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  1. Aslam-o-Alaikum. I am a Shia Muslim. I incidentally came upon this article , which I am going to post below, and it arose certain contradictions in my mind. Can anyone critically analyse this article and put an end to my concerns; it would be a great help? Thanks. Why Secularism Is Compatible with the Quran and Sunnah — And an ‘Islamic State’ Is Not Introduction Extremist Islamic groups such as ISIS, Boko Haram, al-Qaeda and the al-Nusra Front in Syria, have transformed the holy Quran into a manifesto for war, terrorism and bloodshed. These groups use the most modern weaponry and technology, and their crimes have created worldwide concerns. Their goal is to return the Islamic world to the medieval age. At the same time, the corrupt dictatorial Arab regimes in the Middle East, particularly the Arab nations of the Persian Gulf, have transformed the democratic Arab Spring into a sectarian war between the Shiites and Sunnis, in order to prevent democracy from taking roots in their own nations. Simultaneous with such developments, a Western-made “industry” called Islamophobianot only presents the Holy Quran as the manifesto of fundamentalist warmongers (that claim to represent Islam) and their rigid interpretation of its teachings, it also reduces Islam to its skewed “interpretations.” This reductionist approach has been popular among the Orientalists. The approach also claims that formation of an Islamic government is a necessary condition for a society to be Islamic. As I will argue in this essay, these claims are false. Islam and secularism are completely compatible. What I call “secular Islam” is thus the best antidote for Islamic terrorism. “Secular Islam” means that the collection of beliefs, moral values and teachings which comprise Islam do not confer on Muslims a mission to form a government or state. The idea of establishing an Islamic state based on the Quran and the Sunnah is incorrect, as neither presents a model for such a state. Definitions: The State, Secularism And Islam In his book, Philosophical Investigations, the Austrian-British philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein states that words have no meaning other than their “applications.” Thus, to prevent any confusion, we must first define what we mean by the key concepts that are employed here. The state is an organized structure that is impersonal, has well-defined boundaries, rules a specific population and has the exclusive right to use legitimate violence. Paul Dragos Aligica, a senior research fellow at George Mason University, puts it this way: The term secularism has been defined in three distinct ways. One is atheism. Karl Marx, French sociologist Emile Durkheim and German sociologist and philosopher Max Weber believed that, through functional differentiation, scientific knowledge and de-mystification, the world moves toward atheism and disbelieving in God. Their view has, of course, turned out to be false. Secularism has also been believed to meanlimiting religion to the private domain. This is impossible, because religion is not like special clothes that we can set aside as soon as we leave home. Such eminent sociologists as Robert Bellah, Charles Taylor, Jürgen Habermas and José Casanova believe that the presence of religion in the public domain is useful and desirable. But explaining and justifying any claim in the public domain must be done by resorting to reasoning, not religious texts and holy people. The third meaning of secularism, and the one that we use in this article, is separation of church and state, or religion from government — not atheism or elimination of religion from the public discourse. By Islam we mean its text (the Holy Quran) and the Sunnah (the speeches and conduct of Prophet Muhammad, although some Shiites such as the Twelvers also consider the Sunnah of their 12 Imams as well). Although Islam has firm positions regarding justice and oppression, it does not have any model for an “Islamic State.” It is left to Muslims to run their societies based on their collective wisdom and consultation. A secular Muslim is thus someone who not only believes in the separation of religion from the state, but also believes that such a separation is compatible with Islam. “A secular Muslim is thus someone who not only believes in the separation of religion from the state, but also believes that such a separation is compatible with Islam.” Based on the Quran, the Sunnah, and religious texts, my argument is that a union between Islam and secularism is possible and justifiable. Fundamentalist interpretations of the Quranic teachings and the Sunnah in order to justify their “Islamic State” are not credible if one actually examines these texts. Medieval Times Vs. The Modern Era [Mod Note: Images were removed as too large and unnecessary.] One important fact is often overlooked. In medieval times, especially in the 7th century in the Arabian Peninsula, state/government, as we recognize them today, did not exist. Societies of those eras were tribal, sparsely populated and simple. There was tribal authority, but it was due to patronage and family relations, not the existence of a government which, as we understand it today, did not exist. The processes of social division of labor, work and its bureaucratization, and consolidation of power give rise to an organized, non-personal entity called government that possesses specific boundaries, population, etc. In his book, Coercion, Capital and European States, A.D .990-1990, Charles Tilly states that up until the 10th century “nothing like a centralized national state existed anywhere in Europe.” Similarly, Bernard Lewis in his What Went Wrong argues that in the medieval times governments did not have borders but civilian centers. The British political theorist David Held and many sociologists have supported such assertions about formation of government. Perry Anderson, the British historian also believes that the phenomenon of modern governments or states began in the 16th century. “In medieval times, especially in the 7th century in the Arabian Peninsula, state/government, as we recognize them today, did not exist. Societies of those eras were tribal, sparsely populated and simple.” In his book Theories of the State, Andrew Vincent argues that government is a relatively recent phenomenon that goes back only to the 16th century. If Europe did not have governments up until the 16th century, how can one expect Medina — the town in the Arabian Peninsula with a small population in which Prophet Muhammad lived — to have had a government? The Arabian Peninsula did not have a government for the same reason that it did not have representative democracy, and respect for human rights and feminism — because the people had not yet founded them. The Quran And Islamic State Another important, but overlooked point is that in the Prophet Muhammad era (the 7th century) there was no such thing as a “society.” What existed was ummah, a community of Muslim masses. As German sociologist and philosopher Ferdinand Tönnies put it, the medieval “societies” must be considered as “Gemeinschaft“ (German word for community), to be distinguished from modern societies that are called “Gesellschaft“ (German word for society).The audience of the Prophet and the Quran were the believers that made up the ummah. The jurisprudence or Sharia were also for theummah and not for the modern societies or era. Society is the invention of the modern era. Prophet Muhammad led the people in a simple tribal framework. The era was a tribal one with a small population, not the type of modern societies we have now. Hence, there is no teaching in the Quran on how to form an Islamic government after the death of the Prophet. Even if there are verses in the Quran, they would all be subject to various interpretations. The Quran is explicit in not specifying any successor to the Prophet. In his book, al-Osmanieh, Muslim scholar Haroon Abdolsalaam Mohammad Jahiz says that “We have scrutinized the Quran, from beginning to end, and there is no verse or incontrovertibly explicit passage, and not even a verse to be found which may be construed upon reflection as proving the view on the Imamat” [succession of the Prophet’s progeny as Shiites believe]. The Quran orders the Prophet to address the collective problems of the people through consultation with them: “Consult them in the affairs” (al-e-Imran 159). Interpreting this verse of Quran in his book, Tafsir Kashaf, Abolghasem Mahmoud-ibn Khwarizmi Zamakhshari, also known as Jar Allah Zamakhashri Mo’tazeli, the medieval Iranian Muslim scholar, states that the consulting that the Quran ordered includes everything except those affairs that are related to God’s revelations to the Prophet. In Tafsir-e Mafaatih ol-Ghayb (also known as Tafsir al-Kabir, or the Great Commentary), Iranian Muslim scholar and philosopher Imam Fakhruddin Razi (1149-1210) proposes that although the Prophet was wiser than all the people, the world always has many problems, and it is quite possible that in many cases the people know better. He then quoted the Prophet himself: “You know your life’s affairs and I know your religious affairs.” Zamakhshari also quotes the Prophet saying, “Those who consult with and seek advice from others find the best path.” And, the Quran says, “They [the believers] employ consultations among themselves” (ash-Shura 38). What Does The Sunnah Say? After the Prophet passed away, his followers chose, through the elite, Abu Bakr As-Siddiqas their ruler, which is why the Sunnis believe that electing the ruler must be done by the elite . Muslim scholar Qazi Abduljabbar Mo’tazeli (who lived about a thousand years ago), said, “The elite, as the people who signed on the Imamat, consult other Muslims” (al-Moqni) and, “Make sure that everyone has been consented upon.” The Twelver Shiites believe that, through the Prophet, God chose Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law, to succeed him. He is the Shiites’ first Imam, and they believe that his children Hassan and Hussein and their descendants were the next eleven Imams who were all sinless and had divine power. Throughout history such claims have been rejected by a majority of Muslims. The Quran states explicitly that God sent the prophets so that the people would not have any arguments against Him [regarding lack of knowledge]. In other words, the people need only the prophets and their own wisdom. The Quran states, “Messengers [Prophets] were as bearers of glad tidings [for the believers] as well as warners [for the disbelievers] in order that mankind should not have argument against Allah after sending the messengers” (Surat An-Nisa’). If after sending the prophets the people had still needed other arguments, the Quran would have emphasized that God sent boththe prophets and the Shiites’ Imams, so as the people could not have had any argument against Him [for lack of knowledge], but the Quran has mentioned only the prophets (Surahs Taha (verse 134) and al-Israa (15)). What Does ‘Authentic’ Shi’ism Say? The current Shiite-Sunni confrontation has nothing to do with what the close companions and supporters of the Prophet did. The rift was born much later. Ali, the Shiites’ first Imam and the Sunnis’ fourth Caliph after the Prophet, praised the three Caliphs before him, who are revered by the Sunnis. He also attributed his own rule and those of the other three Caliphs to the people’s selection and consent, not God or the Prophet. Thus, the issue of electing a ruler is addressed by the people, not by God or the Prophet. To prove their claim regarding Ali, Shiites invoke what the Prophet said, “Whoever considers me as the master, should do the same with Ali,” during the Ghadeer Khumm. The Sunni claim that the Prophet did not mean “master,” but meant, “Whoever likes and respects me, should do the same with Ali,” where the Prophet supposedly announced to the people that his son-in-law would be his successor, and all those who believed in him should also believe in Imam Ali. But, one cannot find any credible historical document or evidence that Imam Ali himself invoked Ghadeer Khumm in order to justify his rule. In Nahj al-Balagha, the most famous collection of sermons, letters, and narrations attributed to him, Imam Ali attributes the legitimacy of the rules of the three Caliphs before him, namely, Abu Bakr, Umar ibn Khattab, and Uthman ibn Affan, to allegiance of the people with them. In other words, he confirms what the Sunnis claim about the successors to the Prophet. He states in (Nahj al-Balagha, letter 6): A person who was supposedly appointed by God could not have spoken in that manner because, otherwise, he would have disobeyed God. Ali also states (ibid. sermon 205, p. 239): If God had appointed Ali as the caliph, he would have been neither reluctant nor would he have made any reference to people electing him to be his ruler. Did Prophet Muhammad ever tell the people that they had selected him? No, he did not. If God and Prophet Muhammad had chosen Imam Ali, there would have been no room for his reluctance. Ali talks about people’s huge wave of support for him and his reluctance to accept it (ibid. sermons 135 and 137): How was it possible that God and the Prophet had chosen Ali, but even after people had turned to him, he tried to turn them down, saying (ibid. sermon 93, p. 85): Imam Ali accepted Umar as his son-in-law, allowing him to marry his daughter, Umm Kulthum. He named his children after the caliphs before him and called them “Abu Bakr ibn Ali,” “Umar ibn Ali,” and “Uthman ibn Ali.” If they had violated his God-given rights and rules, Ali would not have behaved that way. He said, “Abu Bakr assumed leadership with goodwill and reigned with justice,” and, “Umar undertook the charge of leadership, was well-behaved and auspicious and pious.” He considered the rules of Abu Bakr and Umar as “good and just” and said, “Their deeds were laudable and they ruled over theUmmah justly.” Ali believed that election of Abu Bakr and Umar were “worthy choices” (History of Al-Tabari, volume 3, p. 550): Regarding Umar, Ali said (Nahj al-Balagha, sermon 228, p. 262): If Imam Ali had been chosen by God and the Prophet as the successor, and Abu Bakr and Umar had violated God’s and the Prophet’s will and had usurped his rights, would he had spoken about them like the above? The historic Ghadeer Khumm event took place a few months before the Prophet passed away. How was it possible that the Prophet’s best and closest supporters, whom the Quran has repeatedly praised, violated his explicit and clear order regarding Ali as his successor? And, if they had, would Ali have judged them so positively? When the dissidents staged an uprising against Uthman and surrendered his home, they asked Imam Ali to speak to him as their envoy. He went to Uthman and told him (ibid., sermon 164, pp. 167 and 168): Thus, Imam Ali considered Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman as legitimate, not usurpers. Uthman was being toppled, and was not in a position of power that would compel the Imam to praise him and, most importantly, appoint his beloved sons, Hassan and Hussein, as Uthman’s protectors. In Nahj al-Balagha he presents himself as someone who liked Uthman. He wrote that A’isha [the Prophet’s wife], Talha and Zubair [two prominent companions of the Prophet] were the main provocateurs against Uthman, adding that people were satisfied with his election [as Uthman’s successor] (ibid., letter 1, p. 271): Ali’s rationale is that of one who had been elected by the people (expressed through the pledge of allegiance by the tribal leaders), not someone chosen by God. He states (ibid., letter 7, p. 275): In letter 28 of Nahj al-Balagha (pp. 292 and 293) to Muawiyah, the second Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty, Ali explains to him why he is qualified to rule the Muslims. He mentions his obedience to God and the fact that he is a relative of the Prophet, saying, “No one was closer to the Prophet than me.” But, he never claims that he had been appointed by the Prophet as his successor. Clearly, if that had had happened, Imam Ali would not have forgotten it. In the same letter he emphasized that when the uprising against Uthman began, he did everything he could to help Uthman. In sermon 67 (ibid., p. 52), Ali supports the arguments of Muhajirun against the Ansar, but still emphasizes that he was the closest person to the Prophet. In his letter to Talha and Zubair, Ali’s entire argument is that he was elected by the people, not by God and the Prophet (ibid., letter 54, pp. 341 and 342): We see that, (a) Ali makes no mentions of having been appointed by the Prophet as his successor; (b) he speaks about declaring allegiance by free will; (c) he does not condemn non-allegiance to him, by swearing to it and then breaking it, and (d) if he had been chosen by God to rule, there would have been no need for any argument. Note: Ali was elected by the people, but the Shiites generally believe that he was chosen by God, and that is the part that this article is critiquing. The Umayyad And Abbasid Dynasties So far, we resorted to religious texts, such as the Quran and Nahj al-Balagha, and we critiqued and rejected the notion of a divine and Islamic government. But, one can also critique the notion of an “Islamic government” from a historical perspective. Some have referred to the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties as the “Islamic empires,” but what does that mean? Ibn Khaldun, renowned Muslim historian, has described the process of transformation of the caliphate to monarchy. At the end of chapter 25 of his book, the Muqaddamih: an Introduction to History, he considers religion as the steward of “people’s otherworldly affairs...Whereas political laws govern the expediencies of this world.” Such a definition and distinction is necessarily a kind of secularism, particularly because Ibn Khaldun speaks about “religious politics” as opposed to “secular politics.” In chapter 26 of his book he reasons that running the collective lives of the human being is possible without religion and prophets, and has also been experienced. In chapter 30 of his book, Ibn Khaldun critiques the Shiites’ claim that the imamat is one of the principal pillars of Islam and states that governance is “a public expediency that has been left to the views of the people.” Chapter 28 of his book is entirely about the transformation of caliphate to monarchy. Ibn Khaldun writes that while the four original caliphs considered religion in their rules, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties transformed the caliphate to “absolute monarchy” and were after enriching themselves, conquering the world, concentrating more powers in their hands and lasciviousness. Ibn Khaldun did not mean that the two dynasties formed Islamic governments, rather he was comparing them with the kings of his own era. “Ibn Khaldun considered religion as the steward of ‘people’s otherworldly affairs, whereas political laws govern the expediencies of this world.’” The Shiites, Khawarij and Mu’tazila viewed the Umayyad as corrupt, usurpatory, and apostate. As Duncan Black McDonald states in his book, Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory, even the “Murjites — a group of early Muslims that believed that only God has the authority to judge who is a true Muslim and who is not — did not deny the corrupt nature of the Umayyad kings, but they also believed that because the people had pledged their allegiance to the Umayyad, obeying them was a religious duty; only apostasy would necessitate uprising against them. In his book, al-Milal wa al-Nihal, the influential Iranian historian of Islam, Muhammad ibn Abdul Karim Shahrestani writes that, “The Suleimanieh branch of Zeidieh, the Mu’tazila, [both Shiite groups] and the followers of hadith and Sunnah believe that it is not necessary for the Imam [ruler] to be a religious scholar, “because emaamat is not a religious affair that we need in order to understand God and His unitary nature. It would suffice for him to have access to religious scholars that can address his religious issues. What is necessary for him is having strong thoughts and correct insight into analyzing what is happening.” As already mentioned, Ibn Khaldun analyzed the process of transformation of the caliphate to absolute monarchy. In his book, Arab Political Reason, Mohammed Abed al-Jabri, the Moroccan critic and professor of philosophy and Islamic thoughts (1936-2010) explains clearly that the basis for selecting the four caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali was tribal interests, not beliefs, whereas Islam’s message is having faith in God and rejection of tribalism. Thus, Abed al-Jabi also did not consider the rules of the caliphs as Islamic government. He also showed that right after the death of the Prophet the tribal wars, which had stopped during the Prophet, began again. The tribes were used as a criterion for choosing the ruler, as well as tribal discriminating against others. That is who Ali was isolated. God Is Not A Head Of State The concept of electing a ruler by the elite has been expanded in the modern era. Just as everyone can cast a vote in Western societies, Muslims in Islamic countries (although the people of the Arab nations of the Persian Gulf do not yet have such a right) have gradually gained the right to vote. Thus, what does it mean to run a nation by an Islamic government? Running a nation requires four ingredients: The first is management, which consists of knowledge and skills. Knowledge is the result of natural and experimental sciences. Skills come about as a result of practice. None of these has anything to do with religion and Islam. The second is planning, which is done by knowledge and science. No religion, including Islam, has anything to offer to its adherents about planning. The third is societal and moral values. Although all religions, including Islam, support moral precepts, they are in fact independent of religion and do not rely on it. Muslim scholars refer to values as the “rational autonomies.” Good and bad, just and unjust, and other values provide an independent base for assessing all the actions and reactions by the people. Justice is not religious; it is religion that must be just. Peace is not a religious affair; it is religion that must defend peace. Freedom (of thought, expression and behavior) is not religious; religion must recognize freedom. Development is not a religious affair; it is religion that must defend development. Being a good human being is not a religious teaching; although religions also recognize the dignity of the people. If a religion does not respect the people, it will not receive respect from them. The fourth is the Fiqh [Islamic jurisprudence] or Sharia. The only aspect of any religion, including Islam, which has anything to do with managing a society, is its jurisprudence, which in modern society is referred to as the laws. But, they are not necessarily religious or Islamic for the following reasons: (a) they include laws concerning worship and provisions that have nothing to do with religion and have nothing to do with running a society; (b) 99 percent of non-worshiping laws are of ratifying type, i.e. they are the product of the culture and lore of the people of the Arabian Peninsula before the Prophet. The mission of the Prophet was not to destroy the infrastructure of the society, including its culture. He modified many of the existing laws and then ratified them. They had evolved among the Arab people before and during the Prophet’s era, not by God or Muhammad. Just as the Prophet ratified the traditions and common laws of his time, Muslims of the modern era also ratify the current traditions and common laws for running a nation, namely, democracy, respect for human rights, and pluralism. Neither the Prophet ratifying the common laws of his time, nor modern Muslims doing the same about the current common laws and traditions make them Islamic. (c) Religious jurisprudence is not the law; claiming otherwise is unjustified. “The Prophet modified many of the existing laws and then ratified them. They had evolved among the Arab people before and during the Prophet’s era, not by God or Muhammad.” Based on all these arguments above, I am confident to state that “Islamic government” is not an acceptable idea, because Islam lacks the aforementioned four main resources and ingredients for an Islamic government. Thus, for example, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and ISIS cannot be considered as Islamic governments. This is not because, for example, they are not democratic states, but because Islam itself does not have any prescription for a government. Thus, secularism is completely compatible with Islam and Muslims. In other words, “Islam is secular,” as it has never presented any model for governance, and has left it to the Muslims to run their societies based on their collective wisdom and consultation. Muslims are, of course, free to espouse what they believe in the society, but to make their beliefs the laws of the land, there is no way other than collective consent of the people. Making abortion, homosexuality, capital punishment, etc., legal or illegal is a function of the collective discussion and wisdom and cannot be ruled in or out by invoking the Quran or the Sunnah, even if there is an explicit law in Islam for such issues. Thus, if, for example, Muslims are opposed to abortion, they must explain their rational and moral reasons and convince the public. [Mod Note: The title of the topic was too long so it was shortened. Images were too large and removed as unnecessary.] [Mod Note: It is not good etiquette to copy and paste the whole article. Please quote the part(s) of the article you want to discuss and then provide a link to the original article in case anyone wants to read all of it.] Original article: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/akbar-ganji/secularism-islam-islamic-state_b_6426300.html
  2. Aoa! Is it possible that an Imam out of 12 imams reappear in this world? Imam Mahdi will reappear but can Zain ul Abidin (am) reappear in this new world?
  3. I have read many hadith about wearing rings such as (Aqeeq and feerzoa etc.etc.) but what about turning an aqeeq toward you while making dua and many people say stone has to touch your skin or it won't have any effects.
  4. This is a summary of why we need to follow the Prophet (Sawa) and the Ahlulbayt (As): "O Allah, introduce me to Yourself; because if You do not introduce me to Yourself then I would not know your messenger. O Allah, introduce me to Your Messenger, because if You do not introduce me to Your Messenger then I would not know Your Proof. O Allah, introduce me to Your Proof, because if You do not introduce me to Your Proof then I would be mislead about my religion." Reference: Al-Sadooq, Kamal al-deen wa Itmam al-Neama, p 342. Al-Kulaini, al-Kafi, 377/1.
  5. Assalam o Alaikum, KHILAFAT OR IMAMAT Mansoos minallah or by shoora (First century shias VS Today's shias) GHADIR E KHUM IS NOT ABOUT KHILAFAT Incident of Saqifa itself is a big evidence about the fact that Ghadir e Khum is not about khilafat. As all the ansar (Helpers) were gathered there and were thinking about who will be the caliph after Rasoolullah and they were also of the opinion that caliph should be from us (Ansar). Forget about Immigrants, even Helpers were unaware about any text (nass) or that Prophet had announced caliphate for Imam Ali at Ghadir. On the other hand we see that those ansar were both praised by Allah and His Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment. Surah Tauba verse 100. It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Apostle (may peace and blessings be upon him) said: The love of the Ansar is the sign of faith and hatred against them is the sign of dissemblance. Ref: Sahih Muslim 74 It is narrated on the authority of Abu Sa'id Khudri that the Messenger of Allah observed: The person who believes in Allah and the Last Day never nurses a grudge against the Ansar. Sahih Muslim 77 Therefore, the companions did not understand from the Hadith of Ghadir or any other Hadith, the meaning of specific text or appointment to the Caliphate. Due to this, they chose the Shura way as a mode of choosing a leader. They then gave their oaths of allegiance to Abu Bakr as Khalifah after the Prophet (peace be upon him), which clearly shows that no clear meaning of Khilafah was deduced from the reported texts for Imam Ali or the non-existence of such text at that time. Shura (consultation) was the constitutional system that Imam Amir Muminin Ali bin Abi Talib abided by; and that he had no knowledge of vertical hereditary leadership of the Ahl al-Bayt, is his participation in the Shura process after the death of Caliph Umar bin Khattab, and his arguments before the members of the Shura on his virtues and his role in the service of Islam; so also the fact that he did not point to the issue of the text or his appointment as Khalifah after the Prophet. If the Hadith of Ghadir has any of this import, the Imam would have refered to it, and he would have won the day with what is greater and stronger than mentioning his virtues. BELIEF OF IMAM ALI CONCERNING KHILAFAT Imam Ali believed in the system of consultation and it’s being first and foremost the right of the Immigrants and the Helpers (Muhajirin and Ansar). Due to this he refused to accede to the call of rebels-after the murder of Caliph Uthman, who invited him to assume power, and he said to them “This is not of your powers, this is for the Muhajirin and Ansar, anyone they chose as a leader will be a leader”. When the Immigrants and the Helpers came to him and said, “Stretch your hand, we would give you our oath of allegiance”, he withdrew from them. They repeated as the first, and he also withdrew again, and they repeated that for the third time then he said “Leave me and look for another person and know that, if I responded to you, I will do with you what I know…. and if you leave me alone, I am just like one of you, I would be the most obedient and loyal to anyone you choose to conduct your affairs for me to be a vizier is better for you than to be a leader” He walked to Talhah and Zubair and put it across to them and said:” If anyone of you wishes , I will give him my oath of allegiance” They both said “ No … the people accept you more (than any other man). At the end he said to them “If you insist, my oath of allegiance “bayah” must not be secret, and it will not be taken till after the acceptance of the (general) Muslim populace, so I will go out to the Masjid (mosque) anyone who wishes to give his oath of allegiance to me let him do it”. Ref: Tabari, vol. 3 p. 450 Therefore, if the theory of a “text” and appointment is established and well- known to the Muslims, it would not be permissible for Imam (Ali) to reject the revolters, and then wait for the word of the Immigrants and Helpers (Muhajirin & Ansar), as it will also not be permissible for him to say “ to be a vizier is better for you than to be a leader”. It will also not be right for him to put the leadership (Khilafah) before Talhah and Al-Zubair, and he will not need to wait for the oath of allegiance from the general Muslims. The belief of Imam Ali in Shura (Consultation) as a constitution for the Muslims, became very clear in the process of the Caliphate of Imam Hassan when the Muslims came to him after the strike of Abdul Rahman bin Muljim on him, and requested him to appoint his son Hassan after him (as the leader), for he said “No, we did go to the Prophet of Allah and said,” Appoint (for us a leader), and he said” No, I fear that you will be divided on his affairs, as Harun, but if Allah finds any good in your hearts, he will choose for you’ They requested him to point to someone, but he did not . They then said to him,” If we lost you, we will not lose giving our oath of allegiance to Hassan. He said, “I do not command, nor prevent you, you can discern better”. Ref: Murtada: Al-Shafi, vol. 3 p. 295, Tathbit Dala'il al-Nubuwwah, vol.1 p. 212 Imam Ali the leader of the faithful has given his will to Imam Hassan and his other children, but he never mention the issue of leadership and the Caliphate, His will was spiritual, ethical and personal. Ref: Mufid: Al-Irshad, p. 187 That will is as follows: “This is what Ali bin Abi Talib has willed. He willed (enjoined) that he bears witness that there is no god (deity) except Allah Alone, He has no partner with Him, and bears witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, He sent him with guidance and the religion of truth, that He makes it prevail over all religion, even though the pagans (polytheists) may detest (it). That “… Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death are (all) for Allah, the Lord of the worlds … with this am I commanded, and I am of the Muslims”. Then I enjoin you O Hassan and my entire children and family and to whomever my book reaches, that you should fear Allah, your Lord. “ So die not except as Muslims “And hold fast, all together by the Rope of which Allah (stretches out for you) and be not divided among yourselves.” I heard the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) saying “ keeping Straight (making peace in) the relations between you is better that too much fasting and prayer (in which the relations are severed), the guilt that wipes away religion is the severing of relations. There is no power except with Allah. Maintain your next of kin and make good your relations with them, so that accountability will be light on you. (Fear) Allah in the affairs of the orphans, you should not leave them without food (even for alternate days) they should not be neglected in your presence. (Fear) Allah, in the affairs of your neighbors, they are the will of the Messenger of Allah, for he kept on enjoining us (to do good to them) to the extent that we thought he would apportion to them a share of the inheritance. (Fear) Allah in the commandments of the Quran, so that no other people will act upon it before you. (Fear) Allah in the affairs of the House of your Lord, it should not be disserted as long as you live, for if it became disserted you will not be aware of each other. (Fear) Allah in the affairs of Ramadan, for fasting it is a shield for you from the fire. (Fear) Allah as regards Jihad for the sake of Allah with your hands, wealth and tongues. (Fear) Allah in the payment of Zakat for it extinguishes the anger of the Lord. (Fear) Allah in the covenant of your Prophet, he should not be wronged in your midst. (Fear) Allah in what your right hands possess (servants and maids). Beware not to fear any blame in implementing Allah’s commandments. It is enough for you (to remember) “ Speak good to people” as Allah has commanded you. Do not abandon ‘enjoining good and forbidding evil (Al-Amr bi al-Maruf Wa al-Nahy an al-Munkar)’, lest the worst of you be made rulers over you, and the best of you will pray, and their prayers will not be accepted. I advise you my children with maintaining your relations and generosity. I exhort you against cutting your relations, competing in amassing wealth and division. “Help you one another in virtue and piety; but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear Allah-Verily, Allah is severe in punishment.” May Allah protect you, members of the Household (of the Prophet (peace be upon him), May he preserve the (message) of your Prophet in you. I bid you farewell. My greetings of peace, mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you”. Ref: (1) al-Kafi, volume 7, page 49, graded “SAHIH” by al-Majlisi in Mir’at al-`Uqoul 23/83 (2) Hafidh Abu Bakr bin Abi al-Dunya: Maqtal al-Imam Amir al-Muminin, pp. 41-42 (ed. Mustapha Murtada al-Qazwini, published- Markaz Al- Dirasat wa al- Buhuth al-Ilmiyya, Beirut.) IMAM HASSAN AND KHILAFAT If the Caliphate has been by means of a text (nass) from Allah, and appointment from the Prophet (peace be upon him), as the theory of Imamate is saying, it will not be permissible for Imam Hassan to stop down from power, in favor of anyone, under any circumstances. It will not be permissible for him after that to pay allegiance to Mu’awiyah, and to order his companions and followers to pay allegiance to him. But Imam Hassan did not do any of these things; he behaved in a way that reveals his sticking to the right of the Muslims in choosing their Khalifah through the principle of Shura. Ref: Majlisi: Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 44 p. 65 chapter on How to reconcile the History of Imam Hassan Mujtabah and the Great Trial (Fitnah), vol. 2, p. 183. IMAM HUSSAIN AND KHILAFAT Imam Hussain remained loyal to his oath of allegiance to Mu’awiyah till the last day of the latter, and he refused an offer from the Shiites of Kufah to revolt against Mu’awiyah after the death of Imam Hassan. He mentioned that there was a covenant between him and Mu’awiyah, which would not be breached. He did not call the people to himself till after the death of Mu’awiyah, who breached the agreement of reconciliation, and handed over power to his son, Yazid as the Khalifah after him, Imam Hussain refused to give his oath of allegiance to him, and insisted on going to Iraq, which led to his martyrdom at Karbala in the year 61 A.H. Ref: Mufid: Al-Irshad. P. 199 The concept of Imam according to Imam Hussain is not other than, (the leader who judges by the Book (Quran), who establishes justice, who practices the religion of truth, and who puts all his services for the sake of Allah). He was not presenting any new theory on the Infallible Imam appointed from Allah; He was not also demanding the Caliphate as a personal right for him, because of being the son of Imam Ali, or being appointed by Allah. Because of these, he did not think of transferring the Imamate to any of his children, he did not give a will to his only son who remained alive Ali Zayn al- Abidin”. He only enjoined his sister Zaynab or his daughter, Fatimahh, and his will was a ordinary one, related to his personal affairs, and did not at all talk on the topic of Imamate and Caliphate. Ref: Saduq Ali bin Babawaih: Al-Imamah wa al-Tabsirah Min al-Hayrah, p. 198 Al-Saffar: Basair al-Darajat, p. 148 and 198 IMAM ALI ZAINUL ABIDIEEN AND KHILAFAT He refused to lead the Shiites, who were demanding revenge on the murder of his father Imam Hussain, who were getting ready for a revolt, nor did he claim the Imamate, or fight for it, as Sheikh Saduq has said, “he withdrew from the people and did not meet anyone, and on one meets him, except his closest companions. He devoted himself to the worship of Allah; only little knowledge has come from him. Ref: Saduq: Ikmal al-Din, p. 91 The Imams from Ahl al-Bayt (Household of the Prophet) believed in the right of the Muslim Ummah to choose their leaders. Just as they also believed in the necessity of exercising consultation (Shura), and in condemnation of coming to power by force. It is likely that we find in the Hadith that is reported by Saduq in (Uyun Akhar al-Rida) from Imam Rida from his father Kadhim, from his father, Ja'far Sadiq, from his father Muhammad Baqir from his grandfather, the Messenger of Allah, where he says, “ Anyone who comes to you, with the intention of dividing the community, and snatching from the Ummah its right, and wants to become leader without consultation, kill him, Allah Almighty has permitted that’. Ref: Masudi: Muruj al-Dhahab, vol. 2 p. 62 The best expression of the faith of the Imams of Ahl al-Bait in consultation (Shura) and their abiding by it. If they were calling people to follow and obey them, they were only doing that, because of their belief in being superior and more deserving of leadership (Khilafah) than the “Caliphs” who were not judging by the Quran, and were not establishing justice or truly practicing the religion. FIRST CENTURY SHIA AND KHILAFAT They believed: “Ali was the most deserving of men after the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), due to his virtues’ and his pioneering (roles in Islam) and his knowledge. He was the best of all men after the prophet (peace be upon him) the bravest, the most generous, the most ascetic of them. But they legalized despite that, the leadership of Abu Bakr and Umar and considered them, as qualified for that honorable position. They mentioned that Ali submitted the affairs to them, accepted that and voluntarily gave his oath of allegiance to them, without being coerced into that, he left his right to them, so we also accept what the Muslims have accepted of him, and whom he gave his allegiance to. Anything other than this is not permissible for us, and nothing will suffice anyone of us other than this. So the leadership of Abu Bakr has becomes right and acceptance because of Ali’s acceptance of it.” Ref: Nukhbati: Firaq al-Shiah p. 21 Ashari: Al-Maqalat wa al-Firaq. P. 18 Another sect of the Shiites meanwhile said “Ali is the best of men, due to his close relationship to the Messenger of Allah, and his pioneering roles and his knowledge. But it was legal for people to choose other than him as their leader, if the leader that will be chosen is qualified, whether he likes it or dislikes it. The leadership of a leader appointed on them, with their acceptance, is right, guidance and obedience of Allah Almighty. His obedience is a compulsory duty (imposed) by Allah.’ Another faction of them said;” The Imamate (leadership) of Ali was established at the time he called people (to accept him as Imam) and when he revealed his affair.” Ref: Nukhbati: Firaq al-Shiah p. 54 It has been said to Hassan bin Hassan bin Ali, who was the eldest of the Talibites in his time, and was the one to whom his father gave his will, and the custodian of the trust of his grandfather, “Didn’t the Messenger of Allah say, “Any one to whom I am master Ali is to him also a master”? He replied, “Yes, but by Allah, the Messenger of Allah did not mean Imamate and power, if he willed that he would have been explicit on it…” Ref: Ibn Asakir: Al-Tahdihib, vol. 4 p. 162 His son, Abdullah, used to say “We do not have in this affair, what others do not have, and the none of the household of the Prophet is Imam whose obedience is made compulsory by Allah’. He used to dispute the statement that the Imamate of Amir al- Muminin (Ali) was from Allah. Ref: Al- Saffar: Basair al-Darajat, p. 153 and 156. This means that the theory of a text (appointing the Imam) and the hereditary leadership among the members of the Prophets household only has no existence in the first generation Shiites. Thus, their view of the two great companions, Abu Bakr and Umar, was positive, as they did not consider them as usurpers of the caliphate, left by the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) as a matter to be resolved by consultation (Shura) among the Muslims. And that he did not appoint anyone specifically by means of a text or injunction. __________________________________________________________________________________ Allah SAYS IN THE QURAN… Say: “Have you any knowledge (Proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess, and you do nothing but lie”. Surah Al-An’am: 148 “But they have no knowledge thereof. They follow but a guess, and verily, guess is no substitute for the Truth” Surah Al-Najm: 28. __________________________________________________________________________________ إِنَّ أَصْدَقَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ وَأَحْسَنَ الْهَدْىِ هَدْىُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَشَرَّ الأُمُورِ مُحْدَثَاتُهَا وَكُلَّ مُحْدَثَةٍ بِدْعَةٌ وَكُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلاَلَةٌ وَكُلَّ ضَلاَلَةٍ فِي النَّارِ
  6. Some of Sunni theologians, as mentions below, have believed that according to unanimous agreement the Wilayah verse has been revealed about Imam Ali (a.s.): 1- Qushji Hananfi He says that: “according to interpreters’ unanimous agreement the verse was revealed about Ali ibnAbiTalib (a.s.), when he gave his ring to beggar when he was in the position of genuflection in the prayer”.[1] 2- QaziAzud al- Din Iji He also says that: “interpreters have unanimously agreed that the purpose of Wilayah verse is Ali (a.s.)”.[2] 3- Mir Sayyid Sharif Jarjani He also writes that: “interpreters have unanimously agreed on this matter that the purpose of﴿الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ﴾(those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow) [3] is Ali (a.s.), a beggar asked him to help when he was in the position of genuflection in the prayer and his holiness gave his ring to him, and at that time the verse was revealed”.[4] 4- Sa’d al- Din Taftazani He says that: “according to interpreters’ unanimous agreement, this verse was revealed about Ali ibnAbiTalib (a.s.), when he gave his ring to beggar when he was in the position of genuflection in the prayer”.[5] [6] Refrence: [1] SharhTajrid, Qushji, p. 368. [2] Sharh al- Mawaqif fi Ilm al- Kalam, vol. 8, p. 360. [3] Quran, Al-Maedeh, verse. 55. [4] Sharh Mawaqif, vol. 8, p. 360. [5] SharhMaqasid, vol. 5, p. 270. [6] Ali AsgharRizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 212.
  7. One of the verses which proves the necessity of presence of an infallible Imam in every period is the verse of Guidance, the Almighty God says:﴿وَمِمَّنْ خَلَقْنا أُمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَبِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ﴾"And of those whom we have created are a people who guide with the truth and thereby they do justice" [1] FakhrRazi quotes from Jabai following the above mentioned verse in his Tafsir that he said:" This verse shows that those who act on truth and guide the people towards it will be available in every period. [2] Mirza Muhammad Mashhadi in the Tafsir of "Kanz al-Daqaiq" says: "The verse indicates that there is an infallible person in every century; because it says that leaders of the nation are some of the people not all of them, and those who are not infallible they are not leader and just totally." [3] Kulaini (r.a.) quotes from Abdullah Ibn Sanan with his own document that he asked Imam Sadiq (a.s.) about this word of the Almighty God﴿وَمِمَّنْ خَلَقْنا أُمَّةٌ يَهْدُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَبِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ﴾"And of those whom we have created are a people who guide with the truth and thereby they do justice." His highness (a.s.) said: The meaning of the verse is the Imams of the Household of the Prophet (a.s.). [4] [5] Refrence: [1] - A`raf, verse 181. [2] - TafsirFakhrRazi, vol. 15, p. 72. [3] - TafsirKanz al-Daqaiq, vo;. 3, p. 657. [4] - UsulKafi, vol. 1, p. 414. [5] - Ali AsgharRizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts (1), p. 184.
  8. Does the verse of Wilayah denote caliphate and wilayah of Amir Al-Muminin? The Exalted God says in the Holy Quran (surah 5:55-56) that: “only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow. And whoever takes Allah and His Apostle and those who believe for a guardian, then surely the party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant.” In his Great Commentary, Imam Abu-IshaqThalabi quotes from Abu-DharrGhafari that he said: “I heard from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) with my own ears- if I am lying, I will hope God makes me deaf- and I saw with my own eyes- if I am lying, I will hope God makes me blind- that said: ‘Ali is the leader of the good people and the murderer of the unbelievers. Whoever helps him, God helps him and whoever leaves him God leaves him. Beware! One day I prayed the noontime prayers with the messenger of Allah. A person in need asked people to help but no one gave him anything. Ali ibn Abi -Talib was in the position of genuflection in the prayers. He pointed with his finger to the person, so he come near and took his ring and left. Then the Prophet (s.a.w.) raised his head toward heaven and said: “oh God! My brother Moses said to Thee, “expand my breast and make easy my tasks and make my tongue eloquent as that they will comprehend my words, and appoint a successor to me from among my descendants, my brother Aaron, and make him my helper and You said: ‘beware o Moses! Your request was granted.’ Oh God! I am also thy Prophet, expand my breast and make easy my tasks and appoint a successor to me from among my descendants, Ali, and make him my helper.” Abu-Dharr says, “I swear by God that the words of the Prophet had not as yet finished when the trustee Gabriel comes down and brings this verse: ‘only Allah is your Wali and His Apostle...’” (1) It is noteworthy that regarding this matter there has been narrated 24 traditions by the methods of Sunnis and 19 traditions with the transmitters of Shiah in the Book of Ghayatulmaram. (2) All of the Shiahs are agreed that this verse has been recorded regarding Ali ibnAbi-Talib (a.s.) and the Imams of the Household of the Prophet have narrated it and Among them, this tradition is considered as one of the admitted opinions and it has been narrated in many of their valid books such as: Bihar al- Anwar by AllamahMajlisi, Ithbat al-Hudah by Hurr Amuli, Tafsir al- Mizan by AllamahTabatabai, Tafsir al- Kashif by Muhammad JawadMughniyah, Al-Ghadir by AllamahAmini, and so many others of the ulama and noble men of Shiah. Many of Sunnis ulama have also narrated that the cause of Revelation of this verse is Ali ibnAbi-Talib (a.s.), such as: Tafsir Kashaf Zimakh shari, TafsirTabari (volume 4, section 6, p. 289), Zad Al-Masir Fi Ilm Al-Tafsir by Ibn Jowzi, Tafsir Qartabi, Tafsir FakhrRazi (volume12, p. 28), TafsiribnKathir (volume 3, p. 129), TafsirNasafi, Shawahed Al-Tanzil by Haskani Hanafi, Al-Dur Al-Manthur by Siyuti (volume 3. p. 105), Asbab Al-Nuzul by Wahidi, Ahkam Al-Quran by Jassas, Al-Tashil Li Ulum Al-Tanzil by Kalbi, Zakhair Al- Uqba by Muhib al- din Tabari, Tafsir Fath Al- Ghadir by Qazi Shukani, Labab Al-Manqul by Siyuti, TazkerahSibt by IbnJowzi (p. 15), Nur Al-Absar by Shiblanji, Al-Kafi Al-Shaf by Asqalani, Mafatih Al-Ghayb by Razi, Musnad of IbnMarduyah, Musnad of Ibn Al-Shaykh, Sahih of Nasai, the Book of Al-Jam Bayn Al-SihahSittah, Managhib of Khawrazmi (p. 248), The History of Damishq (volume 42, p. 357). Those who were mentioned above are just some of the Sunnis ulama. The number of Sunnis ulama agreeing with Shiah about the revelation of this verse regarding Ali (a.s), exceeds those who were mentioned. (3) Refrence: 1- Al-Jam Bayn Al-SihahSittah, Sahih of Nasai, Musnad of Ahmad ibnHanbal, Sawaiq Al-Muhraqah by ibnHajar, Sharh of Nahj Al-Balaqah by ibnAbi al-Hadid. 2- Minhaj al-Baraah (2), p. 350 3- With truthful people, p.89.
  9. As per historical records and is widely narrated in the books of Shiites and Ahle Sunnah, we get the impression that the conspiracy to martyr Imam Ali (a.s.) was hatched by the ‘Khawarij.’ With minor differences in narrations, Tareekh-e-Tabari, Tareekh-e-Yaqoobi, Shaikh Mufeed’s (a.r.) Irshaad and Tabaqaat-e- Ibn-e-Saad have narrated the occurrence. Balazari and Waaqedi too have recorded the same. The summary of all accounts is that when the bloody battle of Naharwaan came to an end, a few Khawaarij got together to mourn the dead. Their grief was compounded with their remembrance of the worship, obedience and piety of the deceased. They blamed three people for their sorrow: Imam Ali (a.s.), Amr-e-Aas and Muawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan They felt that as long as these three were alive, the Muslim nation wouldn’t reform. Consequently, three people took the responsibility of assassinating Imam Ali (a.s.), Amr-e-Aas and Muawiyah on their shoulders. 1. Abd al-Rahman Ibn Muljim (may Allah curse him and subject him to the severest of humiliations) took the responsibility of martyring Imam Ali (a.s.) 2. Barq Ibn Abdullah took the responsibility of eliminating Muawiyah 3. Amr Ibn Bakr al-Tameemee took the responsibility of getting rid of Amr Ibn Aas They thought, “To execute this plan, the holy month of Ramazan should be chosen because these three persons frequent the mosque in this month.” The dates fixed were the nights of 11, 13 or 17. According to Shiite records, the eve of nineteenth (19) was chosen. The reason for preferring these nights was because these three persons were expected to be in the mosque. Anyway, the person who had taken the responsibility of killing Amr Ibn Aas killed the person who had come to lead the prayers instead. The sword of the one who was responsible to slay Muawiyah, struck his thigh. Muawiyah got injured but after some medication, recuperated. It was only Ibn Muljim (l.a.) who succeeded in executing his nefarious intentions!! Is this murder story true or there is more than meets the eye? In other words, is the story related about the martyrdom of Imam Ali (a.s.) really true? The reply is that ‘the story is untrue’ and right from the onset there were clear indications that the story was fabricated. FOR MORE ARTICLES VISIT SERATONLINE.COM Expert historians have speculated and written that these three visited the mosque in Ramazan and their coming to the mosque on the night 19 Ramazan was a certainty. There’s no doubt that Ameer al-Momineen Ali (a.s.) was struck on the head by Ibn Muljim (l.a.) on the night of 19thRamazan. But why did the one who went to kill Amr-e-Aas instead kill the one whose name was Kharjah? Was it that the person who went to slay Amr-e-Aas wasn’t aware who he was or did not recognize him? Or why did Amr-e-Aas not show up in the mosque that night? Was he warned or informed of the conspiracy? The best way to dig out facts in this regard is to scrutinize the whole conspiracy closely because the net of this wicked plot was cast from Kufa to Damascus. As has been reported, Muawiyah was aware that as long as Imam Ali (a.s.) was alive it was not possible for him to attain Caliphate. Ash’ath Ibn Qais (l.a.), as is well-documented, was a notorious hypocrite and not inwardly satisfied with Ameer al-Momineen Ali (a.s.). Ibn Abi al-Dunya (d. 281 A.H.) in his book ‘Maqtal-e-Imam Ameer al-Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.) (it is worth noting that this book is older than the records of Tabari and Yaqoobi) has narrated on the authenticity of his chain of narrators through Abd al-Ghaffar Ibn Qasim Ansari that: “I have heard from many people that Ibn Muljim (l.a.) was with Ash’ath (l.a.) on that fateful night (19th of Ramazan) and at the break of dawn, he told him ‘the dawn has arrived.'” If these three were the only ones involved in the conspiracy then what was Ibn Muljim (l.a.) doing with Ash’ath (l.a.) in the mosque? Why were they talking there? Is it expected of a man, who is on a secret mission to kill Imam Ali (a.s.), reveal his plans to another person (and that too to a person like Ash’ath (l.a.))?!! Balaazari has narrated this in ‘Ansaab al-Ashraaf‘: “They say Ibn Muljim was with Ash’ath bin Qais (l.a.) that night. They were talking in a hush-hush tone till Ash’ath (l.a.) said to Ibn Muljim (l.a.), ‘Get up, the morn is here.’ (Hurry lest people will recognize you in the daylight). When Hujr Ibn Adi heard his talk, he said, ‘O one-eyed! You have killed him (a.s.).'”[1] The narrators have also reported that when Ibn Muljim (l.a.) had struck the sanctified head of Imam Ali (a.s.) with his sword, Ash’ath (l.a.) then sent his son to Imam Ali (a.s.)’s house to assess Imam’s (a.s.) condition. He came back and related, “His [imam Ali (a.s.)] eyes have sunk in.” On hearing this, Ash’ath (l.a.) remarked, “By Allah! The eyes show that the poison has reached his brain.”[2] Like historians Maa’sir Abaazi, Shaikh Sulayman Yusuf Ibn Dawood, I am not going to say that the Khawaarij were friends of Imam Ali (a.s.) and they were not party to his assassination. The reason being, the tribe of Bani Murad, to which Ibn Muljim (l.a.) belonged, is not enlisted with the ‘Khawaarij.’ The story of Ibn Muljim (l.a.) and the other two failed assassins has been fabricated and paid for in Muwaiyah’s factory of lies and deceit to conceal the truth from the people. But the fact remains that if anyone says that the famous conspiracy spun around the martyrdom of Imam Ali (a.s.) is not the true one, then I don’t consider his thoughts to be far from the truth. If looked closely, I reiterate, the fact remains that one end of the thread of this conspiracy starts from Ash’ath bin Qais (l.a.) in Kufa and ends in Damascus with Muawiyah. As we have mentioned earlier, Ash’ath (l.a.) was unhappy with Imam Ali (a.s.) as Imam (a.s.) had dismissed him from the government and had even introduced him as a hypocrite and son of an unbeliever. Shahrastani, the renowned historian, writes: “Among those who rebelled against Imam Ali (a.s.), Ash’ath (l.a.) was in the forefront. He was harsh and the first to break away from religion.”[3] [1] Ansaab al-Ashraaf, p. 493 [2] Maqtal al-Imam Ameer al-Momineen (a.s.), p. 37; Tabaqaat Ibn Saad, vol. 3, p. 37 [3] Al-Melal wa al-Nehal, vol. 1, p. 170; Ali Az Zabaan Ali or Zindagaani Ameer al-Momineen (a.s.), p. 157; Dr. Syed Ja’far Shaheedi, narrated from Khabar Guzaari Shabistaan
  10. Now that the debate has come to a rather abrupt ending, I'd like the members to post any thoughts they might have about the session, the different arguments, the ever so evident "obsticles" they encountered etc. Personally, I would like to argue that the acceptance to the challenge was wrong, and don't think that there is explicit evidence for the imamah of the twelve in the sunni corpus, albeit Ali's imamate can be proven, the other eleven is merely indicative, or hintive at best.
  11. Seven Proofs that Imam Isma'il ibn Ja'far was the Successor to Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq: Read Full Article here http://ismailignosis.com/2014/10/02/who-succeeded-imam-jafar-al-sadiq-seven-proofs-for-the-imamat-of-imam-ismail-ibn-jafar/ "Our branch of Shia Islam, in that particular generation of the family, accepted the legitimacy of the eldest son, Isma‘il, as being the appointed Imam to succeed and that is why they are known as Ismailis." (Forty-Ninth Hereditary Imam of the Shi‘i Isma‘ili Muslims) Summary of the Seven Proofs Below is a summary of the proofs. Please click on the proof number to jump directly to a specific proof. Taken individually or collectively, these Seven Proofs demonstrate that the legitimate successor and true Imam after the Imam Ja‘far al-Sadiq is Mawlana Isma‘il ibn Ja‘far and that the Present and Living Imam of all Shi‘i Muslims must be the direct lineal descendant of Isma‘il ibn Ja‘far. Proof #1: Imām Ja‘far designated Mawlānā Ismā‘īl as the next Imam by the rule of nass as per Twelver, Ismaili, Sunni and academic sources. Proof #2: The only way to deny or negate the nass of Mawlānā Isma‘il is through contradictory hadiths presented in later Twelver hadith books. Proof #3: Isma‘il’s death before Imam Ja‘far is not confirmed and may have been staged to protect him — as he was reportedly seen by eyewitnesses after his alleged death. Proof #4: Even if Isma‘il had died before his father, the Imamat continued in Isma‘il’s son, Muhammad ibn Isma‘il, whom Isma‘il had appointed as his own successor. Proof #5: Earliest Shi‘i hadiths lack the mention of Twelve Imams but instead predict exactly the first eighteen Imams in the Isma‘ili lineage of Imamat. Proof #6: With the exception of the Nizari Ismaili Imamat, all other Shi‘i Imamat lineages have hidden Imams. This contradicts the Qur’anic definition of Imamat which requires the Imam always be present and manifest (mubin) in the world. Proof #7: Imam Shah Karim al-Husayni Aga Khan IV is the forty-ninth hereditary Imam of Shi‘i Islam in direct, documented, lineal descent from Mawlana Isma‘il ibn Ja‘far al-Sadiq. As the only present (hadir), manifest (mubin) and living (mawjud) hereditary Imam, with a documented and validated lineage, Imam Shah Karim al-Husayni’s very existence is itself confirmation of his Imamat and that of his ancestors. Imam Shah Karim al-Husayni Aga Khan IV visiting his Ismaili followers in Tajikistan, 2008http://ismailignosis.com/2014/10/02/who-succeeded-imam-jafar-al-sadiq-seven-proofs-for-the-imamat-of-imam-ismail-ibn-jafar/
  12. اِس سوال پر اسلامی تاریخ کے ہردور میں اظہارِ خیال کیاگیا ہے اور اِس تحریک اور قیام کے مختلف مقاصد ومحرکات بیان کئے گئے ہیں۔اظہارِ خیال کرنے والے بعض حضرات نے انتہائی جزئی مطالعے، کوتاہ فکری، کسی خاص فکری رجحان سے وابستگی یا بدنیتی کی بنا پرامام حسین ؑ کے قیام کا مقصد ایسی چیزوں کو قرار دیا ہے جو اسلام کی روح، تاریخی حقائق، امام حسین ؑ کی شخصیت اور آپ ؑ کے مقامِ عصمت وامامت کے یکسرمنافی ہیں۔ مثلاً یہ کہنا کہ نواسہ رسول کا اقدام نسلی یا قبائلی چپقلش کا نتیجہ تھا، یا امام ؑ نے امت کے گناہوں کی بخشش کے لیے اپنے خون کا نذرانہ پیش کیاوغیرہ وغیرہ اِسی قسم کے مقاصد میں سے ہیں۔ آپ کی اس حوالے سے کیا رائے ہے؟ اور آج کے دور میں ہم سے امام کا کیا تقاضہ ہے؟
  13. A question that the general Muslims often pose to the Shias – Why do Shias celebrate Ghadeer? What is so significant about the event that merits such pomp and splendor? 18th Zilhajj is the great day which the Shias consider as Eid-e-Ghadeer and celebrate by creating an atmosphere of extreme elation. Some people begin their preparations well in advance for this joyous occasion. The effort and hard work of innumerable researchers and scholars are devoted to this event. FOR MORE ARTICLES VISIT SERATONLINE.COM An Objection An objection is often raised as to why so much physical and mental effort is lavished on this event. If similar effort and hard work is instead invested in ironing out flaws related to education and society, it will be more beneficial for Muslims. After all, which social problem has been solved by the annual celebration of Ghadeer? What good has it done to the community by persistently confirming the successorship and absolute mastership of Ameerul Momineen Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.)? Is it not better that we find a remedy to the various problems plaguing Muslims and let bygones be bygones? This is not a new objection. The enemies of the Shia Isna Ashariah have made an issue out of this for several generations. Not surprisingly, the enemies have raised the objection keeping in mind the Shiite ideology. In this regard, they have learnt the tricks from the enemies of Islam because when the enemies of Islam and the Majestic Quran raise objections against Islam, they use similar tactics. For example, they say that why do we spend so much effort and wealth on religious customs such as prayers, fasting, recitation of Quran, etc. instead of spending it on economic growth and advancement of the community. Honestly speaking, by visiting the House of Allah every year and by persistently establishing the veracity of Quran and Islam, which of the ever-increasing problems and tribulations of the community has been resolved? Two points need to be understood well to review this objection: 1.      No act should be looked at only from its materialistic perspective. It means that if a thing is useful, then itâs being useful is not just materialistic. 2.      An event or incident cannot be rendered insignificant due to its being historic. As far as the first point is concerned, it should be known that knowledge and understanding are very critical for human growth. Even today, well-known universities teach the philosophies of Aristotle and Plato notwithstanding the advancements in science and technology. We see intellectuals achieving success by deriving benefit from the views of these individuals. All parents invite their children towards truth and consider lying detestable and command their children to stay away from it. Is such an upbringing not useful for human beings? Is its benefit materialistic? A copy of the Holy Quran is available with every Muslim family as a mark of it being divine and Muslims recite it regularly whereas all Muslims are well aware that recitation alone is not sufficient and it must be accompanied by pondering and contemplation. But it is a fact that the mere recitation of the Holy Quran guides us, brings us closer to Allah and solves our problems related to the world and the Hereafter. Similarly, there is one more fact, which is related to the past and its extraordinary importance has been proven even in times to come. This is âMaadâ i.e. the Day of Resurrection and Accounting along with details are realities discussed in the Holy Quran. It carries so much importance that it draws our attention immediately. All of us endeavour to perform actions so that we are saved from the fire of Hell. Recitation of the verses concerning Maad and the traditions of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) leave a profound impact on our activities, making us more focused. No Muslim can deny this despite the fact that the belief in Maad has no materialistic benefit and has not solved any long-standing problem afflicting the Muslim community. The same applies for Islamic beliefs in Tauheed and Prophethood. It is evident from these examples that the importance of an Islamic belief cannot be benchmarked against its materialistic impact on Islamic society. Similarly, an event cannot be termed insignificant merely because it is historic. There is much to learn from the early history of Islam. The manner of revelation of Quranic verses, cause of descent of certain verses, ethics of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) are all rooted in history. By ignoring history, we stand to forfeit the wonderful benefits of all these events. After all, Hajj is nothing but a series of rituals to commemorate historical events related to Hazrat Ibrahim (a.s.) and his family hundreds of years before the advent of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Can any Muslim deny the importance of Hajj and Ziyaarat? Millions are invested both by the pilgrims visiting the shrines in Makkah and Madinah and the caretakers of these shrines. Governments in many countries, including India, subsidize the Hajj. All this money and effort is invested only to commemorate an historic event that preceded Islam by hundreds of years. Which problem of the Muslim society has been resolved by Hajj? Wouldnât it be more advisable to invest this time, effort and money in areas that have a tangible impact on Muslim society? The answer to such baseless objections is that we should stop benchmarking the importance of an event by its impact on tangibles and materialistic gains. It has been noted several times in the Noble Quran and the Sunnah that Islam focuses on the afterlife and all our actions must be performed for the Hereafter regardless of whether we see any tangible benefits in the world. The Celebration of Ghadeer Whatever Shias accomplish or narrate pertaining to Ghadeer is based on this very philosophy. The Shias consider Ghadeer to be significant and regard it as esteemed and blessed because although Ghadeer is rooted in history, it has given Islam the critical belief of Imamate and Mastership, which is among the pillars of religion. Did the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) not introduce Ameerul Momineen Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.) at Ghadeer-e-Khummm as the Imam and the Master after him and did he not say â” âAli b. Abi Talib is my brother, successor and the Imam after me⦠he enjoys mastership over your selves after Allah and His Messenger.â (Khutbah al-Ghadeer, 71; Al-Ehtejaaj, vol. 1, pg. 66; Behaarul Anwaar, vol. 37, pg. 201) Undoubtedly, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) made this declaration on the day of Ghadeer. Ghadeer-e-Khumm is an event, the celebration of which instills the Mastership and love of Ameerul Momineen Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) in the hearts and minds of people. Just as the Prophethood of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is definite and conclusive, similarly, the incident of Ghadeer is also certain and irrefutable, the origin and source of which can be found in the books of history. Does this reality and the special arrangement by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) not merit a special mention and an extraordinary commemoration? On divine command, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) appointed Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) as his successor and made his obedience obligatory upon every Arab, non-Arab, young, old, white and black. On the day of Ghadeer, Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) enforced the order and command of Ali (a.s.). He considered his enemies accursed and regarded his lovers as successful and having achieved salvation. Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) is a successor of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) even in the exegesis of the Holy Quran and is also a bearer of the Prophetâs knowledge. He is the leader of guidance and Allahâs wrath and curse is upon his enemy. These were some of the attributes of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) which Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had described to the people at length in the Sermon of Ghadeer. Therefore, isnât striving to achieve the recognition and knowledge about Ali (a.s.) and bringing people closer to his recognition equivalent to firmly establishing the foundation of belief in Islam and Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)? Once he is recognized and it is known that Ameerul Momineen Ali (a.s.) is the Imam and Master from the side of Allah, then shouldnât the day when the last Prophet (s.a.w.a.) introduced him and completed his mission of guidance be celebrated with utmost pomp and splendour? The Sermon of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) regarding the celebration of Ghadeer There are many traditions that have been narrated by the infallible Ahle Bait (a.s.) regarding the celebration of Ghadeer. Kindly pay attention to the excerpt from the Ghadeer Sermon of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.): â⦠May Allah have mercy on you! After the sermon, all of you should go to your respective houses and make arrangements for facilities and luxuries for your families, do good to your brothers and thank Allah for whatever good He has done to you. Offer gifts to each other out of the bounties of Allah just as Allah, the Almighty, has bestowed favors upon you and consider the reward of the goodness of this day to be on par with the past and future Eids. Doing good on this day, augurs well for an increase in wealth and affluence and a long life. On this day, manifesting love and compassion for each other will be the cause of Allahâs Grace and Kindness. On this day, spending on your family and brothers and greeting each other with delight is highly recommended.â (Misbaah al-Mutahajjid by Sayyed Ibn Taawoos (r.a.), p. 757) The aforementioned sermon also amply disproves the argument of those who believe that there are no material benefits of celebrating Eid-e-Ghadeer. What can be a greater material benefit than long life with wealth and affluence along with the acquisition of divine pleasure? Accordingly, it is evident that celebrating Ghadeer is neither a foolish act nor can it be considered to be futile and fruitless. If, God forbid, we consider it to be futile and fruitless then, it will be tantamount to rendering as fruitless and futile Allahâs choice and Holy Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) admonition to the Muslims. Indeed, we celebrate Ghadeer under the light of the traditions of Ahle Bait (a.s.). This celebration, even if apparently devoid of any materialistic aspect, is certainly a means to attaining proximity to Allah, His Messenger (s.a.w.a.) and the Ahle Bait (a.s.).
  14. PROPHET'S HISTORIC GHADlR SERMON There is a humble translation of the Prophet's historic Ghadir Khumm sermon. The reader can review the original Arabic text included in this book. All Praise is due to Allah Who is Exalted in His Unity, Near in His Uniqueness, Sublime in His Authority, Magnanimous in His Dominance. He knows everything; He subdues all creation through His might and evidence. He is Praised always and forever, Glorified and has no end. He begins and He repeats, and to Him every matter is referred. Allah is the Creator of everything; He dominates with His power the earth and the heavens. Holy, He is, and Praised, the Lord of the angels and of the spirits. His favours overwhelm whatever He creates, and He is the Mighty over whatever He initiates. He observes all eyes while no eye can observe Him. He is Generous, Clement, Patient. His mercy encompasses everything, and so is His giving. He never rushes His revenge, nor does He hasten the retribution they deserve. He comprehends what the breast conceals and what the conscience hides. No inner I thought can be concealed from Him, nor does He confuse one with another. He encompasses everything, dominates everything, and subdues everything. Nothing is like Him. He initiates the creation from nothing; He is everlasting, living, sustaining in the truth; there is no god but He, the Omnipotent, the Wise One. He is greater than can be conceived by visions, while He conceives all visions, the Eternal, the Knowing. None can describe Him by seeing Him, nor can anyone find out how He is, be it by his intellect or by a spoken word except through what leads to Him, the Sublime, the Mighty that He is. I testify that He is Allah, the One Who has filled time with His Holiness, the One Whose Light overwhelms eternity, Who effects His will without consulting anyone; there is no partner with Him in His decisions, nor is He assisted in running His affairs. He shaped what He made without following a preexisting model, and He created whatever He created without receiving help from anyone, nor did doing so exhaust Him nor frustrated His designs. He created, and so it was, and He initiated, and it became visible. So He is Allah, the One and Only God, the One Who does whatever He does extremely well. He is the Just One Who never oppresses, the most Holy to Whom all affairs are referred. I further testify that He is Allah before Whom everything is humbled, to Whose Greatness everything is humiliated, and to Whose Dignity everything submits. He is the King of every domain and the One Who places planets in their orbits. He controls the movements of the sun and of the moon, each circles till a certain time. He makes the night follow the day and the day follow the night, seeking it incessantly. He splits the spine of every stubborn tyrant and annihilates every mighty devil. Never has there been any opponent opposing Him nor a peer assisting Him. He is Independent; He never begets nor is He begotten, and none can ever be His equal. He is One God, the Glorified Lord. His will is done; His word is the law. He knows, so He takes account. He causes death and gives life. He makes some poor and others rich. He causes some to smile and others to cry .He brings some nearer to Him while distancing others from Him. He withholds and He gives. The domain belongs to Him and so is all the Praise. In His hand is all goodness, and He can do anything at all. He lets the night cover the day and the day cover the night; there is no god but He, the Sublime, the oft-Forgiving One. He responds to the supplication; He gives generously; He computes the breath; He is the Lord of the jinns and of mankind, the One Whom nothing confuses, nor is He annoyed by those who cry for His help, nor is He fed-up by those who persist. He safeguards the righteous against sinning, and He enables the winners to win. He is the Master of the faithful, the Lord of the Worlds Who deserves the appreciation of all those whom He created and is praised no matter what. I praise Him and always thank Him for the ease He brings me and for the constriction, in hardship and in prosperity, and I believe in Him, in His angels, in His Books and messengers. I listen to His Command and I obey, and I initiate the doing of whatever pleases Him, and I submit to His decree hoping to acquire obedience to Him and fear of His penalty, for He is Allah against Whose designs nobody should feel secure, nor should anyone ever fear His "oppression." I testify, even against my own soul, that I am His servant, and I bear witness that he is my Lord. I convey what He reveals to me, being cautious lest I should not do it, so a catastrophe from Him would befall upon me, one which none can keep away, no matter how great his design may be and how sincere his friendship. There is no god but He, for He has informed me that if I do not convey what He has just revealed to me in honor of' Ali in truth, I will not have conveyed His Message at all, and He, the Praised and the Exalted One, has guaranteed for me to protect me from the (evil) people, and He is Allah, the One Who suffices, the Sublime. He has just revealed to me the following (verse): In The Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. O Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to 'Ali), and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and Allah shall Protect you from (evil) people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.(Qur'an, 5:67) O people! I have not committed any shortcoming in conveying what Allah Almighty revealed to me, and I am now going to explain to you the reason behind the revelation of this verse: Three times did Gabriel command me on behalf of the Peace, my Lord, Who is the source of all peace, to thus make a stand in order to inform everyone, black and white, that: ' Ali ibn Abu Talib is my Brother, Wasi, and successor over my nation and the Imam after me, the one whose status to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except there will be no prophet after me, and he is your master next only to Allah and to His Messenger, and Allah has already revealed to me the same in one of the fixed verses1 of His Book saying, "Your Master is Allah and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay zakat even as they bow down" (Qur'an, 5:55), and, Ali ibn Abu Talib the one who keeps up prayers, who pays zakat even as he bows down, seeking to please Allah, the Sublime, the Almighty, on each and every occasion. I asked Gabriel to plead to the Peace to excuse me from having to convey such a message to you, O 1 Fixed verses are those which are never abrogated; the injunction(s) they contain remain valid forever. people, due to my knowledge that the pious are few1 while the hypocrites are many, and due to those who will blame me, and due to the trickery of those who ridicule Islam and whom Allah described in His Book as saying with their tongues contrarily to what their hearts conceal, thinking lightly of it, while it is with Allah magnanimous, and due to the abundance of their harm to me, so much so that they called me "ears" and claimed that I am so because of being so much in his (' Ali's) company, always welcoming him, loving him and being so much pleased with him till Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, revealed in this regard the verse saying: " And there are some of them who harm the (feelings of the) Prophet and say: He is an ear (uthun; i.e. he always listens to' Ali). 1 The pious are always few in any age or time, creed or faith or clime,in any place, in every space. As many as 72 verses in the Holy Qur'an condemnthe majority, praising the minority, underscoring what mankind knew, that thepious are always few. Indeed, the Prophet's statement is quite weighty, wise,terse, and not hasty. Nowadays, only a few pious ones remember this historic sermon and try their best to keep its memory alive. Yes; it is true, the pious are always few ... Say: One who listens (to' Ali) is good for you; He believes in Allah and testifies to the conviction of the believers and a mercy for those of you who believe; and those who (thus ) harm the Messenger of Allah shall have a painful punishment" (Qur'an, 9:61). Had I wished to name those who have called me so, I would have called them by their names, and I would have pointed them out. I would have singled them out and called them by what they really are, but I, by Allah, am fully aware of their affairs. Yet despite all of that, Allah insisted that I should convey what He has just revealed to me in honor of' Ali. Then the Prophet recited the following verse:) O Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to 'Ali), and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people. (Qur'an, 5:67) O people! Comprehend (the implications of) what I have just said, and again do comprehend it, and be (further) informed that Allah has installed him (' Ali) as your Master and Imam, obligating the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who follow them in goodness to obey him, and so must everyone who lives in the desert or in the city, who is a non-Arab or an Arab, who is a free man or a slave, who is young or old, white or black, and so should everyone who believes in His Unity. His decree shall be carried out. His (' Ali's) word is binding; his command is obligating; cursed is whoever opposes him, blessed with mercy is whoever follows him and believes in him, for Allah has already forgiven him and forgiven whoever listens to him and obeys him. O people! This is the last stand I make in such a situation; so, listen and obey, and submit to the Command of Allah, your Lord, for Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, is your Master and Lord, then next to Him is His Messenger and Prophet who is now addressing you, then after me 'Ali is your Master and Imam according to the Command of Allah, your Lord, then the lmams from among my progeny, his offspring, till the Day you meet Allah and His Messenger. Nothing is permissible except what is deemed so by Allah, His Messenger, and they (the Imams), and nothing is prohibitive except what is deemed so by Allah and His Messenger and they (the Imams). Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, has made me acquainted with what is permissible and what is prohibitive, and I have conveyed to you what my Lord has taught me of His Book, of what it decrees as permissible or as prohibitive. O people! Prefer him (' Ali) over all others! There is no knowledge except that Allah has divulged it to me, and all the knowledge I have learned I have divulged to Imam al-Muttaqin (leader of the righteous), and there is no knowledge (that I know) except that I divulged it to' Ali, and he is al-Imam al-Mubin (the evident Imam) whom Allah mentions in Surat ya-Sin: "... and everything We have computed is in (the knowledge of) an evident Imam" (Qur'an, 36:12). O people! Do not abandon him, nor should you flee away from him, nor should you be too arrogant to accept his authority, for he is the one who guides to righteousness and who acts according to it. He defeats falsehood and prohibits others from acting according to it, accepting no blame from anyone while seeking to please Allah. He is the first to believe in Allah and in His Messenger; none preceded him as such. And he is the one who offered his life as a sacrifice for the Messenger of Allah and who was in the company of the Messenger of Allah while no other man was. He is the first of all people to offer prayers and the first to worship Allah with me. I ordered him, on behalf of Allah, to sleep in my bed, and he did, offering his life as a sacrifice for my sake. O people! Prefer him (over all others), for Allah has preferred him, and accept him, for Allah has appointed him (as your leader). O people! He is an Imam appointed by Allah, and Allah shall never accept the repentance of anyone who denies his authority, nor shall He forgive him; this is a must decree from Allah never to do so to anyone who opposes him, and that He shall torment him with a most painful torment for all time to come, for eternity; so, beware lest you should oppose him and thus enter the fire the fuel of which is the people and the stones prepared for the unbelievers. O people! By Allah! All past prophets and messengers conveyed the glad tiding of my advent, and I, by Allah, am the seal of the prophets and of the messengers and the argument against all beings in the heavens and on earth. Anyone who doubts this commits apostasy similar to that of the early jahiliyya, and anyone who doubts anything of what I have just said doubts everything which has been revealed to me, and anyone who doubts any of the Imams doubts all of them, and anyone who doubts us shall be lodged in the fire. O people! Allah, the most Exalted and the Almighty, has bestowed this virtue upon me out of His kindness towards' Ali and as a boon to' Ali and there is no god but He; to Him all praise belongs in all times, for eternity, and in all circumstances. O people! Prefer' Ali (over all others), for he is the very best of all people after me, be they males or females, so long as Allah sends down His sustenance, so long as there are beings. Cursed and again cursed, condemned and again condemned, is anyone who does not accept this statement of mine and who does not agree to it. Gabriel himself has informed me of the same on behalf of Allah Almighty Who he said (in Gabriel's words): " Anyone who antagonizes' Ali and refuses to accept his wilayat shall incur My curse upon him and My wrath." "... and let every soul consider what it has sent forth for the morrow, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah" (Qur'an, 59:18), "And do not make your oaths a means of deceit between you lest a foot should slip after its stability" (Qur'an, 16:94), " Allah is fully aware of all what you do" (Qur'an, 58: 13). O people! He (' Ali) is janb-Allah mentioned in the Book of Allah, the Sublime One: The Almighty, forewarning his (' Ali's) adversaries, says, "Lest a soul should say: O woe unto me for what I fell short of my duty to Allah, and most surely I was of those who laughed to scorn" (Qur'an, 39:56). O people! Study the Qur'an and comprehend its verses, look into its fixed verses and do not follow what is similar thereof, for by Allah, none shall explain to you what it forbids you from doing, nor clarify its exegesis, other than the one whose hand I am taking and whom I am lifting to me, the one whose arm I am taking and whom I am lifting, so that I may enable you to understand that: Whoever among you takes me as his master, this, Ali is his master, and he is' Ali ibn Abu Talib, my Brother and wasi, and his appointment as your wali is from Allah, the Sublime, the Exalted One, a commandment which He revealed to me. O people! ' Ali and the good ones from among my offspring from his loins are the Lesser Weight, while the Qur'an is the Greater One: each one of them informs you of and agrees with the other. They shall never part till they meet me at the Pool (of Kawthar). They are the Trustees of Allah over His creation, the rulers on His earth. Indeed now I have performed my duty and conveyed the Message. Indeed you have heard what I have said and explained. Indeed Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, has said, and so have Ion behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, that there is no Ameerul-Mo'mineen (Commander of the Faithful) save this Brother of mine; no authority over a believer is permissible after me except to him. Then the Prophet patted ' Ali's arm, lifting him up. Since the time when the Messenger of Allah ascended the pulpit, Ameerul-Mo'mineen was one pulpit step below where the Messenger of Allah had seated himself on his pulpit, while' Ali was on his (Prophet's) right side, one pulpit step lower, now they both appeared to the gathering to be on the same level; the Prophet lifted him up. The Prophet then raised his hands to the heavens in supplication while' Ali's leg was touching the knee of the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet continued his sermon thus: O people! This is' Ali, my Brother, Wasi, the one who comprehends my knowledge, and my successor over my nation, over everyone who believes in me. He is the one entrusted with explaining the Book of Allah, the most Exalted One, the Sublime, and the one who invites people to His path. He is the one who does whatever pleases Him, fighting His enemies, befriending His friends who obey Him, prohibiting disobedience to Him. He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah and Ameerul- Mo'mineen, the man assigned by Allah to guide others, killer of the renegades and of those who believe in equals to Allah, those who violate the Commandments of Allah. Allah says, "My Word shall not be changed, nor am I in the least unjust to the servants" (Qur'an, 50.29), and by Your Command, O Lord, do I (submit and) say, O Allah! Befriend whoever befriends him (Ali) and be the enemy of whoever antagonizes him; support whoever supports him and abandon whoever abandons him; curse whoever disavows him, and let Your Wrath descend on whoever usurps his right. O Lord! You revealed a verse in honor of' Ali, Your wali, in its explanation and to effect Your own appointment of him this very day did You say, "This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour on you, and chosen for you Islam as a religion" (Qur'an, 5.3); "And whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers" (Qur'an, 3:85). Lord! I implore You to testify that I have conveyed (Your Message). O people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has perfected your religion through his (' Ali's) Imamate; so, whoever rejects him as his Imam or rejects those of my offspring from his loins who assume the same status (as lmams) till the Day of Judgment when they shall all be displayed before Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, these are the ones whose (good) deeds shall be nil and void in the life of this world and in the hereafter, and in the fire shall they be lodged forever, " ...their torture shall not be decreased, nor shall they be given a respite" (Qur'an,2:162). O people! Here is' Ali, the one who has supported me more than anyone else among you, the one who most deserves my gratitude, the one who is closest of all of you to me and the one who is the very dearest to me. Both Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, and I are pleased with him, and no verse of the Holy Qur'an expressing Allah's Pleasure except that he is implied therein, nor has any verse of praise been revealed in the Qur'an except that he is implied therein, nor has the Lord testified to Paradise in the (Qur'anic) Chapter starting with "Has there not come over man a long period of time when he was nothing (not even) mentioned?" (Qur'an, 76:1) nor was this Chapter revealed except in his praise. O people! He is the one who supports the religion of Allah, who argues on behalf of the Messenger of Allah. He is the pious, the pure, the guide, the one rightly guided. Your Prophet is the best of all prophets, and your wasi is the best of all wasis, and his offspring are the best of wasis . O people! Each prophet's progeny is from his own loins whereas mine is from the loins of Arneerul-Mo'mineen ' Ali. O people! Iblis caused Adam to be dismissed from the garden through envy; so, do not envy him lest your deeds should be voided and lest your feet should slip away, for Adam was sent down to earth after having committed only one sin, and he was among the elite of Allah's creation. How, then, will be your case, and you being who you are, and among you are enemies of Allah? Indeed, none hates' Ali except a wretch, and none accepts ' Ali's wilayat except a pious person. None believes in him except a sincere mu'min, and in honor of, Ali was the Chapter of 'Asr (Ch. 103) revealed, I swear to it by Allah: "In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. I swear by time that most surely man is in loss" (Qur'an, 103:1-2) except' Ali who believed and was pleased with the truth and with perseverance. O people! I have sought Allah to be my Witness and have conveyed my Message to you, and the Messenger is obligated only to clearly convey (his Message). O people! " Fear Allah as Re ought to be feared, and do not die except as Muslims" (Qur'an, 3:102). O people! " ...Believe in what We have revealed, verifying what you have, before We alter faces then turn them on their backs or curse them as We cursed the violators of the Sabbath" (Qur'an, 4:47). By Allah! Redid not imply anyone in this verse except a certain band of my sahaba whom I know by name and by lineage, and I have been ordered (by my Lord) to pardon them; so, let each person deal with ' Ali according to what he finds in his heart of love or of hatred. O people! The noor from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, flows through me then through ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib then in the progeny that descends from him till al-Qa'imal-Mehdi, who shall effect the justice of Allah, and who will take back any right belonging to us because Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, made us Hujjat over those who take us lightly, the stubborn ones, those who act contrarily to our word, who are treacherous, who are sinners, who are oppressors, who are usurpers, from the entire world. O people! I warn you that I am the Messenger of Allah; messengers before me have already passed away; so, should I die or should I be killed, are you going to turn upon your heels? And whoever turns upon his heels shall not harm Allah in the least, and Allah shall reward those who are grateful, those who persevere. 'Ali is surely the one described with perseverance and gratitude, then after him are my offspring from his loins. O people! Do not think that you are doing me a favour by your accepting Islam. Nay! Do not think that you are doing Allah such a favour lest He should void your deeds, lest His wrath should descend upon you, lest He should try you with a flame of fire and brass; surely your Lord is ever-watchful. O people! There shall be Imams after me who shall invite people to the fire, and they shall not be helped on the Day of Judgment. O people! Allah and I are both clear of them. O people! They and their supporters and followers shall be in the lowest rung of the fire; miserable, indeed, is the resort of the arrogant ones. Indeed, these are the folks of the sahifa; so, let each one of you look into his sahifa! This reference to the sahifa has been overlooked by most people with the exception of a small band, and we will, Insha-Allah, shed a light on this sahifa later on. The Prophet continued his historic sermon thus: O people! I am calling for it to be an Imamate and a succession confined to my offspring till the Day of Judgment, and I have conveyed only what I have been commanded (by my Lord) to convey to drive the argument home against everyone present or absent and on everyone who has witnessed or who has not, who is already born or he is yet to be born; therefore, let those present here convey it to those who are absent, and let the father convey it to his son, and so on till the Day of Judgment. And they shall make the Imamate after me a property, a usurpation; may Allah curse the usurpers who usurp1, and it is then that you, O jinns and mankind, will get the full attention of the One Who shall cause a flame of fire and brass to be hurled upon you, and you shall not achieve any victory! O people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, is not to let you be whatever you want to be except so that He may distinguish the bad ones from among you from the good, and Allah is not to make you acquainted with the unknown. O people! There shall be no town that falsifies except that Allah shall annihilate it on account of its falsehood before the Day of Judgment, and He shall give al-lmam al-Mehdi (U authority over it, and surely Allah's promise is true. 1 This is surely a Prophetic prediction that' Ali's right to the caliphate would be usurped. The usurpers were the very first to swear the oath of allegiance to Ameerul-Mo'mineen ' Ali and the very first to violate it. O people! Most of the early generations before you have strayed, and by Allah, He surely annihilated the early generations, and He shall annihilate the later ones. Allah Almighty has said, "Did We not destroy the former generations? Then did We follow them up with later ones. Even thus shall We deal with the guilty. Woe on that Day to the rejecters!" (Qur'an, 77: 16-19). O people! Allah has ordered me to do and not to do, and I have ordered 'Ali to do and not to do, so he learned what should be done and what should not; therefore. you should listen to his orders so that you may be safe, and you should obey him so that you may be rightly guided. Do not do what he forbids you from doing so that you may acquire wisdom. Agree with him, and do not let your paths be different from his. O people! I am al-Sirat al-Mustaqeem (the Straight Path) of Allah whom He commanded you to follow, and it is after me 'Ali then my offspring from his loins, the Imams of Guidance: they guide to the truth and act accordingly. Then the Prophet recited the entire text of Surat al-Fatiha and commented by saying: It is in my honor that this (Sura) was revealed, including them (the Imams) specifically; they are the friends of Allah for whom there shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve; truly the Party of Allah are the winners. Indeed, it is their enemies who are the impudent ones, the deviators, the brethren of Satan; they inspire each other with embellished speech out of their haughtiness. Indeed, their (Imams') friends are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One, the Great, mentions in His Book saying, "You shall not find a people who believe in Allah and in the latter Day befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and to His Prophet, even though they may be their own fathers or sons or brothers or kinsfolk; these are they into whose hearts He has impressed conviction" (Qur'an, 58:22). Indeed, their (Imams') friends are the mu'mins (believers) whom Allah, the Exalted One, the Sublime, describes as: "Those who believe and do not mix up their faith with iniquity, those are the ones who shall have the security, and they are the rightly guided" (Qur'an, 6:82). Indeed, their friends are those who believed and never doubted. Indeed, their friends are the ones who shall enter Paradise in peace and security; the angels shall receive them with welcome saying, "Peace be upon you! Enter it and reside in it forever!" Indeed, their friends shall be rewarded with Paradise where they shall be sustained without having to account for anything. Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall be hurled into the fire. Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall hear the exhalation of hell as it increases in intensity, and they shall see it sigh. Indeed, their enemies are the ones thus described by Allah: "Whenever a nation enters, it shall curse its sister..." (Qur'an, 7:38). Indeed, their enemies are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, describes thus: "Whenever a group is cast into it, its keepers shall ask them: Did any warner not come to you? They shall say: Yea! Indeed, there came to us a warner but we rejected (him) and said: Allah has not revealed anything; you are only in a great error. And they shall say: Had we but listened or pondered, we would not have been among the inmates of the burning fire. So they shall acknowledge their sins, but far will be forgiveness) from the inmates of the burning fire" (Qur'an, 67:8-11). Indeed, their friends are the ones who fear their Lord in the unseen; forgiveness shall be theirs and a great reward. O people! What a difference it is between the fire and the great reward! . O people! Our enemy is the one whom Allah censures and curses, whereas our friend is everyone praised and loved by Allah. O people! I am the Warner (nathir) and' Ali is the one who brings glad tidings (bashir). O people! I am the one who warns (munthir) while 'Ali is the guide (hadi). O people! I am a Prophet (nabi) and' Ali is the successor (wasi). O people! I am a Messenger (rasul) and' Ali is the Imam and the Wasi after me, and so are the Imams after him from among his offspring. Indeed, I am their father, and they shall descend from his loins. Indeed, the seal of the lmams from among us is al-Qa'im al-Mehdi. He, indeed, is the one who shall come out so that the creed may prevail. He, indeed, is the one who shall seek revenge against the oppressor. He, indeed, is the one who conquers the forts and demolishes them. He, indeed, is the one who subdues every tribe from among the people of polytheism and the one to guide it. He is the one who shall seek redress for all friends of Allah. He is the one who supports the religion of Allah. He ever derives (his knowledge) from a very deep ocean. He shall identify each man of distinction by his distinction and every man of ignorance by his ignorance. He shall be the choicest of Allah's beings and the chosen one. He is the heir of all (branches of) knowledge, the one who encompasses every perception. He conveys on behalf of his Lord, the Exalted and the Sublime, who points out His miracles. He is the wise, the one endowed with wisdom, the one upon whom (Divine) authority is vested. Glad tidings of him have been conveyed by past generations, yet he is the one who shall remain as a Hujja, and there shall be no Hujja after him nor any right except with him, nor any noor except with him. None, indeed, shall subdue him, nor shall he ever be vanquished. He is the friend of Allah on His earth, the judge over His creatures, the custodian of what is evident and what is hidden of His. O people! I have explained (everything) for you and enabled you to comprehend it, and this 'Ali shall after me explain everything to you. At the conclusion of my khutba, I shall call upon you to shake hands with me to swear your allegiance to him and to recognize his authority, then to shake hands with him after you have shaken hands with me. I had, indeed, sworn allegiance to Allah, and ‘Ali had sworn allegiance to me, and I on behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, I require you to swear the oath of allegiance to him: "Surely those who swear (the oath of) allegiance to you do but swear allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands; therefore, whoever reneges (from his oath), he reneges only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward" (Qur'an,48:10). O people! The pilgrimage (hajj) and the 'umra are among Allah's rituals; "So whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no blame on him if he goes round them [safa and Marwa] both" (Qur'an, 2:158). O people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House, for no members of a family went there except that they became wealthy, and receive glad tidings! None failed to do so except that their lineage was cut-off and were impoverished. O people! No believer stands at the standing place [at 'Arafa] except that Allah forgives his past sins till then; so, once his pilgrimage is over, he resumes his deeds. O people! Pilgrims are assisted, and their expenses shall be replenished, and Allah never suffers the rewards of the doers of good to be lost. O people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House by perfecting your religion and by delving into fiqh, and do not leave the sacred places except after having repented and abandoned (the doing of anything prohibited). O people! Uphold prayers and pay the zakat as Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, commanded you; so, if time lapses and you were short of doing so or you forgot, ' Ali is your wali and he will explain for you. He is the one whom Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, appointed for you after me as the custodian of Hiscreation. He is from me and I am from him, and he and those who will succeed him from my progeny shall inform you of anything you ask them about, and they shall clarify whatever you do not know. Halal and haram things are more than I can count for you now or explain, for a commandment to enjoin what is permissible and a prohibition from what is not permissible are both on the same level, so I was ordered (by my Lord) to take your oath of allegiance and to make a covenant with you to accept what I brought you from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, with regards to' Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen and to the wasis after him who are from me and from him, a standing Imamate whose seal is al-Mehdi till the Day he meets Allah Who decrees and Who judges. O people! I never refrained from informing you of everything permissible or prohibitive; so, do remember this and safeguard it and advise each other to do likewise; do not alter it; do not substitute it with something else. I am now repeating what I have already said: Uphold the prayers and pay the zakat and enjoin righteousness and forbid abomination. The peak of enjoining righteousness is to resort to my speech and to convey it to whoever did not attend it and to order him on my behalf to accept it and to (likewise) order him not to violate it, for it is an order from Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, and there is no knowledge of enjoining righteousness nor prohibiting abomination except that it is with a ma'soom Imam. 0 people! The Qur'an informs you that the Imams after him are his (' Ali's) descendants, and I have already informed you that they are from me and from him, for Allah says in His Book, " And he made it a word to continue in his posterity so that they may return " (Qur'an, 43:28) while I have said: "You shall not stray as long as you uphold both of them (simultaneously)." O people! (Uphold) piety, (uphold) piety, and be forewarned of the Hour as Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has said, "0 people! Guard (yourselves) against (punishment from) your Lord; surely the violence of the Hour is a grievous thing" (Qur'an, 22:1). Remember death, resurrection, the judgment, the scales, and the account before the Lord of the Worlds, and (remember) the rewards and the penalty. So whoever does a good deed shall be rewarded for it, and whoever commits a sin shall have no place in the Gardens. O people! You are more numerous than (it is practical) to shake hands with me all at the same time, and Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, commanded me to require you to confirm what authority I have vested upon 'Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen and to whoever succeeds him of the Imams from me and from him, since I have just informed you that my offspring are from his loins. You, therefore, should say in one voice: "We hear, and we obey; we accept and we are bound by what you have conveyed to us from our Lord and yours with regard to our Imam' Ali (V' Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to the Imams, your sons from his loins. We swear the oath of allegiance to you in this regard with our hearts, with our souls, with our tongues, with our hands. According to it shall we live, and according to it shall we die, and according to it shall we be resurrected. We shall not alter anything or substitute anything with another, nor shall we doubt nor deny nor suspect, nor shall we violate our covenant nor abrogate the pledge. You admonished us on behalf of Allah with regard to' Ali (V' Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to the Imams whom you mentioned to be from your offspring from among his descendants after him: al-Hasan and al-Husain and to whoever is appointed (as such) by Allah after them. The covenant and the pledge are taken from us, from our hearts, from our souls, from our tongues, from our conscience, from our hands. Whoever does so by his handshake, it shall be so, or otherwise testified to it by his tongue, and we do not seek any substitute for it, nor shall Allah see our souls deviating there from. We shall convey the same on your behalf to anyone near and far of our offspring and families, and we implore Allah to testify to it, and surely Allah suffices as the Witness and you, too, shall testify for us." O people! What are you going to say?! Allah knows every sound and the innermost of every soul; "Whoever chooses the right guidance, it is for his own soul that he is rightly guided, and whoever strays, it is only to its detriment that he goes astray" (Qur'an, 17:15). O people! Swear the oath of allegiance to Allah, and swear it to me, and swear it to' Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to al-Hasan and al-Husain and to the Imams from their offspring in the life of this world and in the hereafter, a word that shall always remain so. Allah shall annihilate anyone guilty of treachery and be merciful upon everyone who remains true to his word: "Whoever reneges (from his oath), he reneges only to the harm of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward" (Qur'an, 48:10) O people! Repeat what I have just told you to, and greet' Ali with the title of authority of "Ameerul-Mo'mineen" and say: "We hear, and we obey, O Lord! Your forgiveness (do we seek), and to You is the eventual course" (Qur'an, 2:285), and you should say: "All praise is due to Allah Who guided us to this, and we would not have found the way had it not been for Allah Who guided us" (Qur'an, 7:43). O people! The merits of' Ali ibn Abu Talib with Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, the merits which are revealed in the Qur'an, are more numerous than I can recount in one speech; so, whoever informs you of them and defines them for you, you should believe him. O people! Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger and' Ali (U and the Imams to whom I have already referred shall attain a great victory. O people! Those foremost from among you who swear allegiance to him and who pledge to obey him and who greet him with the greeting of being the Commander of the Faithful are the ones who shall win the Gardens of Felicity. O people! Say what brings you the Pleasure of Allah, for if you and all the people of the earth disbelieve, it will not harm Allah in the least. O Lord! Forgive the believers through what I have conveyed, and let Your Wrath descend upon those who renege, the apostates, and all Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. CONCLUSION: Thus did the Prophet of Allah speak on behalf of the Almighty Who sent him as the beacon of guidance not only for the Muslims but for all mankind. But the question that forces itself here is: "What happened after that historic event? Why did the Muslims forget, or pretend to have forgotten, their Prophet's instructions with regards to' Ali and "elected" someone else in his stead? To answer this question requires another book, and indeed many such books have been written. May the Almighty grant all of us guidance, and may He count us among His true servants who recognize the truth when they see it, who abide by His tenets, Who revere His Prophet and follow his instructions in all times, in all climes, Allahomma Ameen. REFERENCES: KHUTBA OF AL-GHADEER The following constitutes only major references of the components of Khutba of Ghadeer. In these references the reader can deliberate on the various portions of this historic sermon as quoted in bits and pieces in those references. Most of these references are considered reliable by the majority of Muslims (of the Shi'a or Sunni persuation): Jalaal ad-Deen al-Sayyuti, Kitaab Al-Itqaan, Vol. 1, p. 31. al-Majlisi, Bihaar.al-Anwaar, Vol. 21, pp. 360-90, Vol. 37, pp. 111-235, and Vol. 41, p. 228.He Quotes bookal-Ih'tijaj by al-Tibrisi (vol.2) Al-Bldaaya wal Nihaaya, Vol. 5, p. 208. Badee' al-Ma'aani, p. 75 Tareekh Baghdad, V01. 1, p. 411 and V01. 8, p. 290. Tareekh Dimashq, Vol. 5, p. 210. Ibn al-Jawziyya, Tadh'kirat al-Khawaas, pp. 18-20. Ibn al-Sa'ud's Tafseer, Vol. 8, p. 292. Al-Tibari, Tafseer al-Qur'an, Vol. 3, p. 428 and Vol. 6, p. 46. al-Fakhr al-Razi, Al-Tafseer al-Kabeer, Vol. 3, p. 636. Al-Tamhid fi USool al-Deen, p. 171. Tayseer al-Wusul, Vol. 1, p. 122. Ghiyaath ad-Din ibn Hammaam, Tareekh Habib al-Siyar, V01. 1, p. 144. al-Maqrizi, Khutat, p. 223. al-Sayyuti, Al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. 2, pp. 259, 298. Thakhaa'ir al-'Uqba, p. 68. Ruh al-Ma'aani, Vol. 2, p. 348. Mohibb al-Tabal-;, AI.Riyadh al-r:adhirah, Vol. 2, p.169. Al-Siraaj al-Munir, Vol. 4, p. 364. al-Hakim, Al-Seera al-Halabiyya, Vol. 3, p. 302. Shar'h al-Mawaahib, V01. 7, p. 13. Ibn Hajar al-' Asqalaani, Al-Sawaa'iq al-Muhriqa, p. 26. Ibn al-Badriq, Al-'Umda, p. 52. Badr ad-Deen, 'Umdat al-Qari fi Shar'h al-Bukhari, V01. 8, p. 584. al-Ghadeer, V01. 2, p. 57. Sharafud-Deen al-Musawi, AI-Fusul al-Muhimma, pp. 25-27. Fadha 'il al-Sahaaba, p. 272. Faydh al-Ghadeer, V01. 6, p. 218. Kashf al-Ghumma, p. 94. Kifaayat al- Taalib, pp. 17, 28. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummaal, Vol. 6, p. 397. Imam Ibn Hanbal, Mus'nad, V01. 4, p. 281. Mishkaat al-Masabeeh, p. 272. Mushkil al-aathaar, Vol. 3, p. 196. Mataalib al-Su'ul, p. 16. Muftah al-Najaat, p. 216. al-Shahristaani, AI-Milal wal Nihal, V 01. 1, p. 220. al-Khawarizmi, Manaaqib, pp. 80, 94. Ibn al-Maghaazli, Manaaqib, p. 232. al-Qastalani, Al-Mawaahib, Vol. 2, p. 13. al-Samhudi, Wafaa' al-Wafaa', Vol. 2, p. 173. al-Qanduzi, Yanabi al-Mawadda, p. 120.
  15. Ali didnt know/understand that he was appointed by the Prophet s.a.w at Ghadeer khum as the successor, but the Shias do. May be the Shias are smarter than Ali :P Sahih Bukhari Vol. 8, Book 74, Hadith 282: Narrated by Ibn Abbas: `Ali bin Abi Talib came out of the house of the Prophet () during his fatal ailment. The people asked (`Ali), "O Abu Hasan! How is the health of Allah's Messenger () this morning?" `Ali said, "This morning he is better, with the grace of Allah." Al-`Abbas held `Ali by the hand and said, "Don't you see him (about to die)? By Allah, within three days you will be the slave of the stick (i.e., under the command of another ruler). By Allah, I think that Allah's Messenger () will die from his present ailment, for I know the signs of death on the faces of the offspring of `Abdul Muttalib. So let us go to Allah's Messenger () to ask him who will take over the Caliphate. If the authority is given to us, we will know it, and if it is given to somebody else we will request him to recommend us to him. " `Ali said, "By Allah! If we ask Allah's Messenger () for the rulership and he refuses, then the people will never give it to us. Besides, I will never ask Allah's Messenger for it." With regards to the hadith prophesying the coming of the 12 Caliphs from the Quraish, it is a PROOF that the 12 Imams of the shias are not what the Prophet meant in his Prophecy because only 2 of the 12 imams became Caliphs, and one of them Al Hassan r.a. gave the Caliphate to Muawiyah r.a. So I think that the Shias here are not reading history properly.
  16. Asa, How can we prove Imamat from the following verse from Surah Aal e Imran. Verse / Ayat 33 Allah chose Adam, Nooh (Noah), the family of Ibrahim (Abraham) and the family of Imran above the Alameen (mankind and jinns) (of their times). Also, to those who say that the Prophet (sawws) was just a 'normal' human being like us? Because it clearly says that certain families are above us and jinns in grade.
  17. Abul Hasan Nadwi disapproves of the opinion of Shia and says that:" The opinion of Shia about Imamate and caliphate is not in accord with the aims of God and His messenger; because they believe in inherited ruling."[1] In the answer we say that: Firstly: When it is said that the successors of prophets are selected from their offspring and progeny it means the Almighty God have granted such an ability to them to accept this position. Imamite Shia are surely against this interpretation of inheritance that they will be Imams just because of being the children of the Prophet, even if they doesn’t deserve taking the charge of such a position. Secondly: If this saying of Abul Hasan Nadwi is true that: The inherited ruling is the slogan of the materialist governments and the divine prophets should avoid that,[2] so why the Holy Quran approves the inherited ruling with considering the competence of previous apostles; for instance: "Ãóãú íóÍúÓõÏõæäó ÇáäøÇÓó Úóáì ãÇ ÂÊÇåõãõ Çááåõ ãöäú ÝóÖúáöåö ÝóÞóÏú ÂÊóíúäÇ Âáó ÅöÈúÑÇåöíãó Çáú˜öÊÇÈó æóÇáúÍö˜úãóÉó æóÂÊóíúäÇåõãú ãõáú˜Çð ÚóÙöíãÇð" "Or do they envy the people for what Allah has given them [the prophet and his progeny] of His grace? But indeed We have given to Ibrahim's children (that Jews are also from them) the book and the wisdom, and We have given them [the apostles of Israel's Children] a grand kingdom"[3] On the other hand we see that Hazrat Ibrahim (a.s.) has requested the Imamate for his offspring, where the Almighty God says: "óÅöÐö ÇÈúÊóáì ÅöÈúÑÇåöíãó ÑóÈõøåõ Èö˜óáöãÇÊ ÝóÃóÊóãóøåõäóø ÞÇáó Åöäöøí ÌÇÚöáõ˜ó áöáäøÇÓö ÅöãÇãÇð ÞÇáó æóãöäú ÐõÑöøíóøÊöí ÞÇáó áÇ íóäÇáõ ÚóåúÏöí ÇáÙøÇáöãöíäó" "And [remember] when his Lord tried Ibrahim with certain words, and he fulfilled them completely. He (God) said: Surely I will make you an Imam of men. Ibrahim said: And of my offspring (appoint Imam too)? My covenant does not include the unjust people (but those who deserve), said He"[4] In this verse, the Almighty God has not negated the inherited and consanguineous ruling and Imamate unconditionally, but He has taken it away from the oppressors of the offspring of Hazrat Ibrahim (a.s.). Thirdly: Perhaps the reason for putting Imamate, prophecy and succession in the generation of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) is that from one side the generation of the Holy prophet (s.a.w.) is a pure and good generation, and his progeny is a divine progeny and from another side the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) is in the hearts of the people because of his prophecy and perfect virtues and has a special popularity among them and if the people love someone they will love his relatives too. And they will follow the commands and instruction of whom. Therefore, the best people for Imamate and, succession or prophecy are the offspring and generation of apostles; however taking the charge of these positions is dependent on some conditions among them infallibility, divining power and superiority in the virtues to other people.[5] [1] - Suratan Mutazadatan, Nadvi, p. 12 and 13. [2] - Suratan Mutazadatan, Nadvi, p. 12 and 13. [3] - Nisa, verse 54. [4] - Baqarah, verse 124. [5] - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts (1), p. 151.
  18. Jese hum sabko un mazaalim ka maloom hai jo khufa-e-rashideen k waqt me bibi fatima mola Ali or unk chahny waly ghar walo per kiye gay..Hum janty bhi hain or manty bhi hain,tabarra(laanat) bhi karty hain unko.yahi waja hai k hamare gharo me 3 khalifao k naam kabhi nahi rakhy jaty. Magarhum ye bhi manty hain k Mola Ali or baqi Imamo ne jo bhi kia jo fesly kary jo kuch bhi dunia me kia wo sab Allah ki taraf se tha kyunk wo log Allah k chuny hue log hain Muhammad k noor k tukry hain. matlab hum unk har fasly ko samajh sakte hain uski waja talaash kar sakte hain debate bhi kar sakte hain par ye nahi keh sakte k un me se kisi ne koi galat fesla kia ya unk kisi fesly ya kaam p shak nahi kar sakty. humko to unki seerat p amal karna hai. Itni tamheed bandhny k baad mjhy ek sawal puchna hai aap sab se jisk pas sahi jawb ho plz batae ya apni ray dy. Jin logo p zulm hua matlab Hazrat Ali,Imam hasan,Imam husain, unho ne apne beto k naam un khalifao k naam p kyu rakhy ya yeh keh sakty hain k wohi name kyu rakhy????? In hastio k pas tamaam jahaano ka ILM tha to koi or naam kyu nahi, matlab un naamo ko rakhny ka koi to maqsad hoga, bina maqsad k wo log kuch nahi karty thy, wo kya maqsad tha ??????
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