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  1. It is often asserted that Christian Trinitarianism was enforced by the political power of the emperor, e.g., Constantine the Great. However, Christianity largely succeeded in dominating Europe after the dissolution of the Western Roman Empire, so the successive reigns of individual emperors do not explain why the Church has upheld Trinitarianism. For nearly a millennium medieval Christendom and its Trinitarian ideology were rooted in feudalism. Under feudalism secular or temporal power was largely decentralised, so centrifugal rather than centripetal forces tended to dominate. There was no centralised state or bureaucracy to enforce doctrine, and in fact the Church, not the state or monarch, was the largest and wealthiest landowner. Furthermore, under these conditions doctrine would have been exposed to other influences, e.g., Judaeo-Islamic, monotheistic hermeneutical (“legalistic”) interpretation, via trade and war, given the absence of a unified, centralised secular authority over most of Europe. Even following the consolidation of the secular state during the Renaissance/Reformation, “reformed” modern Christendom upheld the Trinitarianism of its medieval Catholic forebear(s). Also, the Church Fathers/Doctors and early Protestant Reformers featured plenty of logical, intellectual giants, so why would they continue to uphold a transparently “illogical” doctrine such as that of the Trinity, given their otherwise logical approach to practical life, scholarship, and theology? For most of early Christian history political ambition cannot really explain why the Church as a whole adopted and did not abandon Trinitarianism, even in the absence of a single, centralised secular authority that could enforce such an “irrational” theological concept on its subjects. Medieval Europe was very decentralised, and the Church was more powerful than the emperor/monarch, so why would Trinitarianism be so uniform and persist, despite opposition by and exposure to Judaeo-Islamic monotheism via the Crusades etc.? One cannot blame the “secular” power for this.
  2. [This will be a series of blog entries on the history of ShiaChat.com; how it was founded, major ups and down, politics and issues behind running such a site and of course, the drama! I will also provide some feedback on development efforts, new features and future goals and objectives] Part 1 - The IRC (#Shia) Days! Sit children, gather around and let me speak to you of tales of times before there was ever high-speed Internet, Wi-Fi, YouTube or Facebook; a time when the Internet was a much different place and 15 yearold me was still trying to make sense of it all. In the 90s, the Internet was a very different place; no social media, no video streaming and downloading an image used to take anywhere from 5-10 minutes depending on how fast your 14.4k monster-sized dial-up modem was. Of course you also had to be lucky enough for your mom to have the common courtesy not to disconnect you when you’re in the middle of a session; that is if you were privileged enough to have Internet at home and not have to spend hours at school or libraries, or looking for AOL discs with 30 hour free trials..(Breathe... breathe... breathe) - I digress. Back in 1998 when Google was still a little computer sitting in Larry Page and Sergey Brin’s basement, I was engaged in endless debates with our Sunni brothers on an IRC channel called #Shia. (Ok, a side note here for all you little pups. This is not read as Hashtag Shia, the correct way of reading this is “Channel Shia”. The “Hashtag” was a much cooler thing back in the day than the way you young’uns use it today). For those of you who don’t know what IRC was (or is... as it still exists), it stands for Internet Relay Chat, which are servers available that you could host chat rooms in and connect through a client. It was like the Wild West where anyone can go and “found” their own channel (chat room), become an operator and reign down their god-like dictator powers upon the minions that were to join as a member of their chat room. Luckily, #Shia had already been established for a few years before by a couple of brothers I met from Toronto, Canada (Hussain A. and Mohammed H.). Young and eager, I quickly rose up the ranks to become a moderator (@Ali) and the chatroom quickly became an important part of my adolescent years. I learned everything I knew from that channel and met some of the most incredible people. Needless to say, I spent hours and dedicated a good portion of my life on the chatroom; of course, the alternate was school and work but that was just boring to a 15-year-old. In the 90’s, creating a website was just starting to be cool so I volunteered to create a website for #Shia to advertise our services, who we are, what we do as well as have a list of moderators and administrators that have volunteered to maintain #Shia. As a result, #Shia’s first website was hosted on a friend’s server under the URL http://786-110.co.uk/shia/ - yes, ShiaChat.com as a domain did not exist yet – was too expensive for my taste so we piggybacked on one of our member’s servers and domain name. The channel quickly became popular, so popular that we sometimes outnumbered our nemesis, #Islam. As a result, our moderator team was growing as well and we needed a website with an application that would help us manage our chatroom in a more efficient style. Being a global channel, it was very hard to do “shift transfers” and knowledge transfers between moderators as the typical nature of a chatroom is the fact that when a word is typed, its posted and its gone after a few seconds – this quickly became a pain point for us trying to maintain a list of offenders to keep an eye out for and have it all maintained in a historical, easily accessible way. A thought occurred to me. Why not start a “forum” for the moderators to use? The concept of “forums” or discussion boards was new to the Internet – it was the seed of what we call social media today. The concept of having a chat-style discussion be forever hosted online and be available for everyone to view and respond to at any time from anywhere was extremely well welcomed by the Internet users. I don’t recall what software or service I initially used to set that forum up, but I did – with absolutely no knowledge that the forum I just set up was a tiny little acorn that would one day be the oak tree that is ShiaChat.com. [More to follow, Part 2..] So who here is still around from the good old #Shia IRC days?
  3. Like Nehj al-Balagha was compiled by Al-Sharif al-Radi (359-406 A.H) in 4th century A.H. Who compiled Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya and when? What is history of its compilation? Are there any variants of this? What is opinion of various scholars on this?
  4. I've been looking for the most authentic, well researched and referenced book on the history of Karbala? It would be preferred if some modern day Ayatollah or scholar on hadith has done tehkeem & takhreej (research/revision) of that book. Has Sheikh al-Mufid's Kitab al-Irshad been revised by some modern scholar? I'm starting this thread inviting knowledgable members to have discussion on books written on Karbala, their pros & cons.
  5. The tragedy of Karbala failed to topple the caliph of the time, it never managed to change the status quo at any point in Islamic history, neither did it bring about any real revolutionary social or moral change for the vast majority of the Ummah - apart from the cultivation of 'aza that we still participate in today. This tragedy provided no 'advantage' to the Ahl al-Bayt (a) either, in fact it always seemed to have brought them a great deal of pain. If the events that took place were solely about good vs. bad/truth vs. falsehood, why did it necessitate such sacrifices from Imam Hussain (a)? And why him, in particular, when the other nine Imams were also under similar leaderships and circumstances? Did it have something to do with Imam Hussain's personality, specifically, that made him more bold than the others? Is there some greater reality here that we have not been made aware of?
  6. Salam, seeing that the purpose of the 'Minor Islamic Sects' thread is to I figured that the only way we can genuinely understand the Zaidiyyah in terms of their history, and doctrines is by getting a birds eye-view of their works! So, without further ado, here are the Zaydi works of Hadith for the first four centuries. al-Zaidiyyah: - The First Century: 1. Nahjul Balagha - (The Peak of Eloquence, or The Pathway to Eloquence) A compilation of sermons, treatises, and letters By: al-Imam Amīr al-Muʾminīn (The Prince of the Believers) ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (d. 40 a.h) 2. al-Sahiyfah al-Sajjadiyah - (The Psalms of Islam) By al-Imam Zayn al-’Abidin (The Adorner of Worshippers) ‘Ali b. al-Hussein b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 95 a.h) The link provided the edition shared by the Imam Zayd b. ‘Ali association - The Second Century: 3. Majmu’ Kutb wa rasa’il al-Imam Zayd b. ‘Ali - (The Compilation of treatises, and letters of Imam Zayd b. ‘Ali) By: al-Imam al-Shahid Zayd b. ‘Ali b. al-Hussein b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (70-122 a.h) 4. Musnad al-Imam Zayd b. ‘Ali al-Hadithi wa al-Fiqhi - (The Musnad of Imam Zayd that contains his Jurisprudence and Hadith) By: al-Imam al-Shahid Zayd b. ‘Ali b. al-Hussein b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (70-122 a.h) 5. Kitab Akhbar Fakh wa Yahya b. ‘Abdullah - (The reports of the battle of Fakh, and the reports of Yahya b. ‘Abdullah b. Hassan b. Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib) By Ahmed b. Sahl ar-Razi, he relates the revolt of al-Imam al-Hussein b. ‘Ali b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 169 a.h), as well as the revolt of al-Imam Yahya b. ‘Abdullah b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib, and he briefly touches on the revolt of al-Imam Idris b. ‘Abdullah b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib. - The Third Century: 6. Sahifat al-Imam ‘Ali b. Musa al-Ridha - (The Musnad of Imam ‘Ali al-Ridha) By: al-Imam ‘Ali b. Musa b. Ja’far b. Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. Hussein b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 201 a.h) 7. Amali al-Imam Ahmed b. ‘Isa al-Hadithiyah (3 Volumes) - (The Hadith work of Imam Imam Ahmed b. ‘Isa b. Zayd b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib) By: al-Imam Ahmed b. ‘Isa b. Zayd b. ‘Ali b. al-Hussein b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (158-240 a.h) 8. Majmu’ Kutb wa Rasa’il al-Imam al-Qasim b. Ibrahim Tabataba (2 Volumes) - (The Compilation of the Treatises and Letters of al-Imam al-Qasim ar-Rassi) By: al-Imam ar-Rassi, al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (169 -246 a.h) 9. Majmu’ Kutb wa Rasa’il al-Imam Muhammad al-Qasim ar-Rassi - (The Compilation of the Treatises and Letters of al-Imam Muhammad b. al-Qasim ar-Rassi) By: al-Imam Muhammad al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (199-284 a.h) 10. Wasiyat al-Imam Muhammad b. al-Qasim ar-Rassi li Dhuriyetih - (The Will of al-Imam Muhammd b. al-Qasim ar-Rassi to his descendants) By: al-Imam Muhammad al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (199-284 a.h) 11. al-Ahkam fi al-Halal wa al-Haram (2 Volumes) - (The Rulings that Pertain to that which is Permissible and Impermissible) By: al-Imam al-Hadi ilal-Haq (The Guide to the Truth), Yahya b. al-Hussein b. al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (245-298 a.h) 12. Majmu Kutb wa Rasa’il al-Imam al-Hadi ilal-Haq, Yahya b. al-Hussein - (The Compilation of the Treatises and Letters of al-Imam the Guide to the Truth, Yahya b. al-Hussein) By: al-Imam al-Hadi ilal-Haq (The Guide to the Truth), Yahya b. al-Hussein b. al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (245-298 a.h) 13. Kitab al-Nashikh wa al-Mansukh min al-Qur’an al-Kareem - (The Abrogated and Unaborgated of the Glorious Qur’an) By: al-Imam ‘Alim ale-Muhammad (The Scholar of the Progeny of Muhammad), ‘Abdullah b. al-Hussein b. al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) - The Fourth Century: 14. Kitab al-Bisat fi Usul al-Din - (al-Bisat in the Fundamentals of Religion) By: al-Imam al-Nasir al-Utrush (The Deafened Champion), al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. ‘Umar b. ‘Ali b. al-Hussein b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (235-304 a.h) - Note: The reason for this great Imam being called ‘al-Utrush’ (the Deafened) is due to the deafening of his ears that was the result of the torture he received in the dungeons of the ‘Abbasids. 15. Majmu’ Kutb wa Rasa’il al-Imam al-Murtadha, Muhammad b. Yahya b. al-Hussein (2 Volumes) - (The Compilation of Treatises and Letters of al-Imam The Attainer of the Pleasure of God, Muhammad b.Yahya b. al-Hussein) By: al-Imam al-Murtadha, Muhammad b. Yahya b. al-Hussein b. al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 310 a.h) al-Masabih fi seerat A’immat Ahlu-Bayt al-Rasul - (The illuminating Lanterns, the Biographies of the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt of the Messenger) By: al-Imam al-Hafidh (The Memorizer) Abu al-’Abbas Ahmed b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. Ibrahim b. al-Imam Muhammad b. Suleiman b. Dawud b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (d. 353 a.h) 17. Majmu’ Kutb wa Rasa’il al-Imam al-Mansur-billah, al-Qasim b. ‘Ali al-’Ayani - The Compilation of the Treatises and Letters of al-ImamThe Victorious by the Will of Allah, al-Qasim b. ‘Ali al-’Ayani By: al-Imam al-Mansur-billah, al-Qasim b. ‘Ali b. ‘Abdullah b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 393 a.h) - The Fifth Century: 18. Majmu’ Kutb wa Rasa’il al-Imam al-Hussein b. al-Qasim al-’Ayani - (The Compilation of Treatises and Letters of al-Imam the Guide to the Religion of Allah, al-Hussein b. al-Qasim al-’Ayani) By: al-Imam al-Mahdi li-Din Allah, al-Hussein b. al-Qasim b. ‘Ali b. ‘Abdullah b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. Ibrahim b. Ismail b. Ibrahim b. al-Hassan b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 393 a.h) 19. Sharh al-Tajrid fi Fiqh al-Zaidiyyah (6 Volumes) - (The Elucidation of al-Tajrid for the Jurisprudence of the Zaidiyyah) By: al-Imam al-Muayad-billah (The Aided by Allah), Ahmed b. al-Hussein b. Harun b. al-Hussein b. Muhammad b. Harun b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 411 a.h) 20. al-Tabsirah fi al-Tawhid wa al-’Adl - (The Insight to the matters of Divine Monism and Justice) By: al-Imam al-Muayad-billah (The Aided by Allah), Ahmed b. al-Hussein b. Harun b. al-Hussein b. Muhammad b. Harun b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 411 a.h) 21. al-Amali al-Sughra, Amali Hadithiyah - (The Minor Hadith work) By: al-Imam al-Muayad-billah (The Aided by Allah), Ahmed b. al-Hussein b. Harun b. al-Hussein b. Muhammad b. Harun b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 411 a.h) 22. Kitab al-Af’idah fi Tarikh al-A’immah al-Sadah - (The Testimony to the History of the Patron Imams) By: al-Imam al-Natiq bil-Haq (The Enunciator of Truth), Yahya b. al-Hussein b. Harun b. al-Hussein b. Muhammad b. Harun b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 411 a.h) 23. Amali Abi Talib, Amali Hadithiyah wa ismuha Taysir al-Matalib fi Amali Abi Talib - (The Hadith Work of Abi Talib, the Enunciator of Truth) By: al-Imam al-Natiq bil-Haq Abu Talib, Yahya b. al-Hussein b. Harun b. al-Hussein b. Muhammad b. Harun b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 411 a.h) 24. Sharh al-Baligh al-Mudrik fi al-’Aqeedah - (The Elucidation over the book: He who is Grown and Cognizant) By: al-Imam al-Natiq bil-Haq (The Enunciator of Truth) Abu Talib, Yahya b. al-Hussein b. Harun b. al-Hussein b. Muhammad b. Harun b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 411 a.h) 25. Kitab al-Tahrir fi al-Fiqh - (The Emancipator in Matters of Jurisprudence) By: al-Imam al-Natiq bil-Haq Abu Talib (The Enunciator of Truth), Yahya b. al-Hussein b. Harun b. al-Hussein b. Muhammad b. Harun b. Muhammad b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 411 a.h) 26. Sharh al-Usul al-Khamsah - (The Elucidation over the Five Fundamentals) By: al-Imam Manikdim (He who carries a Moon’s Visage), al-Mustadhhir-billah (The Carrier of a God-Conscious Aura), Ahmed b. al-Hussein b. Abi Hashim Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. Muhammad b. al-Hassan b. al-Imam Muhammad b. Ahmed b. Muhammad b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. ‘Umar al-Ashraf b. ‘Ali b. al-Hussein b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. early four hundred a.h) 27. al-i’tibar wa salwat al-’Arifin - (The Reminder and Solace of the Gnostics) By: al-Imam al-Muffaq-billah (The Successful by the Will of Allah) al-Jirjani, al-Hussein b. Isma’il b, Zayd b. al-Hassan b. Ja’far b. al-Hassan b. Muhammad b. Ja’far b. ‘Abdul-Rahman al-Shajari b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. Around 430 a.h) 28. al-Jam’i li-’Uloom ale-Muhammad, al-Jam’i al-Kafi fi Fiqh al-Zaidiyyah (8 Volumes) - (The Compendium of the Teachings of the Progeny of Muhammad, the Compendium of the Zaydi Jurisprudence) - The First Book Ever Written in Comparative Jurisprudence (fiqh) By: al-Imam al-Hafidh (The Memorizor) Abu ‘Abdullah, Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. al-Hussein b. ‘Abdul-Rahman b. al-Qasim b. Muhammad al-Bathani b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b, Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib ((عليه السلام)) (d. 445 a.h) 29. al-Adhan bi Haya ‘Alay Khayr al-’Amal - (Reciting the Call to Prayer with ‘Hasten to the Best of Deeds’) By: al-Imam al-Hafidh (The Memorizer) Abu ‘Abdullah, Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. al-Hussein b. ‘Abdul-Rahman b. al-Qasim b. Muhammad al-Bathani b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (d. 445 a.h) 30. Amali al-Imam al-Murshid-billah al-Khamiysiyah, Amali Hadithiyah (2 Volumes) - (The Hadith work of al-Imam The Guide to the Way of Allah, he would fill this work of his every Thursday) By: al-Imam al-Murshid-billah al-Shajari, Yahya b. al-Hussein b. Isma’il b. Zayd b. Hassan b. Ja’far b. Hassan b. Muhammad b. Ja’far b. ‘Abdul-Rahman al-Shajari b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (d. 412-479 a.h) 31. Amali al-Imam al-Murshid-billah al-Ithnayniyah, Amali Hadithiyah - (The Hadith work of al-Imam The Guide to the Way of Allah, he would fill this work of his every Tuesday) By: al-Imam al-Murshid-billah al-Shajari, Yahya b. al-Hussein b. Isma’il b. Zayd b. Hassan b. Ja’far b. Hassan b. Muhammad b. Ja’far b. ‘Abdul-Rahman al-Shajari b. al-Qasim b. al-Hassan b. Zayd b. al-Hassan b. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (d. 412-479 a.h) - Indeed, the Messenger of Allah was truthful when he said: I leave behind that which if you hold onto, you will not go astray! The book of Allah, and my progeny, my Ahl al-Bayt. The Most Kind, The Expert has informed me that they will not be separated until they reach me at the Lake-Fount. 32. And many others, those of which have been lost unfortunately, and those not mentioned. اللهمّ صلّ وسلّم على محمّد وعلى آل محمّد
  7. have questions as I start the knowledge journey. Who were Amavides?
  8. Greetings, This is not an anti semite topic. I found this when i was looking for reasons of hatred that was directed to jews in Europe. Through studying history, it seems that usury played a key role in this situation. In the old world , there were three major religions :Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The last 2 religions forbade usury. Judaism forbade taking interests from other jews but made it ok to take it from non jews and according to some interpretations, it is an obligation upon a jew to take interest from non jew. In this wiki page, there is a mention of the role of banking in the crusades. But I am very poor in economy and can't get the whole mechanism of how it worked. would someone explain? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_banking
  9. Salaam, Came across this latest lecture series by Sayyid Hussain Makke on the history of the life of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (a), and wow! It's amazing, highly recommend it, all the lectures are on his YouTube channel and a new lecture is being released everyday, here is lecture 1: Sayyid Makke is doing an incredible job presenting the epitome of Islam, Imam Ali (a), and the events which occured after the demise of the Prophet (s). A well produced, objective and holistic, and heart-touching series. He also has a wonderful series on the life of Prophet Muhammad (s) from last Shar Ramadhan.
  10. In the Bible, it states that Palestine was under the rule of King David [Nabi Dawud, peace be upon him] in the 11th century [before Isa, Jesus, peace be upon him] - yes, the same King David who is said to have committed adultery with a woman and executed her husband because of it. Although many historians of old, due to lack of any material, relied upon the Bible for most things surrounding this time period, the information is not historically accurate, because King David was dated to exist about 100 years later to his rule. He was first put into question as to his existence, but when no further evidence found, he was dubbed a myth. Although we Muslims believe he existed, the Bible does a job on distorting history and writing via oral tradition decades after something was said. This puts into question the authenticity of the Bible yet again, despite Dawud (peace be upon him) being one of the great Messengers of Allah that all Abrahamic faiths agree upon. The Philistines did not have a specific religion - if any at all - which is why the Jews tended to look down upon them. The Jews did not eat pig meat and leave their children uncircumcised whereas the Philistines did. However, the Jews did not inhabit their lands prior. The original inhabitants were the Canaanites - followed by the Phoenicians, Syrians, Egyptians, Caucasians, and the Mesopotamians, who later settled in the land of Canaan when majority of their civilization had fallen apart. Some Canaanites were Hebrew, not Jewish, as Judaism and the concept of Jewry began with Moses, according to Biblical chronology. There had been a very small portion of Israelites in this region, but they were not originally from this area. This is shown through demographics and sociological factors of them residing on the outskirts of the area. They were well-known for being destitute. This later changed in the future when an influx of Israelites came in. They, the Canaanites, had formed an alliance with the ancient Egyptians before they had finally taken it in as part of their kingdom (Levant, at the time). When the Israelites started to grow in the land of Palestine, they had split up into two kingdoms - one being Israel and the other being Judah, Israel being the most advanced and growing out of the two. It must be noted that the language of the Philistines had originally been Hebrew but later developed into Aramaic in the 4th century B.C. Moving forward past the Romans and Persians fighting over Palestine, Jesus was born in the land of Galilea, which was the northwest side of Roman Palestine. Jews like to claim that Israel was there prior to Jesus and how their history extends way before the late 1940s, but this is half of the truth. The land of Palestine belonged to the Philistines and destitute Israelites later moved in and had a kingdom within this land that grew years after. Jesus spoke Aramaic, although he understood and spoke some Hebrew. It is similar to how the Anglo-Saxon languages and it's sisters [French, German, Latin, English] can all be understood despite one not being fluent in them based on the similarities. Take for instance someone living in West Germany or Luxembourg - they are likely to understand and speak French, though they would speak German every day as opposed to the aforementioned. Nonetheless, Jesus was born in the land of the Philistines which had been conquered by the Romans at the time. It is argued that Jesus was a Jew - meaning from the tribe of Judah, and by extention, Israel - which is correct. The lineage of Jesus in the Bible stems from Israel [better known as Jacob/Ayyub] to one of his 12 sons, Judah. This, however, has nothing to do with the "nation" or "state" of Israel, as this was thousands of years later. While Jacob was born in Canaan, he never claimed any leadership nor authority there. This was all established by his son Joseph in Egypt, where the family of Joseph thrived and lived happily under him. I do apologize for not putting references, but I wanted to write this as quickly as I can before I forgot. I pray you learned something from this! May Allah increase you in sincerity, guidance, and knowledge - ameen. With that, I now say: Assalamu 'alaykum warahamatullahi wabarakatuhu.
  11. I made a video recently on how the current content of education material plays a role in the oppression of Shi'a Muslims. I posted the video in General Islamic Discussion before, but just now realised that since it is so focused on Pakistani education, I should post it here. JazakAllah
  12. In the name of Allah, I have made a video touching upon my country's education system and how it effectively contributes to Shi'a oppression. JazakAllah
  13. Bismillah i Rahman i Raheem Assalaam o 'Alaikum Wa Rahmatullah i Wa Barakaatuh I recall listening to a Majlis where the speaker mentioned the story of Prophet 'Isma'il (عليه السلام), but not the son of Prophet Ibrahim (عليه السلام), rather another prophet with the same name. The story goes that the people he preached to put him through severe suffering (of which I will not go in the details here unless asked to) and an angel descended and asked him if he would like to curse these people. The Prophet 'Isma'il (عليه السلام) replied that he does not want that, and instead just wants his name to be among the names of the martyrs of Karbala. Recently, I tried to find out who this Prophet was, and I think he might be Prophet 'Isma'il (Sadiq al-wa'd) (عليه السلام), he was listed separate from Prophet 'Isma'il (عليه السلام) son of Prophet Ibrahim (عليه السلام) on wikishia's page on prophets. I tried to find out more through this, but I could only find this link: http://ahlulbaytportal.net/en.php/page,28246A64432.html?PHPSESSID=58ec25b69e6a9ae5178275b1184e81b1 The link cannot be accessed unfortunately. So my first question, can anyone help me in learning more about this Prophet 'Isma'il (عليه السلام)? My second question, is this prophet in fact Prophet 'Isma'il (Sadiq al-wa'd) (عليه السلام)? I would appreciate any and all help, this is a very interesting topic to me since I am fascinated by the history of Islam as well, and would like to spread knowledge to my family about this. JazakAllah Wa 'Alaikum Assalaam Wa Rahmatullah i Wa Barakaatuh
  14. Will prevail when Imam Mahdi ((عليه السلام)) and Prophet Jesus ((عليه السلام)) returns. For the most part, the Palestinians have been brain washed by the salafi’s to the extent that a large percentage of Isis fighters when they were caught were from Palestine and then Chechnya then Tunisia and then Saudi Arabia. I think you and the other guy that I’ve heard of are the only Palestinian Shia’s that exists. The rest are either “Sunni” or “Christian” in short yous are rare gem.
  15. As salamu alaykum I hope everyone is in the best of health Insha’Allah during these crazy times. I’m a 18 year old Palestinian and Egyptian born Muslim and a new “revert” from ahlul Sunnah to the Ahlul Bayt school of thought. I was wondering if anyone had any good book recommendations about Islamic history and good source books. Growing up Islamic history wasn’t emphasised so I’m kinda a newbie to in depth context and sources sourrounding the context of when surahs/ ayas were revealed, I.e Surah al Tawbah, or hadiths/ history surrounding the martyrdom of Hussain as. I don’t know if this is related but also if anyone has any recommendations for mosques in London and also mosques that possibly offer lessons that would be great too. Jazak’Allah everyone.
  16. I remember reading somewhere that the slogan "ali waliullah" was used by the Sahaba during the Battle of Camel. If it is true, can anyone site a source. Thanks.
  17. As-Salamu-Alaykum Many Sunnis look up to previous Khilafah, like the Ottoman Empire, and whilst we lament some of the actions taken near the end (e.g. Tanzimat reform), we generally appreciate these previous Muslim Empires in their general outlook. I understand that Shi'a/Iranians dislike the Pahlavi dynasty, but what do you think of the dynasty before it? In fact are there any Shi'ite empires/kingdom you guys look up to and admire as good/ok historical examples of an Islamic state - or is that not important for you guys?
  18. Hello guys, I have been a Sunni Muslim all my life (27 years) and have converted to Shia Muslim and currently looking for detailed books on 1) History of Islam (Where the split started and all the subsequent events in full detail - specifically from Shia Perspective as that's what I want to know more about) 2) Religious Practises of Shia Islam (Majalis and beliefs that are different from Sunni Islam) 3) Knowledge of Shia Islam (details about Imams and important dates and their importance) I will appreciate it if one of you brothers can help me in this journey. Thanks
  19. Hello guys, I have been a Sunni Muslim all my life (27 years) and have converted to Shia Muslim and currently looking for detailed books on 1) History of Islam (Where the split started and all the subsequent events in full detail - specifically from Shia Perspective as that's what I want to know more about) 2) Religious Practises of Shia Islam (Majalis and beliefs that are different from Sunni Islam) 3) Knowledge of Shia Islam (details about Imams and important dates and their importance) I will appreciate it if one of you brothers can help me in this journey. Thanks
  20. Salams I’m inviting members to share brief travel stories along with select pics about the wonderful places they have visited and the things they experienced there. The reason for starting a new thread is that I’d like to focus on individual experience, personal observations, and examples of cultural exchange and shock etc as opposed to the more general to-do and to-see lists which, in the age of the internet, anyone can look up online about any place on Earth. Reports of pilgrimages or religious travel are welcome but this is by no means the main or exclusive focus of the thread. I was in transit at Oakland airport (OAK) when I saw this appear on a digital screen with a background of an unknown snow-covered mountaintop. “We travel not to escape life but for life not to escape us.” It struck a chord. I’ll start with some observations from my Umrah trip. Until then here's something to think about:
  21. Salam Are there any tried and verified ways to break mob mentality? Can an observer make individuals think for themselves when they are being swept up by a fanatical crowd? Or will they only think for themselves if they want to, and maybe not even then? Is there any hope for avoiding history repeating?
  22. If you don't know what this theory is sit back and grab some popcorn. There was a Mongol-Turkish empire in the medieval ages in what is now Ukraine, Southern Russia, Azerbaijan, or in simpler terms the Caucasus Mountain region. At one point the ruler and a large chunk of the population converted to Judaism as the Byzantine Empire was Christian and the Abbasid Caliphate was Muslim. The empire collapsed after sometime this happened. The population dispersed and to this day the Khazar empire is a mystery as they barely left any traces. Now, the theory is when the empire collapsed the now Jewish-Mongol population moved westward to White European empires and mixed in with the European population while keeping Judaism alive in their isolated communities. Thus after generations after generations of mixing in with Whites, these Jews look European and the Mongol-Turk look was long gone after mixing exclusively with Whites. These "White" Jews are called by a more familiar name, Ashkenazis. Now, you may ask why is this a problem? Well a huge chunk of the Jewish Israeli population are Ashkenazi Jews. IF this theory is true, then a chunk of the supposed Jewish population in Israel no longer have rights to the land of Israel as they aren't descendants of the Jews that supposedly came into Europe after the Romans destroyed the 2nd Jewish temple 2000 years ago. Thus pretty much making the State of Israel void religiously. Try to research more and come back, What do you guys think of this theory?
  23. Assalaamu `alaykum, all. Having a great love for Mawla `Ali (karramAllahu wajhahu) and swords in general, I thought I'd do some research into the famed Dhu-l Faqar; perhaps one day I might order a reproduction made to the specifications outlined below:1. Arab swords of the early Islamic era were similar in almost every way to either the Roman spatha or the Sassanid longsword, i.e. they were straight and double-edged (the saber was an innovation originating in Central Asia, not finding its way to the Persians or Arabs until much later). The highest quality were made in Yemen from imported wootz ingots (made in southern India). They were uniformly worn hung from a baldric; wearing a sword on one's hip on a belt was not customary (in fact it seems to have been looked down upon) for the Arabs.2. I have effectively ruled out its name referring to a bifurcation of the tip or serration of the edges (as we see on Shī`ī pendants and Indo-Pakistani interpretations). Bifurcation of the tip would make a sword structurally unsound (particularly with the desired impact area being roughly the upper third of the blade), and such a measure would be ludicrous to as ferocious a warrior as `Alī (`alayhi salām); such a sword would not have been one famously used by him. Serration of the edge (such as on the medieval Flamberge), while indeed effectively improving the performance of a cut-centric sword (as spathae were), was not innovated until much later in history. Thus I have determined that the name either has to do with cleaving/separating (the vertebrae, specifically), or referring to a particularly intricate fuller design it may have incorporated (fiqr is a word meaning fine engraving). As it was quite ordinary for spathae to have multiple (quite attractive) fullers, I'm leaning more toward translating its name as "Lord of Cleaving."3. By investigating Ibn al-Qayyim's "Zād ul-Ma`ād" and Imām Tirmidhī's "Shamā'il," I have determined the parts of Dhū-l Faqār's furniture which were made of silver, and they are as follows:-Bikrāh: these are the part of the scabbard which attach to the rings through which the baldric straps are fed.-Dhu'ābah: this would usually refer to the lanyard hung from the pommel (used for weapon retention and decoration), but since this is mentioned along with those features made of silver, I have to assume this refers to a ring through which the lanyard was strung.-Na`l: this is the decorative (and protective) endcap at the base of the scabbard, also called chape. Not to be confused with chappe.-Halqah: throat (chappe). As spathae featured both a chappe on the scabbard and the hilt, I shall thus apply it to both. Note that the chappe of a spatha's hilt tended to be incorporated into the larger (usually) shoulder-style rounded handguard.-Qabī`ah: pommel cap and handle accents.4. The blade will resemble in length, width, and taper, that of a typical 7th-century Roman spatha. It should have a roughly spatulate tip. I have decided on a U-shaped fuller; this would be a double-fuller which is joined at the tip (and matches a picture I found of the Fatimid iconography).5. As I mentioned, the best quality swords made by the Arabs were made in Yemen, which had considerable Persian influence at the time. So why isn't this sword being made in the Sassanid longsword style? I'm not assuming Dhū-l Faqār was a Yemeni-made sword, because there is a hadīth which mentions that one of the swords (not named, unfortunately) belonging to RasūlAllāh ﷺ (as Dhū-l Faqār originally did) was made in the style of the Bani Hanīfah. This tribe inhabited the Yamāmah region, which is part of modern-day Najd; far from Persian influence. Furthermore, all of the anatomical features mentioned above are indicative of Roman style. None of the Sassanid longswords I've seen has incorporated them as described, while every spatha has.So that's where I am now. I've still got a lot of research to do for ideas on the particular style of decoration I'm going to use for the mountings. I've seen some examples from the period that experts aren't sure are Byzantine or Arab, so it's safe to assume Byzantine and Arab weaponry incorporated similar, if not identical, motifs.So what's everyone think of my sword ijtihād so far? Input is welcome!
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