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  1. Martyrdom of Imam Ali (as) After the Battle of Nahrawan, 'Ali (a) tried again to mobilize the Iraqis for a battle against the Syria army. However, none except a few accompanied him. On the other hand, Mu'awiya, who was aware of the situation in Iraq and their passivity, invaded regions under 'Ali's control (a) and attempted to debilitate his power by invading Iraq. On the morning after he was struck by a sword on his head (before his demise), 'Ali (a) said: "May God grant me better than them (people) and appoint worse than me over them." Nahj al-Balagha, Sermon 70, p. 53. On the morning of Ramadan 19, 40/January 29, 661, (during the days in which 'Ali (a) was mobilizing an army for Siffin), he was struck with a sword by Abd al-Rahman b. Muljam al-Muradi and died from its injury two days later. Historical accounts have reported the collaboration of three Kharijites in an attempt to kill three individuals: 'Ali (a), Mu'awiya, and 'Amr b. al-'As. Some accounts have also mentioned the role of a woman named Qutam in this assassination, however, this seems to be more of an embellishment as opposed to fact. The children of 'Ali (a) i.e. al-Hasan (a), al-Husayn (a), and Muhammad b. al-Hanfiyya, accompanied by 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far buried him in Ghariyyayn (present day Najaf) and hid his grave.[Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad, al-Irshad, vol. 1, p. 27-28 ] This was because if the Banu Umayya or the Kharijites knew about his burial place, they would exhume his body and treat it with disrespect.[Sayyid b. Tawus, Farhat al-ghari, p. 93; al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 42, p. 222 ] Will and Advice There are a few hadiths narrated from 'Ali (a) that contain to his advice to his children with regards to his funeral rites: the way of his burial, ablution, shrouding and the performing of prayers over his body.[Al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 36, p. 5 ] He also asked them to hide his tomb and to keep its location a secret.[Al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 42, p. 290 ] When he was wounded by Ibn Muljam, 'Ali (a) advised his sons, al-Hasan and al-Husayn: "I advise you (both) to fear Allah and not to pursue the (pleasures of this) world even though they may run after you. Do not be sad over anything of this world that you have been denied. Speak the truth and act (in expectation) for reward [from God]. Be an enemy of the oppressor and a helper of the oppressed. I advise you (both), all my children, all members of my family, and everyone that my writing may reach: to fear Allah, to keep your affairs in order, and to maintain good relations amongst yourselves- for I have heard your grand-father [the noble Prophet (s)] saying, "Solving disagreements is better than years of praying and fasting." (Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in mind with regards to orphans. Do not allow them to starve and they should not be harmed in your presence. (Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in mind with regards to your neighbours, because they were a subject of the Prophet's advice. He would advise extensively in their favour such that we thought he would allow them a share in inheritance. (Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in mind with regards to the Qur'an. No one should surpass you when acting in accordance to it. (Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in mind with regards to prayer, because it is the pillar of your religion. (Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in mind with regards to your Lord's House (the Ka'ba). Do not forsake it as long as you live, because if it is abandoned, you will not be spared. (Fear) Allah (and) keep Allah in mind with regards to the Jihad by helping with your property, lives and tongues in the way of Allah. You should have respect for kinship and spend for others. Don't turn away from one another and don't sever relationships. Do not cease bidding good and forbidding from evil, lest the mischievous dominate you. And then [after this], if you will pray, yor prayers will not be granted. Then he said: O' sons of 'Abd al-Muttalib, certainly I do not wish to see you plunging harshly into the blood of Muslims shouting "'Amir al-Mu'minin has been killed!". Beware, do not kill anyone because of me except for my killer. Wait until I have died by his (Ibn Muljam's) strike. Then, strike him once for his strike on me, and do not dismember his limbs, for I have heard the Messenger of Allah (s) saying, "Avoid cutting limbs even if it is a rabid dog."[Nahj al-balagha, letter. 47 ] Hiding the Tomb 'Ali (a) asked for his tomb to be hidden because he was worried that the Kharijites and the hypocrites would exhume and vandalize his body.[Al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 42, p. 328; al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad, al-Irshad, vol. 1, p. 10 ] Only his children and a few companions knew of his burial place. It wasn't until the era of al-Mansur al-'Abbasi in 135/753, when Imam al-Sadiq (a) revealed that the location of his grave was in Najaf.[Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Muhammad b. Muhammad, al-Irshad, vol. 1, p. 13 ] Source: http://en.wikishia.net/view/Imam_'Ali_b._Abi_Talib_(a)#Martyrdom
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