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  1. Ali Aur Quran Maulana Mohammad Sajid Rizvi sb https://youtu.be/ocWHKY0J_ug Sar zameen e Qum ul Muqaddassah ke Mashoor Shaer ka *Aalimana kalaam* @MadhoAza
  2. A sermon by the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali Ibn Abu Talib (عليه السلام) that does not contain any Arabic letter Alif. بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ في أحد الأيام دار بين العرب و المسلمين نقاش كبير، فقيل ليس من حرف المعجم حرف أكثر دورانا في الكلام من "الأليف"، فأيد ذلك جميع الجالسين ... تبع ذلك أن نهض نبراس اللغة الأنيق و بحرها العميق و فيلسوفها الدقيق الامام علي بن أبي طالب (عليه السلام) و خطب خطبة طويلة تشتمل على الثناء على الله تعالى و الصلاة و السلام على نبيه محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب (صلى الله عليه و على آله و سلم) و هي خالية من بدايتها الى نهايتها من ذكر حرف "الأليف" (الممدودة) و هي كما يلي:- In the Name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful One day, a heated discussion went on among the Arabs and Muslims during which it was said that there is no alphabet that recurs in speech more often than the "Alif" ("A"). All attendants agreed. It was then that the magnificent lantern of language, its deep ocean and precise philosopher, namely Imam Ali Ibn Abu Talib (ع), stood up and delivered a lengthy sermon which included praise of Allah Almighty, prayers and salutations unto His Prophet, Muhammed Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abdul-Muttalib (peace and blessings of Allah be with him and his progeny). The statements of the entire sermon, from beginning to end, did not contain a single word having the "Alif" (Mamdooda, elongated alpha) the humble translation (by Yasin T. al-Jibouri) of it is as follows: حمدت من عظمت منته، و سبغت نعمته، و سبقت غضبه رحمته، و تمت كلمته، و نفذت مشيته، و بلغت حجته (قضيته)، و عدلت قضيته. حمدته حمد مقر بربوبيته، متخضع لعبوديته، متنصل من خطيئته، معترف بتوحيده، مستعيذ من وعيده، مؤمل من ربه رحمة (مغفرة) تنجيه، يوم يشغل كل عن فصيلته و بنيه، و نستعينه و نسترشده و نستهديه، و نؤمن به و نتوكل عليه. و شهدت له تشهد عبد مخلص موقن، و فردته تفريد مؤمن متق و وحدته توحيد عبد مذعن، ليس له شريك في ملكه و لم يكن له ولي في صنعه؛ جل عن مشير و وزير، و تنزه عن مثل وعون و معين و نظير، علم فستر و بطن فخبر، و نظر فجبر، و ملك فقهر؛ و عصي فغفر، و عبد فشكر، و حكم فعدل، و تكرم و تفضل،. لن يزول و لم يزل، ليس كمثله شيء، و هو قبل كل شيء و بعد كل شيء رب متفرد بعزته، متمكن بقوته، متقدس بعلوه، متكبر بسموه، ليس يدركه بصر و لم يحط به نظر، قوي منيع، بصير سميع، حليم حكيم، رؤوف رحيم، عجز عن وصفه من وصفه، و ظل نعته من نعته، وصل به من نعمته من يعرفه، قرب فبعد، و بعد فقرب، يجيب دعوة من يدعوه، و يرزق عبده و يحبوه، ذو لطف خفي، و بطش قوي، و رحمة موسعة، و عقوبة موجعة، و رحمته جنة عريضة مونقة، و عقوبته جحيم موصدة موبقة (موثقة). و شهدت ببعث محمد (ص) عبده و رسوله، و نبيه و صفيه و حبيبه و خليله، صلة تحظيه، و تزلفه و تعليه، و تقربه و تدنيه، بعثه في خير عصر و حين فترة كفر، رحمة لعبيده و منة لمزيده، ختم به نبوته، و قوى (وضح) به حجته، فوعظ و نصح و بلغ و كدح، رؤوف بكل مؤمن رحيم، رضي ولي سخي زكي، عليه رحمة و تسليم و بركة و تكريم، من رب غفور رؤوف رحيم، قريب مجيب حكيم. وصيتكم معشر من حضرني بتقوى (بوصية) ربكم، و ذكرتكم بسنة نبيكم، فعليكم برهبة تسكن قلوبكم، و خشية تذرف دموعكم، و تقية تنجيكم يوم يذهلكم و يبليكم، يوم يفوز فيه من ثقل وزن حسنته، و خف وزن سيئته. لتكن مسألتكم مسألة (سؤل) ذل و خضوع و شكر و خشوع، و توبة و نزوع، و ندم و رجوع، و ليغتنم كل مغتنم منكم صحته قبل سقمه، و شبيبته قبل هرمه فكبره و مرضه، و سعته قبل فقره و خلوته (فرغته) قبل شغله، و ثروته قبل فقره، و حضره قبل سفره، و حيته قبل موته، ثم يكبر و يهن و يهرم و يمرض و يسقم و يمل طبيبه و يعرض عنه حبيبه، و ينقطع عمره و يتغير لونه، و يقل عقله، ثم قيل: هو موعوك و جسمه منهوك، قد جد في نزع شديد، و حضره قريب و بعيد، فشخص ببصره و طمح بنظره و رشح جبينه و خطف عرنينه و سكن حنينه و جنبت نفسه و بكته عرسه و حفر رمسه و يتم منه ولده و تفرق عنه عدده (عدوه و صديقه)، و قسم جمعه و ذهب بصره و سمعه، و لقن و مدد، و وجه و جرد، و غسل و عري و نشف و سجي، و بسط له و هيئ، و نشر عليه كفنه، و شدد منه ذقنه، و قبض و ودع ، و قمص و عمم و لف و سلم و حمل فوق سرير و صلي عليه بتكبير بغير سجود و تعفير و نقل من دور مزخرفة و قصور مشيدة و حجر منضدة، فجعل في ضريح ملحود، ضيق مرصود، بلبن منضود، مسقف بجلمود، و هيل عليه عفره و حثي عليه مدره، فتحقق حذره، و تخفق صدره، و نسي خبره، و رجع عنه وليه و صفيه و نديمه و نسيبه و حميمه، و تبدل به قرينه و حبيبه، فهو حشو قبر و رهين قفر، يسعى في جسمه دود قبره، و يسيل صديده في منخره على صدره و نحره، تسحق تربته لحمه و ينشف دمه و يرق عظمه و يقم في قبره حتى يوم حشره و نشره، فينشر من قبره و ينفخ في صوره و يدعى لحشره و نشوره، فثم بعثرت قبور و حصلت سريرة في صدور و جئ بكل نبي و صديق و شهيد و نطيق، و وقف لفصل حكمه عند رب قدير بعبيده خبير بصير، فكم من زفرة تضفيه و حسرة تنضيه (تقصيه)، في موقف مهول و مشهد جليل، بين يدي ملك عظيم، بكل صغيرة و كبيرة عليم، يلجمه عرقه و يجفوه قلقه، فعبرته غير مرحومة و صرخته (حجته) غير مقبولة، و برزت صحيفته و تبينت جريرته، و نطق كل عضو منه بسوء عمله، فشهدت عينه بنظره و يده ببطشه و رجله بخطوه و جلده بلمسه و فرجه بمسه، و يهدده منكر و نكير، و كشف له حيث يسير، فسلسل جيده و غلت يده و سيق يسحب وحده، فورد جهنم بكرب و شده، فظل يعذب في جحيم، و يسقى من حميم، يشوي وجهه و يسلخ جلده، يضربه زبانيته بمقمع من حديد، و يعود جلده بعد نضجه كجلد جديد، يستغيث فتعرض عنه خزنة جهنم، و يستصرخ فيلبث حقبة بندم، فلم يجده ندمه، و لم ينفعه حينئذ ندمه. نعوذ برب قدير من شر كل مصير، و نطلب منه عفو من رضى عنه، و مغفرة من قبل منه، فهو ولي سؤلي و منجح طلبتي، فمن زحزح عن تعذيب ربه سكن في جنته بقربه و خلد في قصور مشيده، و ملك حور عين و حفدة، و طيف عليه بكؤوس و سكن حضير فردوس، و تقلب في نعيم، و سقي من تسنيم و شرب من عين سلسبيل ممزوجة بزنجبيل، مختومة بمسك و عبير، مستديم للسرور و مستشعر للحبور، يشرب من خمور، في روضة مغدق ليس يصدع من شربه و ليس ينزف، هذا منقلب من خشى ربه و حذر ذنبه و نفسه، و تلك عقوبة من عصى منشئه و سولت له نفسه معصية مبدئه، ذلك قول فصل، و حكمة حكم عدل، قص قصص، و وعظ نص، تنزيل من حكيم حميد، نزل به روح قدس مبين (متين) من عند رب كريم على نبي مهتد مهدي رشيد رحمة للمؤمنين، مبين من عند رب كريم، و سيد حلت عليه سفرة، مكرمون بررة. عذت برب عليم حكيم، قدير رحيم، من شر عدو و لعين رجيم، فليتضرع متضرعكم، و يبتهل مبتهلكم، و يستغفر رب كل مربوب لي و لكم. ثم قرأ بعدها قوله تعالى: {تلك الدار الآخرة نجعلها للذين لا يريدون علوا في الأرض ولا فسادا والعاقبة للمتقين} (القصص:83). I praise the One Whose boon is great, whose blessing overwhelms, whose mercy is faster than His anger, the One whose word is perfect, whose will is affected, whose argument (issue) is wise, whose case is just. I praise Him like one recognizing His Godhead, submissive while adoring Him, dissociating himself from his sin, recognizing His Unity, seeking refuge with Him against His warning, hopeful for the mercy (forgiveness) of his Lord that saves him [from the Fire] on a Day when everyone will be distracted even from his offspring and tribe. We seek His help, guidance and directions. We believe in Him and depend on Him. I have testified to Him as a sincere and convinced servant/slave; I recognize His Uniqueness as a pious believer, and I have recognized His Unity like a submissive servant/slave. He has no partner in His domain; He relies on none in doing whatever He does. He is exalted above having an adviser or a vizier. He is above using a model or an assistant or a helper or a peer. He knows, so He covers; He is acquainted with the innermost, so He is most familiar [with our intentions]. He cast a look, so He assisted; He owns everything, so He subdues. He is disobeyed, yet He forgives; He is adored, so He thanks. He rules, so He affects justice, and He is generous and grants favors. He shall never come to an end, and He has always been as He is; there is nothing like Him. He, first and foremost, is a unique Lord in His exaltation, able through His might, holy through His sublimity, proud of His Majesty; no (mental) vision can realize Him, nor can anyone ever see Him. He is strong, invincible, seeing, hearing, clement, wise, affectionate and kind. One who attempts to describe Him can never do so; one who attempts to describe His attributes can never do so [either]. His blessing reaches those who get to know Him: He is near, so He is far [above mental or physical vision]; He is far yet He is near [closer to us than anything else]. He responds to the call of those who call on Him; He sustains His servant and surrounds him with His love; His niceties are hidden [from our comprehension]; His power is mighty; His mercy is wide; His penalty is painful; His mercy is a broad and a Garden of grandeur (Paradise); His punishment is Hell filled with horrors and chains. I have testified that He sent Muhammed (ص) as His servant and messenger, prophet, chosen one, loved one, friend, a link [with the Almighty] that grants him [Muhammed] fortune, bringing him closer to Him, elevating him, granting him nearness and closeness [to the Almighty]. He sent him during a good (opportune) period of time, when there was disbelief, as mercy for His servants and a boon for more. Through him He sealed His prophetic messages, strengthened (explained) His argument. So he admonished, advised, conveyed the message and worked hard [for people. He was, affectionate towards every believer, merciful, easy to please, the friend of anyone who is generous and pure: mercy, salutation, blessing and honor be with him from a forgiving, affectionate, kind, near, responsive and wise Lord. I have admonished you, O folks who are present here with me, to be pious (as your Lord has admonished) towards your Lord, and I have reminded you of the Sunna of your Prophet; so, take to awe that calms your hearts, fear that draws your tears, piety that saves you on a Day which will puzzle your minds and put you to the test, a day in which one shall win if the weight of his good deeds is heavy while that of his sins is light. Let your plea be in humility and surrender, appreciation and submission, repentance and dissociation [from sin], regret and return [to righteousness]. Let everyone of you seize the opportunity when he is healthy before the time when he is sick, when he is young before he is aged, old and sick, [the opportunity] of his ease before he is poor, of having free time before he is busy, of being wealthy before being impoverished, of being present at home before he is away traveling, of being alive before his death. He shall grow old, become weak, aged, sick, ailing, so much so that even his doctor is fed-up with him, even those who love him turn away from him. His lifespan will have come to an end. His color of complexion is changed. His mental power is decreased, so it is said that he is ailing and his body is failing. He is having a hard time as he finds himself suffering from the throes of death: He is attended by those who are close and who are distant. He gazes his looks, yearns as he turns his eyes, his forehead sweating, his [physical] senses being snatched away from him [one by one]. His sighs are now silent, his soul has departed, so he is mourned by his wife. His grave is dug, his children are now orphans, and those who were around him (his friends or foes) are now dispersed from around him. What he had accumulated (legacy) has now been divided [among heirs]. Gone now are his faculty of seeing and hearing; so he receives Talqeen; he is stretched [on the ground] and directed [towards the Qibla]. He is stripped of his clothes, bathed, in the nude, dried then directed [towards the Qibla]. Something has been spread on the floor for him as his shrouds are being prepared. His chin has been tied, his soul has already departed from his body and he has been bidden farewell by all. He is now shrouded, his head wrapped, so is his body, and he has been handed over [for burial]. He is carried in a wooden box (coffin); his funeral prayers have been performed with Takbir but without prostration or the rubbing of the forehead. He is taken away from a decorated abode [this life], from well-built mansions and chambers topping each other, so he is now in an enclosure of a grave which is very narrow and separated from others; it is built with baked clay on top of each other and is sealed with a rock. Dust has been healed on him, so he now is sure about that of which he was warned; his chest is now heavy; he is now a thing of the past. His friends, chosen ones, companions, in-laws and close friends have all left him behind. His company and loved ones are now changed, for he is now nothing but the filling of a grave and the pawn of a waste: Worms crawl all over his body, his pus drips from his nostrils on his neck and chest. Soil crushes his flesh as his blood dries and bone decays. He remains in his grave till the Day when he is herded with others and is given a new life; so, he is taken out of his grave. His trumpet is blown, he is called on to gather with others and stand trial. Graves are scattered around, the innermost in the hearts are recorded and calculated. Every prophet, Siddiq, martyr, anyone who speaks is brought and made to stand for the final judgment of an Able God Who is fully knowledgeable of His servants, seeing [all what they do]. Countless exhalations engulf him, sighs fade him (distance him), in a horrific position and an awesome scene before a Great King, Who knows about everything small and big? He is reined by his sweat, his worry crushing him, yet his tear has none to feel sorry for, his scream (defense) is not accepted. His record of deeds is brought, his innermost becomes visible, and every part of his body now speaks of his wrongdoings: His eyes testify about what he had seen, his hands about whom he beat, his legs about where he had gone, his skin about what he had contacted, his private parts about with whom he had had intercourse. He is threatened by Munkir and Nakir; and it is unveiled for him where he is heading; so his neck now is tied with chains and his hands are cuffed. He is taken alone, dragged and brought to Hell as he is in a great distress and hardship. He remains in the torment of hell given to drink of very hot pus that grills his face and separates his skin from his body. He is beaten by the torture angels of hell with iron clubs. His skin returns again and again anew after having been baked. He cries for help, yet even the angels in Hell turn away from him. He pleads for mercy, so he stays for a while regretful, yet he finds none to care about his regret. His regret will then be in vain. We seek refuge with an Able Lord from the evil of any final end such as this, and we plead for forgiveness similar to that of one with whom He is pleased and for an overlooking similar to that of one whose good deeds He has accepted; for He is my Master, ultimate pursuit and the one Who grants success to what I seek. Surely one who is pushed away from the torment of his Lord shall reside in Paradise near to Him and remain forever in well-built mansions, having Huris with large lovely eyes and servants. He is given to drink of fresh cool water mixed with ginger and sealed with musk and fragrance that perpetuates happiness and provides the sense of pleasure. He drinks of wines in an orchard filled with all types of pleasures, wine that does not cause any headache to one who drinks it, and it never runs out; such is the ultimate end of one who fears his Lord, who is on guard about his sin, about the insinuations of his Nafs (self), and that was the penalty of one who opposes the [sinless] way [in which] he was created, the one whose evil self-decorates for him to do what is against his nature. Such is the final judgment and the ruling of One Who is just: He narrated parables, admonished through texts, revealed revelations from a Praiseworthy Wise One, revelations which He descended with a clear (able) Holy Spirit [arch-angel Gabriel] from a Glorious Lord unto a Prophet who is rightly guided and who guides others, one who shows others the right way, a mercy to the believers, clearly from a Great Lord, a master frequented by messengers (angels) who are honored and obedient [of their Lord]. I have sought refuge with a Lord Who is knowing, wise, able, merciful, from the evil of an enemy who is cursed and stoned; so, let everyone who pleads plead, and let everyone who seeks [favors of his Lord] seek and ask forgiveness of the Lord of lords for myself and for you all. Having finished his miraculous sermon, the Imam (ع) recited this following verse of the Holy Qur'an: "We shall grant that (eternal) abode of the hereafter to those who intend neither high-handedness nor mischief on earth, and such end is (the best reward) for the righteous" (Qur'an, 28:83). Sources: [1] بحار الانوار- العلامة المجلسي، ج74، ص342، رواية28، باب14. Bihaarul Anwaar – Allama Majlisi - Ch. 74. Part13, page 342. Hadith 28. [2] مصباح الكفعمي- الشيخ تقي الدين ابراهيم العاملي الكفعمي، ج2، ص849- 852. Misbah al-Kaf’ami – Sheikh Taqi Ad-Deen Ibrahim Al-Aamili Al-Kaf’ami – Ch. 2. Verse 849-842 (اختلاف مصباح الكفعمي بين قوسين- تحقيق شعلان الاستربادي) (Difference of Misbah Al-Kaf'ami between two brackets- verified by Sha'lan Al-Asterbadi) https://www.al-islam.org/ms/lecture-nahjul-balagha-sayyid-saeed-akhtar-rizvi/sermon-without-alif
  3. Sermon of Recognition of Noor (light) (Khutba-e-Marefat-e-Nooraniya) ١ ـ أقول : ذكر والدي رحمه‌الله أنه رأى في كتاب عتيق جمعه بعض محدثي أصحابنا في فضائل أمير المؤمنين عليه‌السلام بهذا الخبر ، ووجدته أيظا في كتاب عتيق مشتمل على أخبار كثيرة. قال : روي عن محمد بن صدقة أنه قال : سأل أبوذر الغفاري سلمان الفارسي رض‌الله‌عنهما يا أباعبدالله ما معرفة الامام أمير المؤمنين عليه‌السلام بالنورانية؟ قال : يا جندب فامض بنا حتى نسأله عن ذلك ، قال : فأتيناه فلم نجده. قال : فانتظرناه حتى جاء قال صلوات الله عليه : ما جاء بكما؟ قالا جئناك يا أمير المؤمنين نسألك عن معرفتك بالنورانية قال صلوات الله عليه : مرحبا بكما من وليين متعاهدين لدينه لستما بمقصرين ، لعمري أن ذلك الواجب على كل مؤمن ومؤمنة ، ثم قال صلوات الله عليه : ياسلمان ويا جندب قالا : لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين ، قال عليه‌السلام : إنه لا يستكمل أحد الايمان حتى يعرفني كنه معرفتي بالنورانية فاذا عرفني بهذه المعرفة فقد امتحن الله قلبه للايمان وشرح صدره للاسلام وصار عارفا مستبصرا ، ومن قصر عن معرفة ذلك فهو شاك ومرتاب ، ياسلمان ويا جندب قالا : لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين ، قال عليه‌السلام : معرفتي بالنورانية معرفة الله عزوجل ومعرفة الله عزوجل معرفتي بالنورانية وهو الدين الخالص الذي قال الله « وما امروا إلا ليعبدوا الله مخلصين له حنفاء ويقيموا الصلاة ويؤتوا الزكاة(١) وذلك دين القيمة ». يقول : ما امروا إلا بنبوة محمد صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم وهو الدين الحنيفية المحمدية السمحة ، وقوله : « يقيمون الصلاة » فمن أقام ولايتي فقد أقام الصلاة وإقامة ولايتي صعب مستصعب لا يحتمله إلا ملك مقرب أو نبي مرسل أو عبد مؤمن امتحن الله قلبه للايمان. فالملك إذا لم يكن مقربا لم يحتمله ، والنبي إذا لم يكن مرسلا لم يحتمله والمؤمن إذا لم يكن ممتحنا لم يحتمله ، قلت : يا أمير المؤمنين من المؤمن وما نهايته وما حده حتى أعرفه؟ قال عليه‌السلام : يابا عبد الله قلت : لبيك يا أخا رسول الله ، قال : المؤمن الممتحن هو الذي لا يرد من أمرنا إليه بشئ إلا شرح صدره لقبوله ولم يشك ولم يرتب(٢). اعلم يا باذر أنا عبدالله عزوجل وخليفته على عباده لا تجعلونا أربابا وقولوا في فضلنا ما شئتم فانكم لا تبلغون كنه ما فينا ولا نهايته ، فان الله عزوجل قد أعطانا أكبر وأعظم مما يصفه واصفكم أو يخطر على قلب أحدكم فاذا عرفتمونا هكذا فأنتم المؤمنون. قال سلمان : قلت : يا أخا رسول الله ومن أقام الصلاة أقام ولايتك؟ قال : نعم يا سلمان تصديق ذلك قوله تعالى في الكتاب العزيز : « واستعينوا بالصبر والصلاة وإنها لكبيرة إلا على الخاشعين » (٣) فالصبر رسول الله صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم والصلاة إقامة ولايتي ، فمنها قال الله « وإنها لكبيرة » ولم يقل : وإنهما لكبيرة لان الولاية كبيرة حملها إلا على الخاشعين ، والخاشعون هم الشيعة المستبصرون ، وذلك لان __________________ (١) البينة : ٥. (٢) في نسخة : ولم يرتد. (٣) البقرة : ٤٥. أهل الاقاويل من المرجئة والقدرية والخوارج وغيرهم من الناصبية يقرون لمحمد(١) صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله ليس بينهم خلاف وهم مختلفون في ولايتي منكرون لذلك جاحدون بها إلا القليل. وهم الذين وصفهم الله في كتابه العزيز فقال : « إنها لكبيرة إلا علي الخاشعين » وقال الله تعالى في موضع آخر في كتابه العزيز في نبوة محمد صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم وفي ولايتي فقال عزوجل : « وبئر معطلة وقصر مشيد » (٢) فالقصر محمد والبئر المعطلة ولايتي عطلوها وجحدوها ، ومن لم يقر بولايتي لم ينفعه الاقرار بنبوة محمد صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم ألا إنهما مقرونان. وذلك أن النبي صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم نبي مرسل وهو إمام الخلق ، وعلي من بعده إمام الخلق ووصي محمد صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله ، كما قال له النبي (ص) : « أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنه لا نبي بعدي » وأولنا محمد وأوسطنا محمد وآخرنا محمد ، فمن استكمل معرفتي فهو على الدين القيم كما قال الله « وذلك دين القيمة » (٣) وسابين ذلك بعون الله وتوفيقه. يا سلمان ويا جندب قالا : لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليك. قال : كنت أنا ومحمد نورا واحدا من نور الله عزوجل ، فأمر الله تبارك وتعالى ذلك النور أن يشق فقال للنصف : كن محمدا وقال للنصف : كن عليا ، فمنها قال رسول الله صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم : « علي مني وأنا من علي ولا يؤدي عني إلا علي » وقد وجه أبا بكرببراءة إلى مكة فنزل جبرئيل عليه‌السلام فقال : يا محمد قال : لبيك ، قال : إن الله يأمرك أن تؤديها أنت أو رجل عنك ، فوجهني في استرداد أبي بكر فرددته فوجد في نفسه وقال : يا رسول الله أنزل في القرآن؟ قال : لا ولكن لا يؤدي إلا أنا أو علي. يا سلمان ويا جندب قالا : لبيك يا أخا رسول الله ، قال عليه‌السلام : من لا يصلح لحمل __________________ (١) في نسخة : بمحمد. (٢) الحج : ١٥. (٣) البينة : ٥. صحيفة يؤديهاعن رسول الله صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم كيف يصلح للامامة؟ياسلمان ويا جندب فأنا ورسول الله (ص) كنا نورا واحدا صار رسول الله (ص) محمد المصطفى ، وصرت أنا وصيه المرتضى ، وصار محمد الناطق ، وصرت أنا الصامت ، وإنه لا بد في كل عصر من الاعصار أن يكون فيه ناطق وصامت ، يا سلمان صار محمد المنذر وصرت أنا الهادي ، وذلك قوله : عزوجل : « إنما أنت منذر ولكل قوم هاد » (١) فرسول الله صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم المنذر وأنا الهادي. « الله يعلم ما تحمل كل انثى وما تغيض الارحام وما تزداد وكل شئ عنده بمقدار عالم الغيب والشهادة الكبير المتعال سواء منكم من أسر القول ومن جهر به و من هو مستخف بالليل وسارب بالنهار له معقبات من بين يديه ومن خلفه يحفظونه من أمر الله » (٢). قال : فضرب عليه‌السلام بيده على الاخرى وقال : صار محمد صاحب الجمع وصرت أنا صاحب النشر ، وصار محمد صاحب الجنة وصرت أنا صاحب النار ، أقول لها : خذي هذا وذري هذا ، وصار محمد صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم صاحب الرجفة وصرت أنا صاحب الهدة(٣) أناصاحب اللوح المحفوظ ألهمني الله عزوجل علم ما فيه. نعم يا سلمان ويا جندب وصار محمد يس والقرآن الحكيم ، (٤) وصار محمد ن والقلم ، (٥) وصار محمد طه ما أنزلنا عليك القرآن لتشقى ، (٦) وصار محمد صاحب الدلالات ، وصرت أنا صاحب المعجزات والآيات ، وصار محمد خاتم النبيين وصرت __________________ (١) الرعد : ٧. (٢) الرعد : ٨ ـ ١١. (٣) الهدة : صوت وقع الحائط ونحوه وفى الخبر : « اعوذ بك من الهد والهدة » وفسر الهد بالهدم والهدة بالخسف ، والهد : صوت ما يقع من السماء. (٤) يس : ١ و ٢. (٥) القلم : ١. (٦) طه : ١ و ٢. أنا خاتم الوصيين ، وأنا الصراط المستقيم(١) وأنا النبأ العظيم الذي هم فيه مختلفون(٢) ولا أحد اختلف إلا في ولايتي ، وصارمحمد صاحب الدعوة وصرت أنا صاحب السيف ، وصار محمد نبيا مرسلا وصرت أنا صاحب أمر النبي صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم قال الله عزوجل : « يلقي الروح من أمره على من يشاء من عباده » (٣) وهو روح الله لا يعطيه ولا يلقي هذا الروح إلا على ملك مقرب أو نبي مرسل أو وصي منتجب ، فمن أعطاه الله هذا الروح فقد أبانه من الناس وفوض إليه القدرة وأحيى الموتى وعلم بما كان وما يكون وسار من المشرق إلى المغرب ومن المغرب إلى المشرق في لحظة عين ، وعلم ما في الضمائر والقلوب وعلم ما في السموات والارض. يا سلمان ويا جندب وصار محمد الذكر الذي قال الله عزوجل : « قد أنزل الله إليكم ذكرا رسولا يتلو عليكم آيات الله » (٤) إني اعطيت علم المنايا والبلايا وفصل الخطاب ، واستودعت علم القرآن وما هو كائن إلى يوم القيامة ، ومحمد صلى‌الله‌عليه‌وآله‌وسلم أقام الحجة حجة للناس ، وصرت أنا حجة الله عزوجل ، جعل الله لي ما لم يجعل لاحد من الاولين والآخرين لا لنبي مرسل ولا لملك مقرب. يا سلمان ويا جندب قالا : لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين ، قال عليه‌السلام : أنا الذي حملت نوحا في السفينة بأمر ربي ، وأنا الذي أخرجت يونس من بطن الحوت باذن ربي وأنا الذي جاوزت بموسى بن عمران البحر بأمر ربي ، وأنا الذي أخرجت إبراهيم من النار باذن ربي ، وأنا الذي أجريت أنهارها وفجرت عيونها وغرست أشجارها باذن ربي. وأنا عذاب يوم الظلة ، وأنا المنادي من مكان قريب قد سمعه الثقلان : الجن والانس وفهمه قوم. __________________ (١) الفاتحة : ٦. (٢) النبأ : ٢ و ٣. (٣) المؤمن : ١٥. (٤) الطلاق : ١٠ و ١١. إني لاسمع كل قوم(١) الجبارين والمنافقين بلغاتهم وأنا الخضر عالم موسى وأنا معلم سليمان بن داود وأنا ذو القرنين وأنا قدرة الله عزوجل. يا سلمان ويا جندب أنا محمد ومحمد أنا وأنا من محمد ومحمد مني ، قال الله تعالى : « مرج البحرين يلتقيان بينهما برزخ لا يبغيان » (٢). يا سلمان ويا جندب قالا : لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين ، قال : إن ميتنا لم يمت وغائبنا لم يغب وإن قتلانا لن يقتلوا. يا سلمان ويا جندب قالا : لبيك صلوات الله عليك ، قال : عليه‌السلام : أنا أمير كل مؤمن ومؤمنة ممن مضى وممن بقي ، وايدت بروح العظمة ، وإنما أنا عبد من عبيد الله لا تسمونا أربابا وقولوا في فضلنا ما شئتم فإنكم لن تبلغوا من فضلنا كنه ما جعله الله لنا ، ولا معشار العشر. لانا آيات الله ودلائله ، وحجج الله وخلفاؤه وامناؤه وأئمته ، ووجه الله وعين الله ولسان الله ، بنا يعذب الله عباده وبنا يثيب ومن بين خلقه طهرنا واختارنا واصطفانا ، ولو قال قائل : لم وكيف وفيم؟ لكفر وأشرك ، لانه لا يسأل عما يفعل وهم يسألون. يا سلمان ويا جندب قالا : لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليك ، قال عليه‌السلام : من آمن بما قلت وصدق بما بينت وفسرت وشرحت وأوضحت ونورت وبرهنت فهو مؤمن ممتحن امتحن الله قلبه للايمان وشرح صدره للاسلام وهو عارف مستبصر قد انتهى وبلغ وكمل ، ومن شك وعند وجحد ووقف وتحير وارتاب فهو مقصر وناصب. يا سلمان ويا جندب ، قالا : لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليك ، قال عليه‌السلام : أنا احيي واميت باذن ربي ، أنا انبئكم بما تأكلون وما تدخرون في بيوتكم باذن ربي ، وأنا عالم بضمائر قلوبكم والائمة من أولادي عليهم‌السلام يعلمون ويفعلون هذا إذا أحبوا وأرادوا لانا كلنا واحد ، أولنا محمد وآخرنا محمد وأوسطنا محمد وكلنا محمد __________________ (١) في نسخة : كل يوم. (٢) الرحمن : ١٩ و ٢٠. فلا تفرقوا بيننا ، ونحن إذا شئنا شاء الله وإذا كرهنا كره الله ، الويل كل الويل لمن أنكر فضلنا وخصوصيتنا ، وما أعطانا الله ربنا لان من أنكر شيئا مما أعطانا الله فقد أنكر قدرة الله عزوجل ومشيته فينا. يا سلمان ويا جندب ، قالا : لبيك يا أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليك ، قال عليه‌السلام : لقد أعطانا الله ربنا ما هو أجل وأعظم وأعلى وأكبر من هذا كله قلنا : يا أمير المؤمنين ما الذي أعطاكم ما هو أعظم وأجل من هذا كله؟ قال : قد أعطانا ربنا عزوجل علمنا للاسم الاعظم الذي لو شئنا خرقت السماوات والارض والجنة والنار ونعرج به إلى السماء ونهبط به الارض ونغرب ونشرق وننتهي به إلى العرش فنجلس(١) عليه بين يدي الله عزوجل ويطيعنا كل شئ حتى السموات والارض والشمس والقمروالنجوم والجبال والشجر والدواب والبحار والجنة والنار ، أعطانا الله ذلك كله بالاسم الاعظم الذي علمنا وخصنا به ، ومع هذا كله نأكل ونشرب ونمشي في الاسواق ونعمل هذه الاشياء بأمر ربنا ونحن عباد الله المكرمون الذين لا يسبقونه بالقول وهم بأمره يعملون. وجعلنا معصومين مطهرين وفضلنا على كثير من عباده المؤمنين ، فنحن نقول : الحمد لله الذي هدانا لهذا وما كنا لنهتدي لولا أن هدانا الله وحقت كلمة العذاب على الكافرين ، أعني الجاحدين بكل ما أعطانا الله من الفضل والاحسان ، ياسلمان ويا جندب فهذا معرفتي بالنورانية فتمسك بها راشدا فانه لا يبلغ أحد من شيعتنا حد الاستبصار حتى يعرفني بالنورانية فاذا عرفني بها كان مستبصرا بالغا كاملا قد خاض بحرا من العلم ، وارتقى درجه من الفضل ، واطلع على سر من سر الله ، ومكنون خزائنه.(٢) بيان : قوله : أنا الذى حملت نوحا ، أقول : لو صح صدور الخبر عنه عليه‌السلام __________________ (١) هذا كناية عن شدة قربهم وعظم منزلتهم عند الله ، أو كناية عن احاطتهم العلمية بامور السماوات والارضين بافاضة الله تعالى اياهم أو قدرتهم بها ومطاعيتهم عندها. (٢) لم نجد هذا الكتاب. لاحتمل أن يكون المراد به وبأمثاله أن الانبياء عليهم‌السلام بالاستشفاع بنا والتوسل بأنوارنا رفعت(١) عنهم المكاره والفتن كما دلت عليه الاخبار الصحيحة. Janabe Salman and Janabe Abu Zarr asked Ameerul Momineen ((عليه السلام)) about the true nature of the Noor (light) of Imam Ali ((عليه السلام)). Imam Ali ((عليه السلام)) replied: “RasoolAllah (P.B.U.H) has said, “Recognition of Ali ibn Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) as Noor is in fact the recognition of Allah (P.B.U.H). Recognition of Allah (P.B.U.H) in terms of His Noor is the pure religion (deen).” Then Imam Ali ((عليه السلام)) said: “He who has only outward belief in My Wilayat while inwardly having animosity will obtain no benefit from any of His deeds.” “O Salman! Only when one recognizes me with My Noor only then will he be able to attain faith (iman). Only those who recognize me with My Noor are the true believers. He is the one whose heart has been tested by Allah with true iman (faith). He is the one in whose heart the true Islam is amplified. Thus he shall become an “Arif” (Gnostic) and “Mastabser” (clairvoyant). The one who does not recognize me with My Noor falls into ambiguity and becomes of those who are followers of satan (shaitan). O Salman! O Jondab! Verily Recognizing Me as Noor is the recognition of Allah. My Recognition is Allah’s Recognition. Recognition of Allah is Recognition of Me. This is the true religion. Allah did not place upon mankind any order other than to accept Tauheed of Allah (98:5) (Oneness of Allah). Testifying to the prophet hood of Holy Prophet is the true religion. Whenever Allah orders to “establish prayer” it refers to the belief in My Wilayat. One who pledges his allegiance and submits himself completely unto me has truly established “salat” (prayer). Yet this matter is difficult, exceedingly difficult! Zakat (poor rate) is the acknowledgment of the greatness of the attributes of Aimmah ((عليه السلام)). All of this is the true religion. As attested to in the Holy Quran, true faith (iman) is the recognition of oneness (tauheed) and the testimony of nabuwat and wilayat. One who acts upon these beliefs achieves religion (deen). O Salman! O Jondab! One who after being tested by Allah instantly accepts Our Amr (authority) and does not reject any matter which pertains to us is a Momin (Faithful) and Allah will open his heart to the acceptance of Our Amr (authority/command). He will not display even an element of doubt or suspicion. However he who objects with “why and how” becomes a kafir (disbeliever). Therefore be submissive to the Amr of Allah. Verily we are the Amr of Allah (Command of Allah). O Salman! O Jondab! Verily Allah has made me as His Trustee upon the creation and His Vicegerent upon His earth, in His territories, and over His servants. Allah has blessed me with such attributes that even those people who have true understanding regarding the merits of such blessings and those who have knowledge regarding all matters will still not be able to truly comprehend the status which Allah has blessed me with. A true momin (Faithful) is one who recognizes Me in this manner. O Salman! Allah said, “Do not seek the help of Allah except through patience and prayer”. Patience is Muhammad and Prayer is My Wilayat. This is why Allah has declared it to be difficult to understand such attributes. In truth My Wilayat is exceedingly difficult except for those whose souls are submissive. Thus My Wilayat has been made easier by Allah upon those whose souls have submitted. O Salman! We are those Secrets of Allah which shall not be hidden. We are His Noor that can never be extinguished. And we are those blessings which can never be matched. Our first is Muhammad, Our middle is Muhammad, and our last is Muhammad. One who recognizes us in this way is a follower of the true religion. O Salman! O Jondab! Muhammad and I are one Noor. And before all other creations had been created we were already reciting the praises of Allah. We were the cause of the creation of the entire universe. Then Allah divided this Noor into two parts; first was His prophet Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and His Successor Murtaza. Then Allah said to each half “Be Muhammad!” “Be Ali!” This is the reason RasoolAllah said, “I am from Ali and Ali is from me. None other than me and Ali are able to convey the Divine Message of Allah.” In Quran where Allah says “انفسنا و انفسکم (3:61)” (ourselves and yourselves) is a reference to our being One Essence in worlds of spirits and noor (Alam e Arwah and Anwar). And where Allah says “If He has died or is slain (3:144)” “died” is a reference to the death of Prophet and “slain” is in reference to the martyrdom of His Successor. As we are One Essence and One Noor. We are one in purpose and attributes. However we are different in our bodies and names, but in Alam e Arwah We are One Noor. As RasoolAllah (P.B.U.H) said, “O Ali, You are My Soul which is inside of me. In this world of creation RasoolAllah (P.B.U.H) said, “You are from me and I am from you. You are my inheritor and I am your inheritor. You are the Soul of My body.” Allah says, “Sallu illay wa salamu tasleema”. “Sallu illay” (sending blessings on Him) is reference to Muhammad and “salamu tasleema” (acknowledge Him) is reference to Me (Ali). Allah joined me with Muhammad in One Noor and then split that Noor into two beings based upon Their Names and Attributes. Then Allah ordered His creation to send blessings upon Muhammad and salam upon His successor Ali. RasoolAllah (P.B.U.H) said, “One shall not gain any benefit or reward from sending blessings unto me until he submits to the Wilayat e Ali.” O Salman! O Jondab! During His time Muhammad was “speaking” (natiq) and I was “silent” (samit). During every era both “natiq” and “samit” are present. Remember, Muhammad is the Master of those who shall gather on the Day of Judgment and I am the Master of Resurrection. Muhammad is the Warner and I am the one who guides. Muhammad is the Lord of Jannah and I am the Lord of Return (Rajat). Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is the Lord of Hawz e Kausar (divine spring) and I am standard bearer (Sahib E Lawa) of the flag which will be raised on the Day of Judgment. Muhammad is the Lord of the Keys to the Gates of Jannah and I am the Lord of paradise and hell (Jannah and Jahannum). Muhammad is the Lord of Revelation and I am the Lord of Inspiration. Muhammad is the Lord of Signs and I am the Lord of Miracles. Muhammad is the Seal of all Prophets and I am the Seal of all Successors. Muhammad is the Master who invites the creation towards the religion of Allah and I am the Protector of the Religion. Muhammad is the most generous prophet and I am true path (Sirat ul Mustaqeem). Muhammad is “raoof o raheem” (most kind and merciful) and I am Aliulazeem (most high most great). O Salman! Allah says “He causes the Spirit to descend upon those whom He chooses” (40:15). This Spirit then descends unto the one entrusted with the Command and the Decree. I (Ali) give life to the dead and possess full knowledge of all things in the heavens and upon the earth. I am Undeniable Book (Kitab ul Mubeen). O Salman! Muhammad is the one who establishes the Hujjat (proof) and I am Hujjatullah (proof of Allah) upon the creation. And the Spirit ascended with Him unto the heavens. I am the one who enabled Nuh to sail His Ark. I was present with Yunis in the belly of the whale. I parted the sea for Musa to allow Him a safe passage through it. I am the one who destroyed the enemies of Allah. I possess all of the knowledge of the prophets and their successors and I am Fazl al Khatab (a blessed speech). The prophet hood of Rasool Allah was completed through My Wilayat. I cause the rivers and oceans to flow and cause the mountains to rise up from the surface of the earth. I am likened unto the Father of the Earth. I am the wrath of the Day of Judgment. I am that Khizr who taught Musa. I taught Dawood and Solomon. I am Zul Qarnan. I am the one who removes sufferings by the command of Allah. I am the one who spread the earth. I am the one who shall send wrath on the Day of Judgment. I am the one who shall summon all unto Allah on the Day of Judgment. I am Dabba tul Arz (sign of Allah regarding the coming of the Day of Judgment). Rasool Allah said, “O Ali You are Zul Qarnan and its both ends. You were in existence before the beginning of the creation and will remain until its end.” O Salman! If one dies from amongst Us, He is not dead and if someone is slain from amongst Us, He is not slain. One from amongst Us who is in occultation performs His duties as we do. We are not born in this world the way humans are born in this world. You cannot compare us with mankind. I was the voice of Isa when He spoke from the cradle. I am the helper of Nuh and Ibrahim. I am the one who will send the wrath of Allah. I shall also bring about the trembling and shall cause the final quake. I am the Lohay Mahfooz (Protected Tablet) and all of the knowledge within it originates from me. I can appear in any form by the wish of Allah. Whoever has observed these appearances has seen me and whoever has seen Me as observed the Signs of Allah. We Masoomeen are the Noor of Allah which can never be rejected or changed. O Salman! Every prophet is honored because of us. You can praise us with whatever titles or attributes within your imagination however do not ascribe God ship (rabuyiat) to us. People find salvation through us and reach their destruction due to us. O Salman! He who firmly believes in all that I have explained is that momin whose heart has been tested by Allah with iman (true faith) and he has recognized our true status. One who doubts or hesitates is a nasibi (enemy of Allah) even if he claims to believe in our wilayat he is a liar. O Salman! I and the Divine Guides from My Family, Imams ((عليه السلام)), are the hidden mystery of Allah and Most Beloved by Him. We are all One. Our Amr (authority) is one. Our mystery is one. Thus do not try to find differences amongst us or you will be killed (go astray). We shall appear in every age by the will of Allah. Afflictions shall be upon the one who denies us. Only those whose hearts, eyes, and ears have been sealed will deny us. O Salman! I am the Father of every believer. O Salman! I am the most courageous. I shall be coming soon. I will overwhelm all and make their hearts shudder and make them become deaf. I am the “Supreme Test” which shall be revealed unto all. We are the Signs of Allah, His Proofs, and His Veil. We are the Face of Allah. After My Name was written on the Throne of the Sky, it attained its importance. When it was written on the heavens, they became established. When it was written on the earth, it became stable. When My Name was written on the mountains, they became upraised. When it was written on the wind, it began to blow. When it was written on the lightning, it began to flash. When it was written on the raindrops, they began to provide nourishment. When it was written on the Noor, it became radiant. When it was written on the clouds, the rain began to flow from them. When it was written on the thunder, it became quieted. When it was written on the night, it caused the night to become dark. When it was written on the day, it made it luminous and radiant. English: Taken from: Marefate AhleBait ((عليه السلام)).com https://en.shafaqna.com/48648/sermon-of-recognition-of-noor-light-khutba-e-marefat-e-nooraniya/ Arabic: Bihar Ul-Anwar, Vol 26, Pg. 1 https://books.rafed.net/view.php?type=c_fbook&b_id=899
  4. In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Seeing God by Abu Hadi In the famous hadith of Imam Reda(peace and blessing be upon him), He said, 'If the people knew of our sayings (us, the Imams of Ahl Al Bayt((عليه السلام))), surely they would follow us'. This essay is my weak and incomplete attempt to bring some understanding to one part of one hadith of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali(peace and blessing be upon him. In the famous saying of Imam Ali(peace and blessing be upon him), his companion, Dhi’lib Al Yamani asked him, “Have you seen God, O Commander of the Faithful?” Imam Ali replied “Would I worship that which I do not see?” So Dhi’lib asked him, “How do you see Him ?” Imam Ali replied “Woe unto you, O Dhi’lib. Eyes do not see him with direct witnessing but hearts perceive him through the realities of proper faith. He is known through the evidence that leads to Him” Imam Ali(peace and blessings be upon him) goes on with many other statements in this saying, but I wanted to focus on just the last two statements I have quoted as part of the saying (hadith). These two statements are a summary and a preview of the rest of the saying. “Woe unto you, O Dhi’lib. Eyes do not see him with direct witnessing” The saying starts with “Woe unto you, O Dhi’lib”. Those who are familiar with the style of speech of Imam Ali know that when he says ‘Woe unto you’ when talking to his companions it means something different than when he says ‘Woe unto you’ when talking to other people, like his enemies. The phrase is Arabic ‘Waylak’ (Woe unto you) has many meanings and the meaning usually depends of context. He is warning his companions and other people who are believers, in other words have faith in God, not to have the mistaken idea, which was popular at the time, that God can be seen by the faculties of sight, i.e. the eyes. This idea is still around today, although it has become less common. Most people now realize that only things which are limited by form can be seen by the eyes. Even something that is very large, like a galaxy, can be seen because although it is very large, it is still limited and thus contains a form. We cannot see the form of a galaxy with the naked eye, from our perspective standing on earth. We can only see this form with the aid of very powerful telescope. At the same time, it is still possible to see it, because of its’ limited nature. God is unlimited, so the nature of God is something that is entirely different from everything else that we can see with our eyes. If something has a form or shape, that thing stops at the boundaries of that form or shape. It is limited by that form or shape. Even a galaxy, when you reach the last of its outer star or planet and then go beyond that, you are no longer within that galaxy. You have reached it’s limit and went outside of it. If something is infinitely large, you cannot go outside of it, because it has no limit and no boundary. Because it has no limit and no boundary, thus it has no form. Because it has no form, the eye cannot see it. This is not a limitation of that thing which is infinite, but it is a limitation of the eye, which can only perceive things which have a form. Some people will say, ‘Well if God doesn’t have a form, then why can’t He make us aware of his existence thru some other means, like a color which we always see, a sound which we always hear, or a pattern which repeats everywhere’. The problem with this is that our senses are only aware of things which are present occasionally or periodically. For example, let’s say that everything was surrounded by a certain color or we always heard a certain sound or we always smelled a certain smell. After a short while, we wouldn’t see this color or hear the sound or smell the smell. That is a limitation of how our brain works. Our five senses are connected to our brain and our brain has limits. When there is a sound in the environment which is constant or a smell which is always around, our brain filters out that sound or that smell so that we no longer perceive it. That is a feature of our brain that allows us to only focus our senses on things that are changing, because when things change it presents either an opportunity which we can take advantage of (like when the sun comes out at dawn so we can see) or a danger that we need to avoid (like when we see sudden movement and our brain focuses on it). Our brain is a tool that allows us to survive and prosper in the earth that we live on. So this is it’s focus and not other things. A thing which is constant is neither an opportunity or a threat, so our brain is designed to ignore it. For example, someone who has a dog or a cat which lives in their house. That pet emits a certain smell. The people who live in the house don’t smell it, but when someone who does not live in the house comes in, they immediately smell it and may comment on the smell. Another example is someone who lives next to a factory or a power plant which has constant sounds of machines whirring. After a while, the person who lives there won’t hear those sounds and will on be aware of them when something changes in the frequency or tone of the sounds. So the fact that we cannot perceive God thru a constant color, smell, sound, etc, is not a limitation of God, it is a limitation of our own brain and how we perceive the world. The other problem with this idea is that, say there is a constant color. Our eyes see color only because light is reflected off of some surface or some particle and this reflected light reaches our eyes. If light is not reflected off the surface, and the light does not reach our eye, we cannot see that thing. That is why when we are in a room, and someone turns off the light (assuming there is no other source of light from outside), the things that are in that room didn’t suddenly disappear, but we can’t see them since there is no light in the room to be reflected and reach our eye. If something has no surface and no particles, we also can’t see it since there is nothing for the light to reflect off of and reach our eyes. If God could be manifest on a surface or a particle, that would mean that he is limited, since anything outside of that surface or particle is not part of God, meaning God has parts, meaning he is limited. Since God is unlimited, he cannot manifest in that way. Therefore there is no surface or particle for the light to reflect off of. Therefore, He cannot be seen with eyes. Sound happens as a result of something moving particles of air with a certain velocity. This creates ‘sound waves’ in the air. Once those waves reach our ears, we hear the sound. What ‘thing’ would disturb the air in order to create those waves. Again, this thing would have to be limited and have a form in order to create those waves. There is something in the environment, a limited thing, that reflects light (in the case of sight), causes waves in the air (in the case of sound), has particles that escape from it and reach our nose (in the case of smell), has a surface that we can touch (in the case of touch) or has a surface that reaches our tongue (in the case of taste). All of these senses being able to perceive a thing is dependent on that thing being limited and discrete in order for our senses to perceive it. If the thing causing the phenomenon is not limited or discrete, then our senses can’t perceive it. This is not a limitation of God, it is a limitation of our senses. The very first part of this saying of Imam Ali(peace and blessings be upon him) is a warning to those who believe in God not to have the mistaken idea that God can be perceived with the five senses. “But hearts perceive Him through the realities of proper faith. He is known through the evidence that leads to Him” The Arabic word used by Imam Ali, ‘Qulub’ is the plural of ‘Qalb’ which means the spiritual heart, not only the physical heart. The ‘Qalb’ is the part of the human being where the worlds of the seen and the unseen are reconciled. The ‘Qalb’ is the place where things like intention and faith are formed. Many people believe that ‘who you are’, i.e your personality, memories, intentions, faith, dreams, values, reside in the brain and then when brain activity stops, all these things disappear and ‘you’ ceases to exist. This idea, as well as being illogical, is also not something that Muslims believe. If you are an honest person and you teach your children to always tell the truth, and they carry this habit and teach their children, then this value will exist outside your own brain. It becomes a reality which influences the world and exists long after the death of the person. If someone doesn’t have this value, and through their actions teach their children to be dishonest, this also exists outside the brain and becomes a reality that influences the world for generations or centuries or longer. The good or bad deeds the person does also affect the Qalb. The deeds that you do not only affect the world around you, but they affect you in different ways, one of those ways is thru the Qalb. It says in the Holy Quran “When Our verses are recited to him, he says, ‘Legends of the former peoples. They will never have faith. In fact, their hearts are stained from their deeds” Holy Quran. Chapter 83. Verses 13-14 The ‘hearts’ being discussed in this verse are the same Qulub (hearts) Imam Ali is talking about in his saying. The meaning of this verse is that by denying the signs of God (evidence pointing to the reality of His existence) they are ‘staining’ their own hearts. They are making their own hearts ill so that they will not function properly going forward. So this is showing the ‘loop’ that exists where your deeds affect your Qalb, and then the state of your Qalb (it’s health or sickness) will also affect your deeds after that point. It is the Qalb(the spiritual heart) that can ‘see’ God thru the realities of proper faith. The realities of proper faith are those things which you have faith in, but this is a reasonable faith. It is a faith based on reason and logic, and not blind faith, which is based only on speculation. This type of faith is discussed by the late Ayatollah Shahid Muhammad Baqir Sadr(may God have mercy on him) in his book , ‘The Revealer, The Messenger, and the Message’. I will attempt to summarize the crux of his argument regarding rational faith here. You receive a letter in the mail. The letter has the return address that matches the address of your brother. You open the letter, and the writing in the letter including the words and phrases used match the words and phrases that are used by your brother. In addition, some of the facts that are discussed by him in the letter are facts that only your brother, or only your family would know about. At that point, with those three pieces of information, the return address, the words and phrases used, and the facts discussed all matching your brother, you can safely conclude that the letter was from your brother This requires an amount of faith. You didn’t see your brother writing the letter. You didn’t see him drop the letter in the mailbox, he didn’t call you and tell you that he is sending a letter, etc. So you don’t have all the evidence pointing to the fact that it is from your brother. At the same time, you have enough to conclude that this letter is from your brother. This is what Imam Ali(peace be upon him) means by the ‘realities of proper faith’. It is faith that is based on evidence and logic. The process of concluding a general fact from specific evidence is a scientific process called the process of inductive reasoning. The basis for this science is coming to a conclusion based on the probability that the general conclusion is true assuming that all the evidence gathered is true and the probability that the general conclusion could be false given all the evidence gathered is true. The greater the probability that the general conclusion is true, assuming all the evidence is true, and the smaller probability that the general conclusion is false, assuming all the evidence is true will give you a general probability that the general conclusion is true. We will go back to the example with the letter. What is the probability that the author is someone other than your brother ? In order for that to be true, this person would have to know the address of your brother and put this address on the letter. That fact alone is not a conclusive proof, since there are probably many people who know where your brother lives and can put his address on the letter. At the same time, the person would have to know how your brother writes, his style, the words he uses, when he uses them, the frequency he uses them, etc. In addition, they would also have to know facts that only your close family would know about. For all those things to be true, simultaneously, for someone other than your brother is not very likely. The probability for all those things to be true of someone else is very low. All the facts of the letter being from your brother fit together logically, and the probability of all those facts being true of someone other than your brother is very low, therefore you can conclude that the letter is from your brother. We use this same process of inductive reasoning in our daily life constantly. I could give other examples here, but I think at this point most people are aware of what this process is and how it works. ‘seeing God’ Why did Imam Ali say ‘Why would I worship a God that I can’t see’ ? We can now have a better idea about this. Imam Ali was a very keen observer of the world around him. He didn’t just sit in the mosque and pray and read supplications. He observed the changing of night and day and the changing of the seasons. How the night and day follow each other perfectly and the sun rises and sets every day according to an exact schedule He observed how the moon went through its phases every month and this never varied from month to month. He saw how the plants would grow, the winds would bring rain, the flowers would bloom, the stars would rise and set, the animals would grow up. All of these different varied phenomena would come together for the benefit of us, human beings. Were any of these phenomena absent or if any one of them worked differently than how it does, human life and human existence would not be possible. We can take example after example of this. The rain comes down from the sky as fresh water even though much of the water that comes down has its origin in the sea, which is salty. Were this water to come down salty, the plants wouldn’t grow and the earth would become barren and devoid of life. Look at the alteration of night and day. What would happen if it was day all the time and the sun never set ? The earth would become so hot as to be barren and lifeless. Also, if it was always night ? The earth would become cold and animals and others couldn’t find their food, the plants wouldn’t grow, and again the earth would become lifeless. If you start adding up all the different phenomena that need to happen flawlessly and simultaneously in order for us human beings to exist and thrive, how is it possible that all these happened by accident and as a result of chance without a being who is behind the scenes who created them, knows everything about them, and manages them for our benefit ? It is possible that say, 1 or 2 of them could happen as a result of chance. 1 or 2 are not sufficient in order to maintain life on earth and human existence. They all need to be present. So what is the probability that all of them are created and maintained by chance. The probability is so low that no reasonable person would ever believe it. For example, you see a brick on the side of the road that was perfectly square and its shape is symmetrical and its surfaces on all sides are perfectly smooth. You are walking with your friend and he tells you that this is not a brick made by people but a rock that was made by the forces of nature. You look at the brick again. You think, well maybe 1 or two side of it would be smooth, but all of them ? If this were say at the bottom of a stream and the water made the sides smooth, then it would be an oval shape and not perfectly square. You know, thru your experience looking at man made objects and natural objects that there is no possibility that this shape occurred thru natural processes. It was made by man, with a deliberate design and made to serve a specific purpose and function in construction of a house or a wall. If you have a hard time believing the statement of your friend that the brick was made by natural processes, like a volcanic rock is, then how could someone believe the statement of the atheists that this entire universe and also mankind, with all the delicate and multitude of processes that are occurring in order to benefit man happened by chance and as a result of an accident ? If someone believes this, they are not using reason and logic but are believing this as a result of their own speculative opinions or the speculation of others. We can see God, but not with the eyes. The way we can see God is thru using our Qalb(spiritual heart) in order to observe the world around and come to conclusions based on reason and logic and once we have come to a conclusion, then act on that conclusion by seeking out what God wants for us and attempting to live our life according to that.
  5. i will put some reverences about sufyani... “The rising of as-Sufyani is an inevitable matter. He will rise in the month of Rajab. It will take, since his rising until his end, fifteen months. He will fight for six months. When he conquers the five districts, he will rule for nine months no more no less.” Ithbat al-Hudat, vol.3 p.739, Biharul Anwar, vol.52 p.248, Mo’jam Ahadeeth al-Imam al-Mahdi, vol.3 p.462. ------------- “When as-Sufyani conquers the five districts, then you count to him nine months (the period of his rule)” Hisham claimed that the five districts were Damascus, Palestine, Jordan, Hims and Halab Hims and Halab are two cities in Syria. Biharul Anwar, vol.52 p.252 and refer to references of the first tradition. -------------- “Al-Yamani and as-Sufyani will rise like two racehorses.” Al-Amali by at-Toossi, vol.2 p.275, Biharul Anwar, vol.52 p.253, 275, Mo’jam Ahadeeth al-Imam al-Mahdi, vol.3 p.478. ------------- “When as-Sufyani rises, he will send an army to fight us (the Hashemites) and an army to fight you (the Shia). If that takes place, hurry to us by any means!” Dala’il al-Imama p.261, Biharul Anwar, vol.52 p.253, Mo’jam Ahadeeth al-Imam al-Mahdi, vol.3 p.470. ------------ “As-Sufyani is red, blond and blue. He has never worshipped Allah at all. He has seen neither Mecca nor Medina. He says: O my God, I take revenge even if I go to hell! O my God, I take revenge even if I go to Hell!” Biharul Anwar, vol.52 p.253, Mo’jam Ahadeeth al-Imam al-Mahdi, vol.3 p.274. ........... The narrator says: I said: 'O son of the Messenger of Allah! When will your Qa'am emerge? He replied" At the time when men will imitate the women and women will imitate the men; when women will ride on saddles; when people will cause their prayers to die and will follow their carnel desires; when people will turn users; when shedding of blood will become something insignificant; when trade and business of the openly commit adultery; when they will make towering constructions; when they will consider lie to be lawful; when they will accept bribes; when they will follow their lusts and desire; when they will sell their religion for this world; when they will hold under obligation the one whom they feed; when they will consider forbearance to be the sign of weakness and feebleness and injustice to be an honor; when their rulers will be evil and their ministers liars; when the trustworthy amongst them will be traitors; when the helpers amongst them will be unjust; when the reciters of Quran will be transgressors; when cruelty and oppression will become manifest; when divorce will increase; when people will engage in debauchery and libertinism; when forced witness and lie will be accepted; when they will engage in drinking and gambling; when men will be mounted on; when women shall engage with women (indecent acts); when - people will consider 'Zakat' to be a booty and charity to be a loss; when they will fear from the tongues of the wicked people; when Sufyani shall revolt from Syria and Yemen; when 'Baidah' which is between Mecca and Medina will sink; when a child from the progeny of Muhammad ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم).A.) will be killed between 'Rukn' and 'Maqaam' and when a live voice will be heard from the heavens trying out that the truth is with Mahdi and his followers. It will be then that our Qaem will emerge. When he re- appears, he will stand with his back against the wan of Ka'aba and 313 of his followers would gather around him. The first speech of Qaem would be the following verse: "What remains, with Allah is better for you if you are believers." Then he will say: I am the 'Baqiyatullah' (God's remainder) representative and Proof of Allah upon you. .......... what are youre toughts and opinions......? do we live near his appereance or don't? who can be the sufyani be?
  6. Salam, I have a question regarding the sahaba and their decision after the Prophet's ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم).A) passing. I read many stories of the sahaba and their justice and perseverance such as being torture to believe in Islam such as Abu Hudhayfa and Abu Jandal however after the Prophet, they all turned away from Imam Ali ((عليه السلام)) except a few. So my questions are: 1.why majority of the sahaba did not pledge or support him? 2.I read there was a hadith that said that Imam Ali would fought for his position if he had 40 sahaba with him but not even 40 sahaba (is this hadith reliable?) can support Imam Ali later but in personal army called the Shurtat Khamis there were a number of Sahaba who supported him in his battles. Sheikh Hassan Farhan Al Maliki said that about 70 veterans of Badr where with Imam Ali in his battles. Where were they? 3. Correct me if I am wrong but these are the sahaba that steadfast with Imam Ali other than the 4 we often know about. 1. Abu l-Haytham b. al-Tayyihan 2.Sahl Ibn Hunayf 3. Uthman Ibn Hunayf 4. Khalid Ibn Said 5. Abu Ayyub Al Ansari 6. Ubayy B. Kaab 7. Sa'd b. Ubada 8. Al Bara Ibn Azib 9. Hudhayfa b. Al Yaman 10. Khuzaima Ibn Thabit 11. Abu Said Al Khudri 12. Khabbab Ibn Arrat (WWHFA) 13. Abu Tufayl (the last sahaba to die) 14. Jabir Ibn Abdullah Al-Ansari 15. Muslim Ibn Awsaja (WWHFA) 16. Habib Ibn Mudahir (WWHFA) 17. Bilal Al Habshi (WWHFA) 18. Amr Ibn Hamiq Al Khuzai (WWHFA) 19. Abu Rafi (WWHFA) 20. Abu Qatada (WWHFA) 21. Habib/Habab Ibn Mundhir (not too sure regarding his stance. He did disagree with Abu Bakr and Umar at Saqifa) 22. Shaddad B. Aws (had incilinations to Imam Ali but not clear) 23. Qays Ibn Sa'd Ibn Ubada (my favourite Sahabi) 24. Said Ibn Sa'd Ibn Ubada ( based on my reading on wikishia, he was young when Saqifa happend) 25. Abd al Rahman b. Abd Rabb al Ansari (WWHFA). https://en.wikishia.net/view/Abd_al-Rahman_b._Abd_Rabb_al-Ansari_al-Khazraji 26. Abu Yasar Ka'b B. Amr (WWHFA) https://en.wikishia.net/view/Ka'b_b._Amr 27. Hashim B. Utba B. Abi Waqqas (WWHFA). https://en.wikishia.net/view/Hashim_b._Utba_b._Abi_Waqqas#Name.2C_Lineage.2C_Teknonym_and_Title 28. Jarud B. Mu'alla (WWHFA) https://en.wikishia.net/view/Jarud_b._Mu'alla#Sahaba 29. Sahl B Sa'd Saidi https://en.wikishia.net/view/Sahl_b._Sa'd_al-Sa'idi#In_Imam_al-Husayn.27s_.28a.29_Words 30. Sulauman Ibn Surad (WWHFA). https://en.wikishia.net/view/Sulayman_b._Surad_al-Khuza'i#Companionship_with_the_Prophet_.28s.29 31. Sa'd B. Mas'id Al Thaqafi (WWHFA) https://en.wikishia.net/view/Sa'd_b._Mas'ud_al-Thaqafi 32. Hujr Ibn Adi (WWHFA) 33. Aban b. Sa'id https://en.wikishia.net/view/Aban_b._Sa'id#Refusing_to_pledge_allegiance_to_Abu_Bakr 34. Adi Ibn Hatim (WWHFA) https://en.wikishia.net/view/Adi_b._Hatim_al-Ta'i#After_Prophet_Muhammad_.28s.29 35. Jariya B. Qudama (WWHFA) https://en.wikishia.net/view/Jariya_b._Qudama 36. Ammar B. Abi Salama (WWHFA) https://en.wikishia.net/view/Ammar_b._Abi_Salama 37. Anas B. Harith (martyr in Karbala) (WWHFA) https://en.wikishia.net/view/Anas_b._al-Harith_al-Kahili (WWHFA) = Where was he for Ali after Saqifa? 4. A narration I read says the some of the Sahaba "returned" to Imam Ali later on. What does this mean? 5. Is there a book by any of our scholars that gives comment regarding every individual Sahaba in English? I want to know what our scholars think of Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn Al As and Abu Talha Al Ansari. Thank you.
  7. Salam Aleykom! I am new to this forum so I hope I've chosen the right forum for this question. My friend's brother who is Sunni and I were talking where he told me that he had a "Shiabook" where there was a hadith stating that Prophet Muhammad (saw) said that Imam Ali (a.s) is like Surat Qul Hu Allahu Ahad in the Qur’an, therefore he said that the hadith is stating that Imam Ali (a.s.) is like Allah swt (Stagfurallah). However when I searched for the hadith, I found that one of the sources was "Muslim", one of Sunni's most authentic hadith collections. Anyone who knows if this really is included in Muslim because I can't find anything, also are the other sources that's stated from Sunni books and are they "Sahih" (i.e is this hadith considered sahih by sunnis)? “The position of Ali (A.S) amongst the people is like Surat Qul Hu Allahu Ahad in the Qur’an.” Muslim, 1/48; Al-Tirmidhi, 2/299; Al-Nisa’i, 27; Musnad Ahmad, 6/299; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 191. Also is this hadith classed as Sahih by Shias? And what does this hadith really mean? /Mohamed
  8. Do you know who Ali is?! Secrets of the universe are his Paradise and hell he cleaves At his arrival the enemy flees The shallow religion he fought The path to spiritual climax he taught Beyond "qaba qawsayn ou adna" he appear His light illuminates the angelic sphere When the Prophet ascended Ali's voice was there God holds Ali dear and draws his lovers near Ali cried, "The one who asks learns, The divine mysteries in my heart burns!" Wisdom and knowledge from his words gushed Love was taught passion from him and rushed All darkness, devils and demons he fights With "Ya Ali" God seals and destinies writes Only a dead man who lacks sho'ur Doesn't sense his hozoor The dead become living by his noor To establish Ghadir Mahdi makes zohoor Over the entire universe he is the Imam Over him and his family God sends His Salam!
  9. (salam) (bismillah) A NICE HADITH: Intercession on Day of Judgment The Holy Prophet (pbuh) (said to Hazrat-e Fatemeh): On the Day of Judgment, you shall intercede for the ladies and I shall intercede for the men; every person who has wept over the tragedy of Husayn (as), we shall take him by the hand and lead him into Paradise. Bihar al‑Anwar vol. 94 pg. 192,
  10. I came across this Hadith in Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Hadith no 25914) and it’s graded Sahih according to the conditions of both Bukhari and Muslim: Rough English translation- Aisha said: “the prophet was sick and came out with one arm on Fadhl Ibn Abbas and the other on another man. Ubaidullah said that Ibn Abbas told them: “Do you know the other man that Aisha didn’t name? It was Ali but Aisha doesn’t like mentioning him” This proves Aisha’s hatred towards Imam Ali as she can’t even stand mentioning his name Can a Sunni please explain?
  11. The notion of love has it's roots in the trait of kindness. Only a kind person can understand and exhibit love. Now, kind here is not someone who gets delighted after seeing a baby or a dog and starts adoring it. Neither it is someone who starts crying everytime after watching something bad happening to someone. So, what is kindness? A kind person is the one who is bent upon helping anyone with whatever problem one has. He is thirsty of such people who need help. An extremely kind person doesn't want anyone to ask him to help. He feels ashamed if such a thing happens. So, kindness is the pure trait of helping different beings in their works with utter selflessness. Only faith can depict such traits. As Ayatullah Shaheed Murtadha Mutahhari writes in his book, "It is religious faith alone which, above all, respects Truth, honors justice, encourages kindness". So, kindness is a spiritual trait. As this trait becomes more and more apparent within the realm of spirit; it indicates towards a strong, inevitable and beautiful reality. This is called love. It seems, overtly, as if kindness causes love. But no, it is actually love that is the cause of this kind behavior. Love is a feeling while kindness is a trait. Love, though is an extreme force, not easy to control but it has levels. It seems as if it ascends from relative realities to absolute reality. Actually, it breaks down from absolute reality to relative bounds. At the lowest level of this hierarchy is human to human love. This has no essence of itself. It's core lies in faith only. This is just a symbol. Despite being very limited and quite less, it exists. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said, "Allah has divided kindness into 100 parts. Out of which 1 part is induced in all humanity." So, the love amongst the humans is basically, 100th part of the entire phenomenon. Amazing. This love can be seen everywhere and everyone has experienced it. May Allah let every person have a taste of love. Love of a mother for her child, a father for his child, among siblings, friends, family relatives, husband and wife etc. It doesn't even matter how they are related or is their even any relationship or not. Love is independent of any relationship, distance or any material dimension. It can be resembled in different ways but love doesn't depend upon it's symbol. At this point, a human mind starts to tremble. Because this feeling is incomprehensible and unpercievable. He tries to break and kill all the false perceptions that might be their. Love, as I said, has no physical dimension. Though, a human mind lagging the ability to understand it, might mistake it (and it happens very often). False notions are created which shame the truth and pure character of love. Carnal desires related to lust and greed always wander in a human mind. But problem occurs when these satanic thoughts are confused or assumed wrongly as love. From this point, this spiritual notion gets materialized and humiliated. This happens to such an extent that as a result it stops the progress of the spirit of a human being. It makes a person blind towards the reality of love — which is progressive — and stops the journey of soul towards it's ultimate destiny. Human love is just a medium to reach the divine and absolute reality of love but greed makes a person feel as if human love itself is divine and he has found our god in the form of that person or being we love in this material world. So, the final result of this false notion is infidelity. Here is the difference between both. The fake love vs real love. One is destructive to an extent that it directs you to hell and the other might help you reach heaven without any punishment. Heaven and hell? Where did that come from? Yes, as I said, Love is truth. Truth is love. And it is divine and absolute. If a human being on the path of love and kindness doesn't recognize Allah or as a result of love, his faith doesn't reach closer to certainty, then he is trapped in a false notion. Above the level of love is worship which is the last. Love is a consequence of the manifestation of divinity (Maarefat e Ilaahi). As I said love doesn't combines, it breaks down. When we practice taqwa, adhere to our faith, earn knowledge, struggle, stay patient and thus our counted amongst the guided ones; we see the beauty of Allah through the eyes of our heart. It amazes us and turns us crazy. Maula Ali (عليه السلام) says when Asked by his companion Dhalib al Yemani, "Yaa Amir ul Momineen (عليه السلام), Have you seen your Lord?" Maula says, "Would I worship that which I do not see? When Asked, "How do you see him"; Amir up Momineen (عليه السلام) says, "Eyes do not see him with direct witnessing. But hearts percieve him through the realities of authentic belief". Seeing the beauty of Allah though he is unseen. This is Maarefah of Allah. This maarefah from worship and a constant search of being, causes love. But love pays back. Love increases the power of worship and makes it more extreme. It beautifies the already beautiful worship of Allah. It makes a person forget this world. It makes him turn away from this world. Such a human being who is drowned in this extreme love of his beloved (Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) ) is dying to meet his Lord as is also clear from the munajaat of Maula Ali (عليه السلام). Love of Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and AhlulBayt (عليه السلام) for Allah and it's depiction in history is the only way we can fascinate ourselves with the beauty of this feeling. Such a person, loves everything associated with Allah. He can sacrifice himself for the sake of Allah. Not only himself, his entire existence without any hesitation. It is written about Maula Ali (عليه السلام) that when some muslims came to the Holy Prophet (عليه السلام) to complain about Ali (عليه السلام), the Prophet (عليه السلام) said, "Don't complain about Ali, he is crazy (Majnoon) in love of Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى)." Now, removing all conseptualization let me make it clear through the intercession of AhlulBayt (عليه السلام). Love is, when a man sleeps for the sake of Allah on the bed of The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) even after knowing that he is surrounded by swords. Love is, when Fatima (SA) spends days in hunger and nights in prayer of the Almighty but never complains to anyone about her pains. Love is, when this woman (Fatima (SA)) stands like a mountain between his husband — Wali of Allah — and the oppressors who were burning her house to defend Haq. Love is, when a woman(Fatima (SA) again) being a child accompanies her father and supports him when he is attacked, laughed off and taken lightly by the meccans for the message he conveys and as a result is called as Umm Abiha. Love is, when a man (Imam Hussain (عليه السلام) ) who has committed himself to sacrifice, after sacrificing his whole family, with his body bathed in blood puts himself into the last prostration (sujood) to his lord. Love is, when a woman (Zainab (SA) ) despite all what she saw, despite the chains around her body, despite the thirst killing her throat and the humility she beared as a consequence of her veil being taken away; despite no one, except her ill nephew, standing for her, speaks so loud and so clear that the throne of the tyrant of that time and everytime and his system from top to bottom trembles and breaks into pieces. Love is, when this woman is asked in a disrespectful tone, "Did you see what Allah did to you?" She says, "I saw nothing but the beauty of Allah ((سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى))". I cannot go ahead of this. So, it becomes clear that love is only for Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) and from Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى). It resembles kindness and sacrifice. It actually needs sacrifice to flourish in every heart. It needs sacrifice as it's own resemblance. It needs sacrifice for the success of human spirit. Not only from an individualistic stand point because sacrifice has an impact on masses. So, here comes the importance of the greatest effect of love on a soul which is the spirit of sacrifice. Like Ibrahim (عليه السلام) did of his son. Like Lady Hajra (عليه السلام) did of her calm life with her husband and accepted to stay in a desert relying only on her beloved (Allah). So, sacrifice is the greatest symbol of love. And what is the greatest example of sacrifice? Karbala. Can you imagine a person who says to his companions that you will be martyred, your heads will be slaughtered and raised on lances? Who says: 'Leave me alone to die as my enemies need me and not you.' ? But however he may insist, his companions don't move. They are seeing themselves cut into pieces but our eager to go to the battle ground. Who cannot be stunned by such conviction? Who are these people? Who are we in front of such people? We follow our rubbish lame desires. Are we blind or is the history of such people not clear enough? What if we start to follow Weheb al Kalbi (رضي الله عنه), who got martyred and slaughtered while he just got married. What if the woman become like her wife, who saw her smart, young and wonderful husband getting slaughtered in front of her? What will go wrong if mother's take pride in sacrificing their children for the sake of Allah, wherever and whenever possible instead of pampering them and teaching them to become coward? Have you ever seen a sacrifice of a 6 months child? Can anyone imagine herself in place of Bibi Umm Rabab (رضي الله عنه)? Have you seen a mother who prays to Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) and prostrates in front of Allah out of thankfulness when she hears the news that both of her dear sons got martyred? She doesn't even cry on them. She barely asks about their dead bloodied bodies. Allahu Akber! What can one say? Just doing this conversation and penning down this glorification of love is making me tremble. Karbala's example is unique just like our religion and the holy figures that stand as divine guides for us. Though Karbala carries the legacy of simple human beings like us. But can you see how love changes everything? Imam Hussain (عليه السلام) created friends of Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) out of human beings. His Caravan of sacrifice led the greatest example of divine love humanity will ever see. What can we take for us from here besides humility as lovers and shame as worshippers. Humility about our weak hearts who don't nourish the feeling of love to such an extent. Shame that our prostrations, if even as much as the stars in the sky, cannot equate to the millionth of the prostrations of the Martyrs of Karbala on the plains of Karbala. But their is a glimmer of hope. It's true that love of Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) is far beyond from the realm of imagination and we cannot sustain it so easily. But their is hope. Hope that comes from AhlulBayt (عليه السلام). Hope that takes an afflicted, painful heart full of regret in the camp of Yazid, from his calm abode to Imam Hussain (عليه السلام) within a night. Hope that makes us quit our food and drinks on the 10th of Ashura (those who genuinely do) and makes us cry and vail for Imam Hussain (عليه السلام). As this hope remains, it is developed through love. Love for Ahl ul Bayt (عليه السلام). Love for Imam Hussain (عليه السلام). If we make efforts, it is not difficult. When Hurr ibn Yazid al Riyahi (رضي الله عنه) changed his fate in one night by developing all these traits, realising all these instincts; why can't we? He developed love for Imam Hussain (عليه السلام). This is intercession. When Imam (عليه السلام) becomes your beloved, your destiny, he will divert your path towards the divine love of Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى). The notion of mourning the martyrdom and misery of Imam Hussain (عليه السلام) opens the door of love, devotion and self sacrifice within the soul of a human being. It's so deep that it can revive a dead soul. Imam Khomeini has said, "Keep the event of Karbala and the holy name of Imam Hussain (عليه السلام) alive. For by it's survival, Islam will survive." So, don't miss these mourning events. Marsiya and Nauha recited for our beloved Imam (عليه السلام). You will automatically notice that Allah has changed you. You will experience that change at the end of Muharram. As if some new hidden realities have been shown to you. Even if you read down entire books of Hadith and Qur'an and pray day and night, the effect on your soul will not be as swift as contemplating on the tragedy of Karbala and the life of Ahlul Bayt (عليه السلام). Qur'anic verses are beautified by the character of Ahlulbayt (عليه السلام). Qur'an is a book and it's visual reality is the life of Ahlulbayt (عليه السلام). If you have love for Ahlulbayt (عليه السلام), you'll fall in love with Qur'an automatically. Falling in love with both of them will let you gain Maarefat of The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and his Maarefat to the love of Allah. When this divine love will be in your heart, it will break down into infinite denominations and will fall as kindness upon every creature of Allah. In this way, you'll find yourself in love with everything. As Imam Hussain (عليه السلام) says, "O Allah, What did he find who lost you? What did he lose who found you?" [Dua Arafah]. Start your journey of love and immerse yourself in this ocean of love. Though this is nothing in comparison to what an explanation of love should be and my words are not enough to express it. Even if I write what all encompasses my mind, I won't be able to convey it completely.
  12. I absolutely love this piece of poetry in praise of Imam Ameer ul Mu'mineen (عليه السلام) by Nadeem Sarwar, Jawad Jafri, Ali Shanawar, and Ali Jee in Urdu. It is perfect in giving the Shi'a morale, hope, and dignity as well. مَا شَاءَ ٱللَّٰهُ۔۔۔ میرا مرشد میرا آقا میرا سلطان علیؑ۔۔۔
  13. Hasan Ibn Farhan al Maliki said that the Hadith that is most Mutawatir on the earth is the Hadith of Ghadeer Khumm. So I want a Sunni to give me a legit reason of why you believe Abu Bakr was the "1st" Caliph
  14. ٱلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ SC community! @313 Seeker @A_A @Mohammad313Ali @Hayy ibn Yaqzan @Ashvazdanghe Here's a little something I made just now using a pine plaque & my single-temperature pyrograph iron (think of a soldering iron but with interchangeable tips if you don't know what I'm talking about). I used watercolor paint to add some nice color to it after I was done burning in the design. I still need a lot of practice before I can begin making and selling pieces as some side-stream income, but I made this to put on my wall to remind me of the أَهْلُ ٱلْبَيْتِ‎ I'm liking the idea of doing names and designs moreso than living beings or creatures. Insha'Allah, I will do more of these and related designs now that Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) has steadied my hands somewhat.
  15. Assalaam Malaikum brothers and sisters, On the evening of 16 Shaban 1441 (April 9, 2020 I believe) I had the following dream: I dreamt I saw Imam Ali bin Abu Talib (عليه السلام) at my place of work. I saw him and felt strongly it was him although he stood between 1 and a half foot - to 2 foot tall. I was walking towards him and saw him looking at me - but I couldn't make out any distinguishing features or even colors of his garb - it was as if he was suspended off the ground about a foot high. He wore a robe with a belt and sash along with a sword. Next to him I saw a small girl (like she was between 4-6 years old) come out in front of him peering out at me. She had a curious look and had a smile on her face. I then noticed beside Imam Ali (عليه السلام) was a large cup of what looked like toxic poison chemical of some sort. I felt thirsty and knew that if I drank from this large cup that it wouldn't hurt me. The dream then changes - I saw a cousin of mine who introduced to me a woman I never seen before who wore red and drove a red car. Before she drove off we were discussing a possible time to meet for a date. She left and I realized I was in park of sorts where I had to walk along hills of grass and noticing that on my left foot I wore sandal/shower slipper and on the right I wore a sneaker/shoe. I was aghast at this. I continued to walk towards a pool of water with two spring fountains coming out of it and seeing a Christian Priest walk around it. For some reason I knew the name of the Spring Fountains: the one I saw on my left was Fatima (عليه السلام), and the one on the right was Zainab (عليه السلام) I woke up soon after. Would anyone know how I could interpret this dream or know what it may mean? Thank you.
  16. Dear All, I was listening to a lecture where the speaker mentioned Imam Ali (عليه السلام) compiling Qur'an in the order of revelation and giving a very detailed tafseer during the time of him being usurped of his rightful khilafat (time he stayed silent). I wish to know where that tafseer is, as that must be the best being a tafseer from brother and waseeh of Rasool saww. Kindly enlighten. Regards,
  17. Aslam alikum There was a story about Imam Ali seat under a tree mediating and some people came and make comment abut Imam Ali belly getting bigger and Imam replay was he was connecting with the universe and he is downloading the entire cosmos into his belly and the connection was by his spine can someone please reference the story and if it correct ? Thank you very much
  18. Was wondering if anyone can help me in finding a reference of this quote which I believe was derived from the collections of the peak of eloquence. “He has appointed death as my guardian angel. None can harm me before it is due, none can save me when it arrives.”
  19. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ الْوَفَاءَ تَوْأَمُ الصِّدْقِ Imam Ali (عليه السلام) Oh people, loyalty is the twin of truthfulness. What an important lesson with such little words! I guess we all know exactly how loyal we really are! I think we can all work on it. But it's a very interesting way to figure out others too. Where would you put yourself on the loyalty scale, keeping in mind it's directly linked to truthfulness?
  20. Respected brothers and sisters if you had the opportunity to ask Imam Ali ((عليه السلام)) any question whatsoever possessing any scientific, jurisprudential, ethical, moral significance what would you ask. it can be as many questions as you want and mainly those ones you truly wish to be answered, and no matter the caliber of the question the commander of the faithful will indeed have an answer. perhaps some of the brothers or sisters could also aid in answering any of those questions which you pose and if not those questions can allow us to furthermore ponder and postulate over their significance.
  21. 1) There is literally no evidence that she poisoned him. 2) There is literally no way (save a time machine) to find out whether or not she poisoned him. 3) There are plenty of respectable sources that both Shia and Sunni agree on that show that the prophet loved her and showed her a lot of affection. 4) What purpose does it serve to propagate or start rumors about her without evidence that doesn't exist and is unobtainable? 5) How will this information affect how you practice Islam? If you are Shia you like likely already reject hadiths reported by her, and if you are Sunni you likely accept hadiths reported by her. And if you're trying to decide whether to be shia or sunni based solely off a matter that is unprovable at this point in time, then I think you need to reevaluate. Sorry for not answering your question. My guess would be that I highly doubt it.
  22. Read the Reddit comments to understand what the thread was about, since the post has since been deleted. ....................................................................................... I'm so tired of the utterly nonsensical and VERY COMMON Sunni notion of 'I am happy to seek unity with Shias as long as they don't curse/insult/abuse any Sahaba, and especially NOT Aisha, Abu Bakr, Omar, Uthman. Firstly, any Shia claim regarding the sahabi that happens to go against the Sunni narrative is considered insulting. Secondly, and more importantly, is that the same notion is true for Shias... You are insulting the Ahlul Bayt by not accepting them as divinely appointed leaders of Allah, and infallible individuals, and perfect preservers of the religion of Islam, and a high means of seeking closeness to Allah (intercession). Not only are you insulting revered Shia figures by not following them, you are commiting MAJOR shirk by giving a false attribute to Allah, by saying that Allah has not always appointed an infallible leader on this Earth, and that there currently isn't an infallible leader. Furthermore, the real kicker is that plenty of revered Shia figures, such as Abu Talib (رضي الله عنه), are considered kuffar by Sunnis. Is this not insulting? So, how can we Shias unite with Sunnis based on their own fallacious logic? Shias are the minority, and Sunnis are the majority. It makes Sunnis think that they are Orthodox and that they have to unite with Heterodox for political and humanitarian reasons, and that Shias must make [ridiculous] compromises. Shias are far more receptive to the unity message, because we actually understand Sunni Islam, and can see the commonalities. We understand that we can't make Sunnis compromise on their beliefs. Simply by being the minority within Islam, by nature we Shias already understand Sunni beliefs, whereas Sunnis have a basic strawman understanding of Shia beliefs... which is natural, considering that they are the majority. Anyways, the point of my post is the following: Let's compile a list of revered Shia figures that are not given their proper status by Sunnis, according to Shia Islam... with an explanation given. ...This is to show that we Shias and Sunnis can unite, but we cannot unite upon revered figures and imamah. ...This will also serve as a way of showing Sunnis that this argument of theirs makes no sense. Another important question we may ask is "What about commonly revered figures like Imam Ali (عليه السلام) who is given different status in both sects? Can we unite upon Imam Ali (عليه السلام)?" ...a common Sunni criticism of political unity is that "Ali ibn Abi Talib (رضي الله عنه) is given an improper status in Shia religion because they call upon him... tawassul (intercession) of the 'dead' is Shirk! So there is absolutely no room for unity since we can't even agree on the status of the sahabi" [yes, I am aware that the Imams (عليه السلام) are still alive, but Sunnis don't believe this...] I would love to hear your thoughts. Wassalam. JazakAllah Khair. Fi sabilillah.
  23. بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم If Imam Ali(AS) is the true successor of the holly prophet Muhammad(SA), why his name hasn't mentioned in Quran? This question is asked very much, but it is needed to say the idea behind this question was untrue from its very basic, but Shia and Sunni scholars mentioned one verse that contains Imam Ali(AS)'s name. The question is what is this verse? Surah Maryam verse 50: وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُم مِّن رَّحْمَتِنَا وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ عَلِیًّا And We gave them of Our mercy, and we made for them a reputation of high honor.(عَلِیًّا(ALi) translated to High while it is a name) Here is the story of this verse: Prophet Abraham(AS) asked Allah for a لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ (a reputation of honor) which is mentioned in Surah Ash-shu'ara verse 84: وَ اجْعَلْ لِی لِسانَ صِدْقٍ فِی الْآخِرِینَ And grant me a reputation of honor among later generations. And its aistajabat(response) mentioned in 50th verse of Surah Maryam.It's aistajabat is not only for Abraham(AS) but for Issac(AS) and Jacob(as) and as it seems for all of the prophets. But there r plenty hadeeth for this field,14 in Shia sources and 1 in Sunni sources and one or two in Zaydie sources can be seen. The firm Hadeeth by sheikh Sadoq in Kamal Al-din(in arabic): حدثنی أبی و محمدُ بن الحسن (رضی الله عنهما) قالا: حدثنا سعدُ بن عبد الله، عن یعقوبَ بن یزید، عن محمدِ بن أبی عُمَیر، عن هِشام بن سالم، عن أبی بصیر، عن أبی عبد الله (علیه السلام)، قال: ... ثم غاب إبراهیم علیه السلام الغیبة الثانیة حین نفاه الطاغوت عن مصر فقال: (وأعتزلکم وما تدعون من دون الله وأدعوا ربی عسى ألّا أکون بدعاء ربی شقیا) فقال الله تقدس ذکره بعد ذلک - (فلما اعتزلهم وما یعبدون من دون الله وهبنا له إسحق ویعقوب وکلا جعلنا نبیا ووهبنا لهم من رحمتنا وجعلنا لهم لسان صدق علیا[مریم/49و50]) یعنی به علی ابن أبی طالب علیه السلام لأن إبراهیم علیه السلام کان قد دعا الله عز وجل أن یجعل له (لسان صدق فی الآخرین[الشعراء/84]) فجعل الله عز وجل له ولإسحاق ویعقوب (لسان صدق علیا) یعنی به علیا علیه السلام. translation:After the second time that Abraham(AS) steped out of Egypt and became abscent. said: "And I will leave you and those you invoke other than Allah and will invoke my Lord. I expect that I will not be in invocation to my Lord unhappy."(Maryam 48) So after Abraham's dua, Allah said:"So when he had left them and those they worshipped other than Allah , We gave him Isaac and Jacob, and each [of them] We made a prophet."(Maryam 49) And We gave them of Our mercy, and we made for them a reputation of high honor.(Ash-shu'ara 84) [After "(and we made for them a reputation of high honor)وجعلنا لهم لسان صدق علیّاً" Imam Sadeq(AS) said:"It means to Ali(AS)] And this sentence means that Allah meant Ali(AS) by using علیا, because Abraham(AS) asked Allah to put in his line a reputation of high(Ali) honor so Allah put for him and Issac and Jacob a reputation of high(Ali) honor who is Ali(as). ALi bin Abraham's firm Hadeeth in Tafsir Qomi: Ali bin Abraham mentions a hadeeth from Imam Hassan Al-Askari(AS):"وَ جَعَلْنا لَهُمْ لِسانَ صِدْقٍ عَلِیًّا means Amir Al-mo'minin (AS)" In sunni sources: Hakem Haskani one of the sunnis famous interpreters mentions a hadeeth in his book "Shavahid al-tanzil leqava'id al-tafzil"(شواهد التنزیل لقواعد التفضیل) the it somehow the description of Verse 84 of Ash-shu'ara surah: Prophet(SA) said: On the night that they took me to Mi'raj, Gabriel was carrying me on his right wing, I was asked:"Whom you made your sucessor for the residents of earth?" I answered:"The best of them Ali ibn Abi Talib my brother my friend my son in law and uncle's son.I was told:"O Muhammad(SA) Do u love him?"I said:"Yes o creator of all" I was told:"Love him and order your umat(nation) to love him, certainly I am the Highest Ali(علی اعلی) and i gave him his name by derivating -one of-my names and named him Ali(AS), So Gabriel descended and said:"Allah says salam to you and tells you:"Read". I said "What do i Read?" He said:"وَ وَهَبْنا لَهُمْ مِنْ رَحْمَتِنا، وَ جَعَلْنا لَهُمْ لِسانَ صِدْقٍ عَلِیًّا":And We gave them of Our mercy, and we made for them a reputation of high honor who is Ali(AS). There was many other Haidths in the original text but i think these would suffice for those who have eyes to see. If there is any mistake in translation forgive me for my bad English. source(it is a persian site):http://masaf.ir/View/Contents/22360/%DA%86%D8%B1%D8%A7-%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%B9%D9%84%DB%8C-(%D8%B9%D9%84%DB%8C%D9%87-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%85)-%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%82%D8%B1%D8%A2%D9%86-%D9%86%DB%8C%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%AF%D9%87-%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%9F
  24. fan Per Rumi’s Spiritual Shiism By: Seyed G Safavi London Academy of Iranian Studies, UK Abstract The present paper aims to provide textual evidence in support of Rumi’s spiritual shiism. The evidence will be taken from Rumi’s Mathnawi. Shiism, in its true form, believes in the welayat (authority) of Imam Ali and his eleven descendents following the demise of Prophet Muhammad. Allah has chosen Ali and his descendents, as the true spiritual and religious successors of Prophet Muhammad, after whom there will always be a representative from Ali’s family to guide and lead human kind. This paper deals with three types of welayat: solar, lunar and stellar welayats. Interpretation of the Mathnawi text by ‘conceptual’, ‘synoptic’ and ‘hermeneutic circle’ research techniques – makes clear that Maulana Jalal-Din Rumi honoured the office of the Imamate that is the authority – Wilayah of Allah, the Prophet Muhammad and his 12 Divinely appointed successors. In this context, Maulana focuses on the Wilayah of Imam ‘Ali –the first Divine successor of the Prophet Mohammad. According to Dr Shahram Pazouki “Maulawi is a Shiite, not in the current sense of the jurists or dialectical theologians, but in its true meaning, that is, Allah only appoints the wali, belief in the continuing spirituality and walayah of the Prophet Mohammad in the person of Imam ‘Ali and his sons which appointed by Allah. Allah appointed Ali to be the spiritual successor and wali after the prophet Mohammad and belief that after the prophet there is always a living spiritual guide, wali, from Imam ‘Ali family on the way of love. Then here there is different between spiritual Shiism and jurisprudence Shiism. The Sufis believe that in every period of time there is a divine spiritual guide or wali,and that it is only through him that one cam find the way to Allah. Walayah is the reality of Sufism and inner aspect of islam.the wali is the shadow of Allah on earh.the wali is the perfect of the age and the intermediary of grace from Allah to man. Walayah differs from caliphate .it is possible to engage in choosing the caliph by giving him their vote, but only Allah appoints the wali. Allah appointed ‘Ali to be the spiritual successor and wali after the prophet ohammad”. (Pazouki, Shahram. (2003). Spiritual Walayah. In: SG. Safavi(ed), RUMI’S THOUGHTS. Tehran: Salman Azadeh Publication) ‘Ali appointed as wali by Allah is based on some Qur’an verses and prophet Mohammad narrations such as balegh ma onzel ilaik (Chapter 5:67), alum akmalt lakom dinakom(Chapter 5:3), Hadith Ghadir Khoma and Ttheqlain. What is important is believing that after the prophet, walayah continued in ‘Ali and after ‘Ali ,walayah continued through the other Shiite Imams which are appointed as wali by Allah. Shi’ism is based upon the principle of Imamah or Wilayah (referred to in gnostic – Irfanic literature as ‘The Perfect Man’ – Insan al-Kamil). Qur’anic and ahadith references, narrated by all Muslim sources, confirm that love for the Prophet’s progeny is a basic precept of Islam. The Mathnawi evidences that Maulana believed in the Wilayah of Imam ‘Ali, one of the main principles of Shi’ah Islam. The different levels between Imamah and Wilayah: The Ultimate Guardian – Wali is Allah, followed, in order, by: The Prophet Muhammad and the 12 Imams. As the Prophet and the 12 Imams are all manifestations of ‘The Perfect Man’ who represent Divine Guardianship in their times – Imamah in Shi’ah literature, and ‘The Perfect Man’ in Sufi literature, correspond to the same identity. That the essence of ‘The Perfect Man’ in Sufism is denoted by Imamah – the distinguishing principle of Shi’ism, indicates that Sufis, regardless of the religious practices they follow – taqlid, are, in this respect, Shi’ah Muslims. In the ‘Irfanic view there are two distinct types of Wilayah, “General Wilayah” – “Wilayah ‘Ammah” and “Specific Wilayah” –“Wilayah Khassah”. General Wilayah – Wilayah ‘Ammah (Lit. Stellar), comprises two levels: 1) The first starts with “withdrawal” – “takhliyyah”, and ends with the station of the “nearness of supererogatory works” –“Qorb Nawafil.” When Allah becomes the eyes, ears, and tongue of His servant, the seeker of truth – salik achieves the state –maqam of “the reality of certainty” – “Haq al-Yaqin”. 2) The second level relates to those – annihilated in “the Real” –Haqq – who remain in the Existence of the King of Existence The final stage of this state is referred to as “Maqam Qab Quysayn”. “Specific Wilayah”, Wilayah Khassah, is only held by the Prophet Muhammad and his Divinely appointed successors from his Ahl al-Bayt,Prophet’s Houshold(The family of the Prophet,specificly his daughter Fatima, her husband ‘Ali, and their children Hassan and Hussein). Such Specific Wilayah proceeds from Maqam Qab-e Quysayn, to the achievement of “The Station of Manifestation on Intrinsic Discourser” – “Maqam-e Mazhariyyat-eTajaliya-e Zati” and “Maqam-e Aw Adna”. At that stage, those who hold this Wilayah comprehend the seventh inner level, Battn Haftom of Kalam Allah, i.e. the word of Allah, namely the Qur’an. It is recorded in one narration – hadith, regarding the Qur’an that, ‘The Qur’an has a superficial level and an inner level of understanding that encompasses seven inner depths.’ ( ‘Alama Tabataeai, Tafsir Al-Mizan, Vol. 3, p. 72). Holders of Wilayah Khassah – Wali’s, are like a great tree of which Abdal, Noqaba and Awtad are mere shadows. For every age there is a single Perfect Man – Qutub, with all other spiritual beings of the age under his shadow. (See verses 1924 – 2305 Book 3 of Rumi’s Mathnawi and Mulla Hadi Sabsavari’s commentary on verse 2003 of Book Three of the Mathnaw‡). Maulana said Wilayah Khassah has two aspects, Wilayah Shamsiyyah (Lit.Solar) and Wilayah Qamariyyah (Lit. Lunar). (Book Three verses 3104 – 3106). The manifestation of Wilayah Shamsiyyah is Wilayah Muhammadiyyah – held by Prophet Muhammad Mustafa, while Wilayah Qamariyyah, refers specifically to those of his progeny – Ahl Al-Bayt, who Allah appointed to inherit his authority and succeed him. According to Mathnawi Book One, verses 2959 – 2980, Wilayah Allawiyyah – that is the Wilayah of Imam‘Ali and the inheritors of his authority – falls within Wilayah Muhammadiyyah. According to Book One, verses 3761 – 3766, the Wilayah Qamariyyah of Imam ‘Ali falls within the Wilayah Shamsiyyah of the Prophet Muhammad. Rumi based his repeated comments of Imam ‘Ali’s Wilayah Khassah, on the Prophet Muhammad’s saying, ‘Whomever I hold authority over, ‘Ali holds authority over’ – ‘Man kuntum Mawla fa ‘Aliyun Mawla’. In the first story at the beginning of Book One of the Mathnawi, ‘The King and the Handmaiden’, the Perfect Man – Pir or Hakim Haziq is raised in reference to one of Imam ‘Ali’s titles ‘The Approved One’ – Murtadha, whom he then proceeds to describe as, ‘The One who holds authority over the people – Mula al-Qum’. (Mathnawi Book One verses 99- 100). In the last story of Book One – A Story about Imam ‘Ali, Rumi discusses nafs mutma’nah (verses 3721-3991) and introduces Imam ‘Ali as a holder of Wilayah Khassah. In the last book, Book Six, he again raises the Wilayah of Imam ‘Ali based upon the Prophet’s saying ‘Whomever I hold authority over, ‘Ali holds authority over’, ‘Man kuntum Mawla fa ‘Aliyun Mawla’. Book Six, verse 4538. Thus, the Mathnawi of Rumi both begins and ends with the Wilayah of Imam ‘Ali. Sequential textual evidence in the Mathnawi that supports Rumi’s acceptance of Imam ‘Ali’s Wilayah and spiritual superiority over other companions of the Prophet. 1) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘AMIR AL-MUMININ – COMMANDER OF THE FAITHFUL – TRANSLATED BY NICHOLSON AS PRINCE OF THE FAITHFUL’ – in the story titled Imam ‘Ali. See Book One, heading after verse 3720. 2) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ONE WHO ACTS SINCERELY’ –‘Learn how to act sincerely from ‘Ali’. Book One, verse 3721 (first part). 3) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali u as, ‘THE LION OF Allah’ – ‘Know that the lion of Allah (‘Ali ) was purged of all deceit’. Book One, verse 3721 (second part). 4) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali u as, ‘THE PRIDE OF EVERY PROPHET’ –‘Ali, the pride of every Prophet’. Book One, verse 3723. 5) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE PRIDE OF EVERY SAINT’ – ‘Ali the pride of every Prophet and every saint.’ Book One, verse 3723. 6) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE FACE BEFORE WHICH THE MOON BOWS LOW’ – ‘He spat on the countenance before which the face of the moon bows low in the place of worship.’ Book One, verse 3724. 7) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE LION OF THE LORD’ – ‘In bravery you are the lion of the Lord: in generosity who indeed knows who you are?’ Book One, verse 3732. 8.) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ALL MIND AND EYE’ – ‘O ‘Ali you who are all mind and eye, relate a little of that which you have seen.’ Book One, verse 3745. 9) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘FALCON OF THE EMPYREAN’ – ‘Tell, O falcon of the empyrean that finds goodly prey, what you have seen at this time from the Maker.’ Book One, verse 3750. 10) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE LEARNED WHO PERCEIVES THE UNSEEN’ – ‘Your eyes have learned to perceive the unseen while the eyes of the bystanders are sealed.’ Book One verse 3751. 11) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali u as, ‘THE ONE WHO IS APPROVED BY Allah’ – ‘Reveal the mystery O ‘Ali you who is approved by Allah.’ Book One, verse 3751 (part 1). 12 Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as being, ‘GOODLY EASE’ – ‘O you who are a goodly ease after evil fate.’ Book One, verse 3752. 13) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ORB OF THE MOON (WILAYAH QAMARIYYAH)’ – ‘From you it shone forth on me, how could you conceal it? Without tongue you are darting rays of light, like the moon. But if the moonsorb come to speech, it more quickly leads the night-travellers the (right) way. They become safe from error and heedlessness: the voice of the moon prevails over the voice of the ghoul.’ Book One, verse 3759-3761. 14) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali u as, ‘LIGHT UPON LIGHT’ – ‘In as much as the moon (even) without speech shows the way, when it speaks it becomes light upon light,’ Book One, verse 3762. 15) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘GATE OF THE CITY OF KNOWLEDGE (‘Ali GATE OF WILAYAH MUHAMMADIYYAH)’ – ‘Since you are the Gate of the City of Knowledge, since you are the beams of the sun of clemency (Prophet Muhammad ).’ Book One verse 3763. This verse refers to the Prophet Muhammad saying, ‘I am the City of Knowledge and ‘Ali is its gate, so anyone who seeks knowledge should enter through its gate.’ 16) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘GATE OF MERCY’ – ‘Remain open forever.’ Book One, verse 3765 (part one). 17) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ENTRANCE-HALL TO ‘NONE IS LIKE UNTO HIM.’ Book One, verse 3765. This is a reference to Surah Ikhlas – Qur’an 112. 18) Rumi refers to Imam ¡Ali u as, ‘THE SUN OF WILAYAH’ – ‘Speak, O Prince of the faithful, that my soul may stir within my body like an embryo. How has the embryo the means (to stir) during the period when it is ruled (by the stars)? It comes (turns) from the stars towards the sun. When the time comes for the embryo to receive the (vital) spirit, at that time the sun becomes its helper. Book One, verses 3773-5. These verses refer to the Ahl al-Bayt’s Wilayah Qamariyyah being within the Wilayah Shamsiyyah of the Prophet Muhammad . Here Rumi clari fies that those who hold general or stellar Wilayah – Wilayah ‘Ammah / Wilayah Najmiyyah are merely stars in comparison to ‘Ali who, being like the sun, represents the Perfect Man or perfect shaykh. Thus, while those who hold Wilayah ‘Ammah may aid a ‘Searcher for Truth’ – Salik, complete guidance is only obtainable via those who hold Wilayah Shamsiyyah – a reference to Imam ‘Ali and his successors. Here Rumi presents the three types of Wilayah described in the introduction – Wilayah Shamsiyyah and Wilayah Qamariyyah –aspects of Specific Wilayah – Wilayah Khassah, and Wilayah ‘Ammah, that is also referred to as Stellar Wilayah – Wilayah Najmiyyah. These may be considered Advanced and Element ary levels of Wilayah. 19) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as ‘HOLDER OF SOLAR WILAYAH – WILAYAH SHAMSIYYAH’ – ‘When the time comes for the embryo to receive the (vital) spirit, at that time the sun becomes its helper. This embryo is brought into movement by the sun, for the sun quickly endows it with ‘spirit’. ‘ Book One, verses 3775-3776. On the spiritual journey towards Allah, the embryo – Spiritual Seeker – Salik, obedient to Wilayah Allawiyyah, arrives at her/his destination. 20) Rumi refers to all Spiritual Seekers having, if they are aware of it not, an inherent connection with Wilayah Allawiyyah, that is, the Wilayah Shamsiyyah of Imam ‘Ali – ‘By the hidden way that is remote from our senses-perception, the sun in the heavens has many ways,’ Book One, verse 3779. It is via that inherent connection, with the Wilayah Shamsiyyah of ‘Ali, that exists beyond the physical senses, that the Spiritual Seeker is able to develop. 21) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as ‘THE ROUTE OF SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE – WILAYAH’, – ‘And the way whereby it makes the Ruby red and the way whereby it gives the lightening-flash to the (iron) horse shoe. And the way whereby it ripens the fruit, and the way whereby it gives heart to one who is distraught.’ Book One verse 3781-82. These verses refer to Qur’an 100 – Surah Al-‘adiyat that was revealed to illuminate the status of Imam ‘Ali. 22) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘A FALCON WITH SHINING WINGS’ –‘Say it O falcon with shining wings,’ Book One verse, 3783 (part one). 23) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ONE WHO LEARNED FROM AND BECAME FAMILIAR WITH THE TRUE KING OF THE UNIVERSE’ – ‘Who has learned from the King and His fore arm.’ Book One, verse 3783 (part two). 24) Rumi refers to Imam Ali as, ‘ROYAL FALCON OF Allah WHO CATCHES THE ANGA.’ – ‘Say it, O Royal falcon who catches the Anga, O you who vanquished an army all by yourself.’ Book One, verse 3784. 25) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ONE NATION OF HUMANITY’ –‘You alone are the (entire community) you are one and a hundred thousand. Say it O you to whose falcon your slave has fallen prey’. Book One, verse 3785. This verse refers to an ayah of the Qur’an in which Allah tells us that all people are ‘a single nation’ Qur’an 2:213. While all have the potential, only some actually follow the Wilayah of ‘Ali , the one who is obedient to Allah. 26) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE SERVANT OF Allah’ – ‘He said I am wielding my sword for Allah’s sake. I am the servant of Allah; I am not under the command ofthe body.’ Book One verse 3787. 27) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE LION OF Allah’ – ‘I am the lion of Allah, not the lion of my passions.’ Book One, verse 3788 (part one). 28) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘HE WHOSE DEED WITNESSES HIS RELIGION’ – ‘My deed bears witness to my religion.’ Book One verse 3787 (part two). 29) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE MANIFESTATION OF THE WILL OF Allah’ – ‘In war I am the manifestation of the truth of “ It was not you who threw when you threw”: but the sword and the wielder is the (Divine) Sun.’ Book One, verse 3789. This is a reference to Qur’an 8:17. 30) Rumi refers to Imam ¡Ali u as, ‘ANNIHILATED IN Allah’ – ‘I have removed the baggage of “ self” out of the way.’ Book One, verse 3790 (part one). 31) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ONE WHOSE TAWHID IS “ESSENTIAL” TAWHID’ – ‘I have deemed (what is) other than Allah to be non-existent.’ Book One, verse 3790 (part two). 32) Rumi refers to Imam ¡Ali u as, ‘SHADOW OF THE DIVINE’ – ‘I am a shadow, the Sun is my Lord.’ Book One, verse 3791 (part one). Ali’s Wilayah is from Allah. 33) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE CHAMBERLAIN OF Allah’ – ‘I am the chamberlain, not the curtain (that prevents approach) to Him.’ Book One verse 3791 (part two). ‘Ali’s function is to guide people to Allah. 34) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘FILLED WITH THE PEARLS OF UNION WITH Allah’ – ‘I am filled with the pearls of union like a (jewelled) sword.’ Book One verse 3792 (part one). 35) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE REVIVER OF SPIRITUAL LIFE’ –‘In battle I revive but do not kill people.’ Book One, verse 3792 (part two). 36) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ADVANCER OF LEVELS OF SPIRITUAL ESSENCE AND DIVINE MORALITY’ – ‘Blood does not cover the sheen of my sword: how should the wind sweep away my clouds? Book One verse 3793. The great commentator of Rumi’s Mathnawi, Akbar Abadi said that ‘Sword and clouds here refer to the advanced level of the Spiritual Essence of ¡Ali u – wind refers to negative morality (Akhlaq Nafsani) and the sheen of the sword to Divine Morality. Clear reference that negative attributes do not impinge upon the perfected attributes of ‘Ali u.’ See Akbar Abadi, Sharh Mathnawi, Book 1. P. 307. 37) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘MOUNTAIN OF FORBEARANCE, PATIENCE AND JUSTICE’ – ‘I am not a straw, I am a mountain of forbearance, patience and justice: how should the fierce wind carry off the mountain?’ Book One, verse 3794. 38) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘Allah’S BUILDING BEING THE BEING OF ‘ALI ’ – ‘I am a mountain and my being is His building. If I become like a straw, my wind (that which moves me) is the recollection of Him.’ Book One, verse 3797. 39) In reference to Imam ‘Ali , Rumi writes, ¡HIS COMMANDER IS ‘LOVE OF Allah’ – ‘My longing is not stirred save by His wind; my captain is naught but Love of the One.’ Book One, verse 3798. 40) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘REPRESSOR OF ANGER’ – ‘Anger, king over kings is to me but a slave: even anger I have bound under the bridle.’ Book One, verse 3799. 41) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘IMMERSED IN THE LIGHT OF Allah’ – ‘I am immersed in the light although my roof is ruined.’ Book One, verse 3801 (part one). 42) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘A DIVINE GARDEN’ – ‘I have become a gardenalthough I am (styled) Father of Dust – Bu Turab.’ Book One, verse 3801 (part two). This verse refers to the hadith in which the Prophet titled ‘Ali; Abu Turab. 43) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘LOVER OF Allah’ – ‘That my name may be ‘He Loves for the sake of Allah.’ That my desire may be ‘He hates for the sake of Allah’ Book One,verse 3803. 44) Rumi refers to the manifestation of ‘Ali’s ‘generosity’ as, ‘GIVING FOR Allah’ – ‘Thatmy generosity may be ‘He gives for the sake of Allah’ Book One verse 3804 (part one). 45) Rumi refers to the mani festation of ‘Ali’s ‘withholding’ as, ‘WITHHOLDING FOR THE SAKE OF Allah’ – ‘That my being may be “He withholds for Allah’s sake” ’. Book One, verse 3804 (part two). Verses 3803 and 4 refer to a hadith, ‘The faith of any who give for the sake of Allah or withhold for the sake of Allah or love for Allah or hate or marry for Allah, will attain perfection.’ Foruzanfar, Ahadith Mathnawi, P.37, Tehran 1361. 46) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘BELONGING ENTIRELY TO Allah’ – ‘I belong entirely to Allah, I do not belong to any other.’ Book One, verse 3805 (part two). The will and being of Imam ‘Ali is circumscribed by the Will and Existence of Allah. 47) In reference to Imam Ali Rumi writes, ‘ALI’S ACTIONS ARE FOR Allah ALONE DRAWN FROM HIS u ILLUMINATED KNOWLEDGE OF Allah’ – ‘And that which I do for Allah’s sake is (not done in) conformity, it is not fancy or opinion, it is naught but intuition.’ Book One, verse 3806. ‘Ali’s knowledge is intuitive rather than theoretical. 48) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ATTACHED TO Allah ALONE’ – ‘I have been freed from effort and search, I have tied my sleeve to the skirt of Allah.’ Book One verse 3807. 49) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘SEEING Allah EVERYWHERE’ – ‘If I am flying, I behold the place to which I soar; and if I am circling, I behold the axis on which I revolve.’ Book One verse 3808. 50) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE HOLDER OF LUNAR AND SOLAR WILAYAH, WILAYAH QAMARIYYAH AND WILAYAH SHAMSIYYAH’ – ‘I am the moon and the sun is before me as my guide.’ Book One, verse 3809 (part two). 51) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘GATE OF DIVINE KNOWLEDGE’ –‘Come in! I will open the door for you.’ Book One verse 3841. 52) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘GRANTING ETERNAL TREASURE TO HIS FOLLOWERS’ – ‘What then do I bestow on the doer of righteousness? Know you, I bestow treasures and kingdoms everlasting.’ Book One verse 3843. 53) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘MASTER OF THE SPIRIT’ – ‘But do not grieve: I am intercessor for you: I am the spirit’s master, I am not the body’s slave.’ Book One, verse 3942. 54) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘Sun of The Noble’ – ‘This body has no value in my sight: without my body I am the noble (in spirit) the sun of the spirit.’ Book One verse 3943. 55) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE GUIDANCE OF KINGS’ –‘Outwardly he strives aft er power and authority, but (only) that he may show princes the right way and judgement. That he may another spirit to the Princedom; that he may give fruit to the palm tree of the Caliphate.’ Book One, verse 3946-47. 56) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE DIVINE BALANCE’ – ‘You have really been the balance with the just nature of the One (Allah). Book One, verse 3981 (part one). 57) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘The Balance By Which To Weigh Other Saints’ – ‘Nay, you have been the pivot of every balance.’ Book One, verse 3981 (part two). 58) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ILLUMINATION OF ¡HIS WILAYAH IS THE LIGHT OF Allah’S WILAYAH’ – ‘I am the slave of that eye-seeking lamp from which the lamp receives its splendour.’ Book One, verse 3984. 59) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE PEARL OF Allah’S OCEAN OF LIGHT’ – ‘I am the slave of the billow of that Sea of Light that brings a pearl like this into view.’ Book One verse 3985. 60) Rumi refers to Imam Hussein as, ‘KING OF RELIGION, ROYAL AND PURE SPIRIT’ – ‘A royal spirit escaped from a prison; why should we rend our garments and how should we gnaw our hands. Since they (Hussein and his family) were Kings of the (true) religion, it was the hour of joy for them when they broke their bounds.’ Book Six verse 797-8. In Book Six of the Mathnawi, Rumi refers, with deep respect, to Imam Hussein son of Imam ‘Ali as Royal Spirit and King of Religion. Although greatly upset by it, he introduces the Day of Imam Hussein’s martyrdom – ‘Ashura, as a day of mourning for his spirit. Rumi regards love for Imam Hussein as the continuation of love for the Prophet Muhammad , in the same way that an ear loves a pearl. He describes Prophet Muhammad as being the ear and Imam Hussein u the pearl, ‘Don’t you know that the Day of ‘Ashura is a day of mourning for a single soul that is more excellent than an entire century. How this tragedy should be lightly estimated by a true believer? Love for the earring (Hussein) is in proportion to love for the ear (Prophet Muhammad). In the view of a true believer, the mourning for that pure spirit is more celebrated than a hundred floods of Noah.’ Book Six verses 790-92. (Verses 776-805 refer specifically to the Shi’ah community in the city of Halab, whom Maulana criticises for having spirits that are asleep. He tells them to mourn for their spirits that are as good as dead. He then refers to the Royal Spirit of Imam Hussein that escaped from prison and is still alive. Some commentators have misunderstood this to imply that Rumi was against Shi’ah which from the above references he clearly was not. From a synoptical understanding of the Mathnawi, each of the six books of the Mathnawi contains 12 discourses – a total of 72. The repetition of 12 discourses was not accidental but rather a tribute to each of the 12 Imams l of Ahl al-Bayt – spiritual inheritors and successors of Prophet Muhammad. The 72 discourses equate to Imam Hussein’s 72 companions who were martyred with him at Karbala. Since their inception, the sama¡ of the Mevlevi order pays respects to the martyrs of Karbala. In Maulana’s shrine in Konya, the names of the fourteen Masumin, the Prophet to the twelfth Imam (Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatima, Hassan, Hussein, ‘Ali ibn Hassan, Mohammad ibn ‘Ali, J’afar ibn Muhammad, Musa ibn Ja’far, ‘Ali ibn Musa, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad, Hassan ibn ‘Ali, Muhammad ibn Hassan (Mahdi)) are inscribed on the walls of his burial chamber. This textual evidence illustrates that Maulana was a real Shi’ah of ‘Truth Shi’ism’, Tashaya Haqqiqi, and follower of Imam ‘Ali (A.S). As Dr Shahram Pazouki said “the conclusion we would like to draw from this is that the most important principle shared by both Shi’ism and Sufism is the question of Imamate or Wayalaah, and the wali is the divine mediator and guide through whom God saves humanity. The point that should be taken into consideration here is that, contrary to what is commonly asserted, Shi’ism originally is not a political movement against the caliphs or a jurisprudential school, alongside the Sunnite school of jurisprudence, or a school of kalam with affinity to the Mu’tazilites. Shi’ism is a heartfelt way based on the concept of wayalah, and the differences in jurisprudence, politics and theology are secondary issues aside from this main core. Thus, in true Shi’ism, one believes that God is known not by one’s own reasoning and speculations, nor by narrations handed down through others, but by submission to the wali and wayfaring on the path of love. Thus we see that in his Mathnawi, Mawlawi speaks favourably about all the first four caliphs, but his tone of speaking differs completely when he comes to Ali, because he recognises him as being the wali after the Prophet”.(Pazouki, Shahram. (2003). Spiritual Walayah. In: S.G. Safavi(ed), RUMI’S THOUGHTS. Tehran: Salman Azadeh Publication) Bibliography 1- See on Rumi’s Life : Aflaki, Ahmad, Manaqeb al – ‘arefin, Tehran, 1983. Alavi, Mahvash, Maulana, Khodawandegar-e Tariqat-e Ishq, Tehran, 1998. Chittick, William, Me & Rumi, Kentucky, 2004. Foruzanfar, Badi’a al- Zaman, Mawlavi, Tehran, 1971/1354. Golpinarli, Abdulbaki, translated ito Farsi by Sobhani, Tofiq, Mowlana, Tehran, 1996. Iqbal, Afzal, Rumi, Lahore, 1991. Lewis, Franklin, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West, Oxford, 2,000. Sepahsalar, Faridun, Mowlavi, Tehran, 1983. Shams al-Din Shirazi, Maqalat-e Shams Tabrizi, ed. Mohamad ‘Ali Movahed, Tehran, 1990. Zarrinkub, Abdul Hosayn, Pele-pele molaqat ta Khoda, Tehran, 1994. 2- For a full account of Maul ana’s theological and spiritual thought see: Chittick, W, The Sufi Path of Love, SUNY, New York, 1983. Este’lami,Muhammad, edited with commentary,”Masnavi-ye Jalal al-Din Mohammad-e Balkhi”, 7 volumes, (6th edition), Tehran, 2000/1379. Schimmel, A, The Triumphal Sun, Fine Books, London, 1978. Homaei, Jalal al-Din, Mowlawi nameh, Tehran, 1996/1374. Ja’fari, Mohammad Taqi, Mowlawi wa Jahanbinih dar maktabhay-e sharq wa gharb, Tehran, 1992/1370. Safavi, Seyed G., Rumi’s Thoughts, Tehran, 2003. Safavi, Seyed Ghahreman, The Structure of Rumi’s Mathnawi, London, 2006 Turkmen, Erkan, The Essence of Rumi’s Mathnavi Including his Life and Works, Konya, 2004. 3-See on Classical Persian Literature: Arberry, A J, Classical Persian Literature, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1958. Baldick, J, “Persian Sufi Poetry up to the FifteenthCentury” in Morrison, G. (ed) History of Persian Literature, Brill, Leiden, 1981. De Bruijn, J T P, Persian Sufi Poetry, Curzon, Richmond, 1997. 4- See on Rumi’s spiritual shiism: Ashtiani, Seyed, Jalal al-Din, Sharh-e Moqadameh Qaysari, Mashhad, Homaei, Jalal al-Din, Mowlawi nameh, Tehran, 1995/1374 Khowrazmi, Kamal al- Din Hossein b. Hassan, Jawaher al-asrar wa Zawaher al-anwar, Sharh-e Mathnawi, ed. Shariat,M.J., Isfahan, Khowrazmi, Taj al-Din Hossein, Sharh-e Fosos al-hekam, ed. Najib Mail Harawi, Tehran, 1985/1364. Safavi, Seyed, G., Rumi’s Thoughts, Tehran, 2003 Safavi, Seyed, G, The Structure of The Rumi’s Mathnawi, London, 2006. Sufi terms Wali divine spiritual guide Walaya sanctity Awlia the spiritual successors Wali Perfect Man, Shadow of Allah, Divine mediator, Divine guide Baqa subsistence Fana annihilation Qorb-e Nawafil the nearness of supererogatory works Ibadat-e wajib obligatory work/worship Takhalli withdrawal Tahalli Adornment Maqam station Haqq the Real Haqq al yaqin the reality of certainty Qotb poles, absolute pole Zahir manifest, outward, outer Batin non-mani fest, inward, inner Mazhar locus of mani festation Zati(dhati) intrinsic Tajalli discloser Maqam-e Mazhariyat-e Tajalli-e Zati The Station of Manifestation on Intrinsic Discloser
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