri that the Messenger of Allah observed: The person who believes in Allah and the Last Day never nurses a grudge against the Ansar. Sahih Muslim 77 Therefore, the companions did not understand from the Hadith of Ghadir or any other Hadith, the meaning of specific text or appointment to the Caliphate. Due to this, they chose the Shura way as a mode of choosing a leader. They then gave their oaths of allegiance to Abu Bakr as Khalifah after the Prophet (peace be upon him), which clearly shows that no clear meaning of Khilafah was deduced from the reported texts for Imam Ali or the non-existence of such text at that time. Shura (consultation) was the constitutional system that Imam Amir Muminin Ali bin Abi Talib abided by; and that he had no knowledge of vertical hereditary leadership of the Ahl al-Bayt, is his participation in the Shura process after the death of Caliph Umar bin Khattab, and his arguments before the members of the Shura on his virtues and his role in the service of Islam; so also the fact that he did not point to the issue of the text or his appointment as Khalifah after the Prophet. If the Hadith of Ghadir has any of this import, the Imam would have refered to it, and he would have won the day with what is greater and stronger than mentioning his virtues. BELIEF OF IMAM ALI CONCERNING KHILAFAT Imam Ali believed in the system of consultation and it’s being first and foremost the right of the Immigrants and the Helpers (Muhajirin and Ansar). Due to this he refused to accede to the call of rebels-after the murder of Caliph Uthman, who invited him to assume power, and he said to them “This is not of your powers, this is for the Muhajirin and Ansar, anyone they chose as a leader will be a leader”. When the Immigrants and the Helpers came to him and said, “Stretch your hand, we would give you our oath of allegiance”, he withdrew from them. They repeated as the first, and he also withdrew again, and they repeated that for the third time then he said “Leave me and look for another person and know that, if I responded to you, I will do with you what I know…. and if you leave me alone, I am just like one of you, I would be the most obedient and loyal to anyone you choose to conduct your affairs for me to be a vizier is better for you than to be a leader” He walked to Talhah and Zubair and put it across to them and said:” If anyone of you wishes , I will give him my oath of allegiance” They both said “ No … the people accept you more (than any other man). At the end he said to them “If you insist, my oath of allegiance “bayah” must not be secret, and it will not be taken till after the acceptance of the (general) Muslim populace, so I will go out to the Masjid (mosque) anyone who wishes to give his oath of allegiance to me let him do it”. Ref: Tabari, vol. 3 p. 450 Therefore, if the theory of a “text” and appointment is established and well- known to the Muslims, it would not be permissible for Imam (Ali) to reject the revolters, and then wait for the word of the Immigrants and Helpers (Muhajirin & Ansar), as it will also not be permissible for him to say “ to be a vizier is better for you than to be a leader”. It will also not be right for him to put the leadership (Khilafah) before Talhah and Al-Zubair, and he will not need to wait for the oath of allegiance from the general Muslims. The belief of Imam Ali in Shura (Consultation) as a constitution for the Muslims, became very clear in the process of the Caliphate of Imam Hassan when the Muslims came to him after the strike of Abdul Rahman bin Muljim on him, and requested him to appoint his son Hassan after him (as the leader), for he said “No, we did go to the Prophet of Allah and said,” Appoint (for us a leader), and he said” No, I fear that you will be divided on his affairs, as Harun, but if Allah finds any good in your hearts, he will choose for you’ They requested him to point to someone, but he did not . They then said to him,” If we lost you, we will not lose giving our oath of allegiance to Hassan. He said, “I do not command, nor prevent you, you can discern better”. Ref: Murtada: Al-Shafi, vol. 3 p. 295, Tathbit Dala'il al-Nubuwwah, vol.1 p. 212 Imam Ali the leader of the faithful has given his will to Imam Hassan and his other children, but he never mention the issue of leadership and the Caliphate, His will was spiritual, ethical and personal. Ref: Mufid: Al-Irshad, p. 187 That will is as follows: “This is what Ali bin Abi Talib has willed. He willed (enjoined) that he bears witness that there is no god (deity) except Allah Alone, He has no partner with Him, and bears witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, He sent him with guidance and the religion of truth, that He makes it prevail over all religion, even though the pagans (polytheists) may detest (it). That “… Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death are (all) for Allah, the Lord of the worlds … with this am I commanded, and I am of the Muslims”. Then I enjoin you O Hassan and my entire children and family and to whomever my book reaches, that you should fear Allah, your Lord. “ So die not except as Muslims “And hold fast, all together by the Rope of which Allah (stretches out for you) and be not divided among yourselves.” I heard the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) saying “ keeping Straight (making peace in) the relations between you is better that too much fasting and prayer (in which the relations are severed), the guilt that wipes away religion is the severing of relations. There is no power except with Allah. Maintain your next of kin and make good your relations with them, so that accountability will be light on you. (Fear) Allah in the affairs of the orphans, you should not leave them without food (even for alternate days) they should not be neglected in your presence. (Fear) Allah, in the affairs of your neighbors, they are the will of the Messenger of Allah, for he kept on enjoining us (to do good to them) to the extent that we thought he would apportion to them a share of the inheritance. (Fear) Allah in the commandments of the Quran, so that no other people will act upon it before you. (Fear) Allah in the affairs of the House of your Lord, it should not be disserted as long as you live, for if it became disserted you will not be aware of each other. (Fear) Allah in the affairs of Ramadan, for fasting it is a shield for you from the fire. (Fear) Allah as regards Jihad for the sake of Allah with your hands, wealth and tongues. (Fear) Allah in the payment of Zakat for it extinguishes the anger of the Lord. (Fear) Allah in the covenant of your Prophet, he should not be wronged in your midst. (Fear) Allah in what your right hands possess (servants and maids). Beware not to fear any blame in implementing Allah’s commandments. It is enough for you (to remember) “ Speak good to people” as Allah has commanded you. Do not abandon ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil (Al-Amr bi al-Maruf Wa al-Nahy an al-Munkar)’, lest the worst of you be made rulers over you, and the best of you will pray, and their prayers will not be accepted. I advise you my children with maintaining your relations and generosity. I exhort you against cutting your relations, competing in amassing wealth and division. “Help you one another in virtue and piety; but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear Allah-Verily, Allah is severe in punishment.” May Allah protect you, members of the Household (of the Prophet (peace be upon him), May he preserve the (message) of your Prophet in you. I bid you farewell. My greetings of peace, mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you”. Ref: (1) al-Kafi, volume 7, page 49, graded “SAHIH” by al-Majlisi in Mir’at al-`Uqoul 23/83 (2) Hafidh Abu Bakr bin Abi al-Dunya: Maqtal al-Imam Amir al-Muminin, pp. 41-42 (ed. Mustapha Murtada al-Qazwini, published- Markaz Al- Dirasat wa al- Buhuth al-Ilmiyya, Beirut.) IMAM HASSAN AND KHILAFAT If the Caliphate has been by means of a text (nass) from Allah, and appointment from the Prophet (peace be upon him), as the theory of Imamate is saying, it will not be permissible for Imam Hassan to stop down from power, in favor of anyone, under any circumstances. It will not be permissible for him after that to pay allegiance to Mu’awiyah, and to order his companions and followers to pay allegiance to him. But Imam Hassan did not do any of these things; he behaved in a way that reveals his sticking to the right of the Muslims in choosing their Khalifah through the principle of Shura. Ref: Majlisi: Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 44 p. 65 chapter on How to reconcile the History of Imam Hassan Mujtabah and the Great Trial (Fitnah), vol. 2, p. 183. IMAM HUSSAIN AND KHILAFAT Imam Hussain remained loyal to his oath of allegiance to Mu’awiyah till the last day of the latter, and he refused an offer from the Shiites of Kufah to revolt against Mu’awiyah after the death of Imam Hassan. He mentioned that there was a covenant between him and Mu’awiyah, which would not be breached. He did not call the people to himself till after the death of Mu’awiyah, who breached the agreement of reconciliation, and handed over power to his son, Yazid as the Khalifah after him, Imam Hussain refused to give his oath of allegiance to him, and insisted on going to Iraq, which led to his martyrdom at Karbala in the year 61 A.H. Ref: Mufid: Al-Irshad. P. 199 The concept of Imam according to Imam Hussain is not other than, (the leader who judges by the Book (Quran), who establishes justice, who practices the religion of truth, and who puts all his services for the sake of Allah). He was not presenting any new theory on the Infallible Imam appointed from Allah; He was not also demanding the Caliphate as a personal right for him, because of being the son of Imam Ali, or being appointed by Allah. Because of these, he did not think of transferring the Imamate to any of his children, he did not give a will to his only son who remained alive Ali Zayn al- Abidin”. He only enjoined his sister Zaynab or his daughter, Fatimahh, and his will was a ordinary one, related to his personal affairs, and did not at all talk on the topic of Imamate and Caliphate. Ref: Saduq Ali bin Babawaih: Al-Imamah wa al-Tabsirah Min al-Hayrah, p. 198 Al-Saffar: Basair al-Darajat, p. 148 and 198 IMAM ALI ZAINUL ABIDIEEN AND KHILAFAT He refused to lead the Shiites, who were demanding revenge on the murder of his father Imam Hussain, who were getting ready for a revolt, nor did he claim the Imamate, or fight for it, as Sheikh Saduq has said, “he withdrew from the people and did not meet anyone, and on one meets him, except his closest companions. He devoted himself to the worship of Allah; only little knowledge has come from him. Ref: Saduq: Ikmal al-Din, p. 91 The Imams from Ahl al-Bayt (Household of the Prophet) believed in the right of the Muslim Ummah to choose their leaders. Just as they also believed in the necessity of exercising consultation (Shura), and in condemnation of coming to power by force. It is likely that we find in the Hadith that is reported by Saduq in (Uyun Akhar al-Rida) from Imam Rida from his father Kadhim, from his father, Ja'far Sadiq, from his father Muhammad Baqir from his grandfather, the Messenger of Allah, where he says, “ Anyone who comes to you, with the intention of dividing the community, and snatching from the Ummah its right, and wants to become leader without consultation, kill him, Allah Almighty has permitted that’. Ref: Masudi: Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 2 p. 62 The best expression of the faith of the Imams of Ahl al-Bait in consultation (Shura) and their abiding by it. If they were calling people to follow and obey them, they were only doing that, because of their belief in being superior and more deserving of leadership (Khilafah) than the “Caliphs” who were not judging by the Quran, and were not establishing justice or truly practicing the religion. FIRST CENTURY SHIA AND KHILAFAT They believed: “Ali was the most deserving of men after the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), due to his virtues’ and his pioneering (roles in Islam) and his knowledge. He was the best of all men after the prophet (peace be upon him) the bravest, the most generous, the most ascetic of them. But they legalized despite that, the leadership of Abu Bakr and Umar and considered them, as qualified for that honorable position. They mentioned that Ali submitted the affairs to them, accepted that and voluntarily gave his oath of allegiance to them, without being coerced into that, he left his right to them, so we also accept what the Muslims have accepted of him, and whom he gave his allegiance to. Anything other than this is not permissible for us, and nothing will suffice anyone of us other than this. So the leadership of Abu Bakr has becomes right and acceptance because of Ali’s acceptance of it.” Ref: Nukhbati: Firaq al-Shiah p. 21 Ashari: Al-Maqalat wa al-Firaq. P. 18 Another sect of the Shiites meanwhile said “Ali is the best of men, due to his close relationship to the Messenger of Allah, and his pioneering roles and his knowledge. But it was legal for people to choose other than him as their leader, if the leader that will be chosen is qualified, whether he likes it or dislikes it. The leadership of a leader appointed on them, with their acceptance, is right, guidance and obedience of Allah Almighty. His obedience is a compulsory duty (imposed) by Allah.’ Another faction of them said;” The Imamate (leadership) of Ali was established at the time he called people (to accept him as Imam) and when he revealed his affair.” Ref: Nukhbati: Firaq al-Shiah p. 54 It has been said to Hassan bin Hassan bin Ali, who was the eldest of the Talibites in his time, and was the one to whom his father gave his will, and the custodian of the trust of his grandfather, “Didn’t the Messenger of Allah say, “Any one to whom I am master Ali is to him also a master”? He replied, “Yes, but by Allah, the Messenger of Allah did not mean Imamate and power, if he willed that he would have been explicit on it…” Ref: Ibn Asakir: Al-Tahdihib, vol. 4 p. 162 His son, Abdullah, used to say “We do not have in this affair, what others do not have, and the none of the household of the Prophet is Imam whose obedience is made compulsory by Allah’. He used to dispute the statement that the Imamate of Amir al- Muminin (Ali) was from Allah. Ref: Al- Saffar: Basair al-Darajat, p. 153 and 156. This means that the theory of a text (appointing the Imam) and the hereditary leadership among the members of the Prophets household only has no existence in the first generation Shiites. Thus, their view of the two great companions, Abu Bakr and Umar, was positive, as they did not consider them as usurpers of the caliphate, left by the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) as a matter to be resolved by consultation (Shura) among the Muslims. And that he did not appoint anyone specifically by means of a text or injunction. __________________________________________________________________________________ Allah SAYS IN THE QURAN… Say: “Have you any knowledge (Proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess, and you do nothing but lie”. Surah Al-An’am: 148 “But they have no knowledge thereof. They follow but a guess, and verily, guess is no substitute for the Truth” Surah Al-Najm: 28. __________________________________________________________________________________ إِنَّ أَصْدَقَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ وَأَحْسَنَ الْهَدْىِ هَدْىُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَشَرَّ الأُمُورِ مُحْدَثَاتُهَا وَكُلَّ مُحْدَثَةٍ بِدْعَةٌ وَكُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلاَلَةٌ وَكُلَّ ضَلاَلَةٍ فِي النَّارِ
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