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Needless to say, before we can perform our duty against bid'ah, the pre-requisite step is to be able to see and identify it. How many people are aware of the dangers of bid'ah but due to lack of understanding are nevertheless a victim of it. The reason is that bid'ah is extremely deceptive - it is disguised as a praiseworthy act that promises to earn abundant reward for the performer and bring him closer to Ahlul Bayt (عليه السلام). The deception is increased because we see each and every Shia around us performing these acts. To add to this, the popular scholars keep promoting bid'ah as their standing and livelihood depends on it. It is sad to say that bid'ah has been so strongly established in the Shia religion that the actions performed under it are now considered to be pillars and foundation of religion. Anyone who dares speak against these actions risks being ridiculed and ostracized. If a Shia were to give up all the innovations practiced in the name of religion, he would find himself isolated, cut-off and lonely. But such is the path on which a true Shia must tread in order to prove his loyalty to Ahlul Bayt (عليه السلام). Please refer to our previous two articles on bid'ah: Definition and Scope of Bid’ah Dangers of Bid’ah Scholars must speak against bid'ah We must disassociate from the people of bid'ah Below is a very strong hadith that highlights the danger of bid'ah. Aabid vs Aalim An Aalim abolishes bid'ah because of his knowledge of the hadith. His knowledge leads him to limit his actions to those dictated by the Ahlul Bayt (عليه السلام) and will never overstep the defined boundaries. Of all the popular speakers today who are quick to jump on to the Mimbar, how many are true Aalims as defined by Ahlul Bayt (عليه السلام)? (Also published on blog: https://ahlulbaytmission.org/2019/08/24/our-duty-against-bidah/)
Definition of bid'ah (innovation in religion) Although the definition of bid'ah is simple and straight forward, people are often confused and are unable to differentiate between sunnah (practice of the Prophet), bid'ah (innovation in religion) and mub'ah (neutral non-religious actions). Simply stated, anything added (increased) in religion or in the name of religion is bid'ah irrespective of the motive or reason for the addition, even if the intention is that of extreme love and devotion. Domain of bid'ah It is important to understand that bid'ah pertains only to religious actions. By religious actions we mean those actions that define an individual's religious identity. These are the actions that are performed in the name of religion and are connected one way or another to the religious choice of the individual. All other actions can be termed as non-religious and they may be classified as mub'ah - being neither good nor bad from a religious point of view and which merit neither reward nor punishment. Non-religious actions These are the actions that don't define the religious identity and are usually practiced by people across all religions. Some examples are travelling by a car, wearing a cultural dress, speaking a particular language and following a regional diet. None of these define the religious identity of the individual. The distinction between religious and non-religious actions is important otherwise all the modern inventions and cultural practices would (God forbid!) come under bid'ah - since they were not practiced by the Holy Prophet (s). Clarification on some confusing actions Certain religious actions are performed using means that did not exist during the time of the Prophet (s). For example praying on a carpet, using a loudspeaker for adhaan or playing audio recording of a dua. Are these bid'ah? It depends on the intention of the performer and which aspect of the action he/she considers as part of religion. If the carpet or loudspeaker is considered as an obligatory or recommended part of religion then it is a bid'ah. If the performer simply uses it out of convenience and understands that its use itself is not a part of religion then it is not a bid'ah. Carpets, loudspeakers and audio technology are also used by non-Muslims for other purposes so they don't define a religious identity and therefore cannot be bid'ah if used with the intention of convenience. Bid'at-ul-hasanah (Good Bid'ah) In the school of Ahlul Bayt (عليه السلام), there is no concept of bid'at-ul-hasanah (good innovation). This concept was invented by the Ahlul Sunnah in order to justify the bid'ah of their caliphs. For example, after establishing the Tarawih prayers in the month of Ramadhan, Umar bin Khattab remarked: "How good this bid'ah is!". The scholars of Ahlul Sunnah have confused the people by complicating the simple definition of bid'ah, created different categories of bid'ah, and wrote lengthy tortuous explanations using reason and logic. See for example: The Concept of Bid'ah in the Shari'ah Some people argue that if a new practice is established in the name of religion and there are no express statements of Ahlul Bayt (عليه السلام) forbidding it then it is not a bid'ah. This line of argument is the same as those who practice bid'at-al-hasanah. Actions should be based only on Sunnah According to the above hadith every saying, action and intention should be based on sunnah. Whatever is not done to fulfill the sunnah has no value and no merit in the eyes of Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى). Better to have fewer actions Nowadays, adherants of the Usuli school are steeped in innovations. They are worried that if all the practices are weakened there will not be much to do. The following hadith should be an eye-opener for them: Duty of the scholars in the face of bid'ah (Also published on blog: https://ahlulbaytmission.org/2019/08/22/definition-and-scope-of-bidah)
Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 126 Ali says:“With regard to me, two categories of people will be ruined, namely he who loves me too much and the love takes him away from rightfulness, and he who hates me too much and the hatred takes him away from rightfulness. The best man with regard to me is he who is on the middle course. So be with him and be with the great majority of Muslims because Allah’s hand of protection is on keeping unity. You should beware of division because the one isolated from the group is a prey to Satan just as the one isolated from the flock of sheep is a prey to the wolf. Beware! Whoever calls to this course [of sectarianism], kill him, even though he may be under this headband of mine.” What will be the ruling on those shias in the interest of justice who used to insult ahlebayt on name of their love and? Also on those scholars/marjaas who encourage and support them?
(salam) referring to history signifies that several innovations have been recorded that we mention some of them as examples: 1- Innovation of Azan (call to prayer) in prayer of Eid Fitr (festival of fast-breaking) and Eid Qurban (sacrificial festival) Shafi’i has quoted from Zuhri in book “al- Um” that he said: “Azan was not recited in prayer of Eid at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, until Muawiyah innovated it in Damascus, and after that Hajjaj inovated it in Medina at the time of rulling over there. Ibn Hazm writes in the book “al- Mahalli” that: “the Umayyads innovated going late for prayer of Eid ,preferring oration to prayer and saying Azan and Iqama (declaration of standing for prayer) for prayer of Eid. 2- Innovation in Diya (blood-money) Zahak quotes from Muhammad ibn Ishaq in the book “al- Diyat” that he said: “I told Zuhri that: tell me about the amount of Diya of Dhimmi (non-Muslim citizen) heathen at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), because we have disputed with each other about it, he said: “there is no one wiser than me in this case from the east to the west, it was one thousand Dinar (gold currency unit) at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, until Muawiyah gave five hundred Dinars to family of murdered person and kept five hundred Dinars for Bayt al- Mal”. Ibn Kathir writes in “al- Bidayah wa al- Nihayah” that: “Zuhri says that: “according to the tradition of the Prophet (s.a.w.) Diya of Dhimmi and Muslim was the same and Muawiyah was the first person who divided it and kept half of it for himself”. It is necessary to mention that contrary to the saying of Zuhri Diya of Dhimmi heathen was not one thousand Dinar at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and from among the Sunni leaders just Abu Hanifah has mentioned this amount, and Uthman was the first person who set it. By the way, there are three innovations in the act of Muawiyah: 1- He set Diya one thousand Dinar. 2- He divided it between inheritors of murdered person and Bayt al- Mal. 3- He took half of it as Bayt al- Mal’s share, holding that the amount of Diya is one thousand and a part of it is chargeable to Bayt al-Mal. 3- Innovation of leaving recommended Takbirs (magnification of Allah) of prayer It is mentioned in the book “Sharh al- Muwatta`” that: “Tabari quotes from Abu Harirah that he said: “Muawiyah was the first person who left Takbirs of prayer”. And Abu Ubayd has quoted that: “Ziyad was the first one”. Ibn Hajar has written in “Fath al- Bari” that: “these two matters are not inconsistent with each other, because Ziyad, following the example of Muawiyah, did not say Takbirs, and Muawiyah following the example of Uthman left Takbirs. But a group of scholars believes that it has been said quietly”. It is mentioned in the book “al- Wasai’l Ila Musamirah al- Awai’l” that: “Muawiyah was the first person who did not say Takbirs after reciting "ÓãÚ Çááå áãä ÍãÏå" “Allah hears the one who praises Him”, he prostrated without saying Takbir”. Shafi’i quotes from Ubayd ibn Rufa’ah in the book “al- Um” that he said: “Muawiyah came to Medina and he did not say "ÈÓã Çááå" “in the name of Allah” in his prayer and did not say Takbirs in movements of prayer, after recitation of Taslim (final part of prayer) Muhajir (Emigrants) and Ansar (Helpers) shouted at him: "íÇ ãÚÇæíÉ! ÓÑÞÊ ÕáÇÊ˜¡ Çíä ÈÓã Çááå ÇáÑÍãä ÇáÑÍíã¿! æ Çíä ÇáÊ˜ÈíÑ ÇÐÇ ÎÝÖÊ æ ÇÐÇ ÑÝÚÊ¿!" “O Muawiyah! Did you steal from your prayer? Why did not you say “in the name of Allah”?! Why did not you say Takbirs while bending down and rising?!” he said his prayer again and recited whatever he had not said before”. 4- Innovation of preferring oration to prayer of Eid Abdul-Razaq has quoted from Ibn Jarih from Zuhri that he said: “Muawiyah was the first person who said oration of prayer of Eid before prayer it”. Ibn Munzar has quoted from Ibn Sirin that he said: “Ziyad was the first person who innovated that in Basra”. Ayaz says that: “there are no differences between these two sayings and the saying that considers Marwan as the first person, because Marwan and Ziyad were Muawiyah’s agents, therefore, first, Muawiyah did this act and they followed him”.  - Kitab al- Um, vol. 1, p. 208 and vol. 1, p. 235.  - al- Mahalli, vol. 5, p. 82.  - al- Diyat, p. 50.  - al- Bidayah wa al- Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 139 and vol. 8 p. 148, events of the year 60 A.H.  - the part in the bracket has been quoted from the original source.  - refer to: al-Um, Shafi’i, vol. 7, p. 293 and vol. 7, p. 321; refer to: al- Ghadir, vol. 8, p. 240-248.  - Fath al- Bari, vol. 2, p. 215.  - Ahmad quotes this narration from Umran in Musnad, vol. 5, p. 579, tradition no. 19380.  - al- Wasai’l Ila Musmirah al- Awai’l, p. 15.  - Kitab al- Um, vol. 1, p. 94 and vol. 1, p. 108.  - al- Musnaf, vol. 3, p. 284, tradition no. 5646.  - Shafi'i Shahrudi, A comprehensive selection of Al- Ghadir, p. 982-986-987-992.Text
(bismillah) (salam) Would doing an action in prayer which is mustahab but you believe it to be Wajib an innovation? I don't want this thread to become an argument between members' definition of innovation, if you can answer the question please answer it and then state why you believe this so I have proof. In case anyone thinks this - this thread isn't me asking a question, waiting for a response, and then challenging the response. It is me asking a question, waiting for a response with proof so that I can see whether the action is an innovation or not. JazakAllah Khair
(salam) Ibne Fars says that innovation lexically means creating and making something without any similar kind. Separation, weakness and debility are all other meanings of that word. (1) Here our desired meaning is the first. But there are various idiomatic definitions, some of which are exact and some of them are not. Here we have some of exact definitions: Innovation is something which should be made and in divine law of Islam (Shari'ah), none of principles have indicated to it. But if a principle indicates to something in divine law, that will not be legally innovation (even if that is lexically innovation). (2) "The origin of innovation is something which is made without any similar kind, and which is the opposite of tradition (Sunna) and is unpleasant, based on divine law of Islam", Ibne Hojr has said. In another place He has said:" he who makes new alternations in our rules (innovating), his act will be false”. These are things which are made and have no principle in Islamic law. They are called <innovation> in customary law of Islam and if something has principle in Islamic law, it will not be considered as innovation. (3) In brief, there are three conditions for considering something as innovation in Islamic law: First: when it makes alternations (adds or reduces) in beliefs or religious rules. Second: when it invites people to make alternations. Third: when there is not any Islamic reason that it is mainly or partly from religion. These conditions make the reality of innovation explicit. Reducing or even adding anything in religion is regarded as forging lies against God and He will reproach them. (4) So it is not considered as <innovation> in Islamic law, when someone makes something new without any relevance to religion –although lexically it is called innovation-, like as making some habits or even industries. Because the person who made that thing, believes it is irrelevant to religion. As a result, performing official celebrations, for some reasons, by various communities is not considered as innovation, because it does not have any relevance to religion. And they do not celebrate it, as if the divine law has ordered them to do, and its legality or illegality should be according to divine law. So if there was not any unlawful (Haraam) matter, the celebrations and feasts would be lawful (Halaal). But something like as a mixed party would be unlawful. Second condition, inviting people to make alternations (adding or reducing in beliefs or religious rules): If a person makes alternations in religion lonely or at his own home –for example adds in or reduces from his/her ritual prayer (Namaaz)- it is not consider innovation, although it is an unlawful (Haram) act and his/her ritual prayer is null and void. It is innovation, when this new thought or act as a part of religion be spread among the people. Abu Huraira in Sahih Moslem has written that messenger of God –S.A- said:" whoever guides and invites people to the truth -regardless of the rewards of followers- will have the same rewards that those people obeyed him have. And whoever invites people to the ignorance -regardless of the sins of followers- will have the same sins that those people obeyed him have, and the followers’ sins will not decrease. (5) Third point: not having any religious principle is one of the conceptions of innovation. It means in Quran and hadith, there have not been mentioned innovation is part of religion. Since if it had religious principle, it would not be innovation. The precedence has been mentioned for the definition of <innovation> by Ibne Rajab Hanbali and Ibne Hajar 'Asqalani. Allaameh Majlesi says: innovation in Islamic law has been made after messenger of God's era, and it has not had any special reason. (6) 1. Al-maqaai'is: volume 1, page 209, the word <Bada'a> 2. Jaame' Al-'olum Va Al-hekam by Ibne Rajab Hanbali: page 160, published in India 3. Fath Al-baari, Ibne Hajar ’Asqalaani: volume5, page 156 and volume 17, page 9 4. R.K: The Yunus (Jonah) Sura: 59 and The Al-hadid (Iron) Sura: 27 5. Sahih Moslem: volume 8, page 62; Ketabul-'elm 6. The aspects of shi'ite's creed, page 270 Not following the lifestyle of companions and the Successors (Taabi’een) Some of people of Vahaaby (Salafi) consider some matters as innovation, just for it had not been in the time of companions and the Successors (Taabi’een). For example, Ibne Teymyyeh believes, celebrating the birthday of messenger of God –S.A-, is innovation. Based on his opinion, the antecedents have not done it before, and if it was an appropriate act, the antecedents would have more competencies in celebrating; for they liked and respected messenger of God –S.A- more than us and had more desire in doing good act. (1) Ibne Teymyyeh also has said about kissing Quran and rising for it, out of respect:" I have not heard anything in this regard from antecedents!" (2) It should be said that <Thaqaleyn> is a criterion for recognizing innovation from tradition (Sunna), it does not make difference whether you comment Thaqaleyn as Quran and relatives of messenger of God ('Etrat) –most of people agrees with this comment- or as Quran and tradition (Sunna) –by the narration of Imam Malek in Movatta’ with the proof which is incompletely transmitted-. (3) So if there is indicated in Quran and tradition (Sunna) that something is a part of religion, it will not be innovation. It will be innovation, when it is not part of religion and unlike that is publicized among people. It was obligation that the antecedents as the others follow Thaqaleyn (Quran and the relatives of messenger of God ('Etrat), or Quran and tradition (Sunna)). So we cannot consider their agreement or disagreement as a criterion for truth and falsity, and consequently it will not be a correct result if we say all of antecedents have been righteous people. There have been corrupted, righteous, equitable and oppressor persons among them. There are good and evil men among people during all of eras. (4) As a result, it reveals that celebrating the birthday of messenger of God –S.A-, kissing Quran and rising for it, out of respect –by having the intention they are parts of religion- cannot be regarded as innovation. Because although these kinds of respects for messenger of God –S.A- or Quran have not been mentioned in divine law of Islam, these are derived from main principles of glorification and reverence. Quran says:" those who believe in him (Muhammad) and honor him, those who aid him and follow the light sent forth with him, shall surely prosper". (5) In the above-mentioned verse, the almighty God describes believers by three attributes: the people who believe in messenger of God, respect and glorify him, and help him. God has said to His messenger:" have we not raised your remembrance?" (6). It is obvious that celebrating for messenger of God is equal to raising his remembrance, and God had been already informed about it. Quran and tradition (Sunna) invite people to be friend and kind with messenger of God and his household. And we celebrate his birthday to show our affection and kindness. kissing Quran and rising for it, out of respect are examples of this affection. There is a comment from Quran; [the revealed Books are] upon highly honored pages, exalted, purified, by the hands of scribes noble and pious (7). Respecting Quran is similar to respecting prophets, angels and commands of God In jurisprudential books, there are peculiar rules about Quran; Muslims have been called to preservation of Quran and not disgracing it. (8) 1. 'Eqtezaa Al-seraat Al-mostaqim: page 276 2. Al-fataavi Al-kobraa: volume 1, page 176 3. Movatta' Maalek: page 648, number 1619 4. Al-salafyyah, Mohammad Sa'iid Booti: page 13-14 5. The Al-araf (Elevated Places) Sura:157 6. The Al-inshiran (Solace) Sura:4 7. The Abasa (He Frowned) Sura:13-16 8. The aspects of shi'ite's creed, page 273 The reasons of the emersion and extension of innovation one of the most significant factors of the emersion and extension of innovation in society is the extra eager for fame. By studying the history of the false claimants of prophecy, it has been proved that the whim of the soul and extra eager for fame have had main roles in the extension of this matter and the act of heretic, who had the claim of prophecy, would be innovation. And also narratives have indicated to this matter. Commander of faithful –pbuh- told people:” O people! By the emersion of seditions the human being will follow the whim of soul, innovate rules and will be hostile toward Quran. There are people who protect the heretics” (1). Extra eager for fame has an important role in the human’s life. By following this instinct, the human being will covet the ranks of prophets. Perhaps in the primitive centuries, some of the prevalent religions among the Muslims have been as a result of this instinct. Ibne Abi Al-hadid has narrated that one day, when commander of faithful –pbuh- was passing through the dead people of Khavaarej, said:” Woe to you! You have been deceived by some people who, in fact damaged you”. “Who did deceive them?” they asked. “They have been deceived by the deceptive Satan and their concupiscent soul. These two showed them how to be sinful and how to be dominance in wrong path, but in fact they threw these people in the fire (hell) (2)” commander of faithful answered. The followings are three significant reasons of the emersion and extension of innovation and irreligion matters: showing superiority over the low ranks, zealotry and obeying the cruel people. (3) (4) 1. kaafi: volume1, page 54, hadith1 2. the comment of Nahjul-Balaqa, by Ibn Abi Al-hadid: volume19, page 235 3. R.K: <Al-bed’ah>, page 60-56 4. The aspects of shi'ite's creed, page 27 Good innovation! when a person interferes with religion issues, reduces and adds in divine law of Islam and faith and does not make distinction among prayers, transactions and policies, his act –which is innovation- has just one kind and that is bad innovation. But sometimes it involves two kinds; good innovation and bad innovation. This word –which was derived from the word of Caliph ‘Umar Ibne Khattaab- has been mentioned by Shafe’ii, Ibne Hazm, Ghazaali, Dehlavi and Ibne Athir. In the year 14th Hejira, in Ramazaan month he forced people to perform recommendatory prayer by Imamat (leadership) of Aby Ibne Ka’ab, and then he said:”it is a good innovation”. It should be said that if the recommendatory (Mustahab) prayer was performed in congregation, it would have one of the following two forms: Performing recommendatory (Mustahab) prayer in congregation or by Qaari (who recites Quran) was mentioned in Quran and Sunna, so Caliph would revive the tradition which had been abandoned. So the word of ‘Umar Ibne Khattaab -“it is a good innovation”- was not appropriate, because his act is not considered as interfering in divine law of Islam. (This matter has been mentioned in some of narratives). Or performing recommendatory (Mustahab) prayer in congregation was not mentioned in Quran and Sunna –not in congregation and nor by Qaari -, and since caliph did not like people to perform recommendatory prayer dispersedly, forced them to perform prayer in congregation or altogether with a same Qaari. So his act is considered as an unlawful (Haraam) and bad innovation. More explanation: interfering, reducing and adding in religious matters and divine law of Islam are all innovation, to which has been indicated in Quran and Sunna. This kind of innovation is unlawful and abominable. So it is explicit that this innovation does not have a good kind. In religion and non-religion, innovation lexically has good and bad kinds. A good innovation is something new which is useful for the life, such as habits and customs, it is not unlawful and has no relevance to religion. In fact, it is something new and useful for the community. Here are some examples in this regard; commemorating the national Independence Day, gathering for expressing hatred of enemies and celebrating the birthday of a hero. So when something innately is lawful (Halal), people can make a tradition out of it and apply it in its appropriate time, it is a lexical innovation. Sometimes there is something unlawful (Haraam) which is accepted as a prevalent custom among people, in this case, that innovation is innately unlawful, and it is a prevalent sin. Such as the women who have no Hijab (a headscarf worn by Muslim women; conceals the hair and neck) and wear heavy makeup and attend in mixed celebrations.
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