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  1. I know the method of doing Istibra after relieving myself. It might sound gross but I'll describe it anyway. First after urinating, one pulls upwards thrice from the anus to the scrotum with the middle finger of the left hand. Then by placing the left forefinger on the top and the thumb below the penis, squeeze from the root to the tip. And then press the tip thrice. But here's the problem. The first part where we pull upwards thrice from anus to scrotum, it is hard for me to do somehow and as a result it has become an obsession and I end up taking more than half an hour in the washroom. Can I just skip this part and do the squeezing part??? I have OCD by the way.
  2. Salaam to all I was approached by someone about the matter of Hijab. I will not get into specifics for keeping it short but I want to know of Maraji which have mroe lenient laws regarding hijab By more lenient I mean they do not require covering of hair... etc
  3. Salam to all. A recent wedding in my friends circle the mahr was decided to be reading of a certain number of times The Quran and certain number of Tasbeeh of Salawat. I wanted to know if this practice is correct as per our Marjas rulings, because we have read/ heard about Mahr being monetary in nature.
  4. Salam to all. "Apologies for reposting this topic from Jurisprudence section, but I wasn't getting any response there and really was looking forward to some replies on this topic. If repostings aren't allowed here I do not mind this topic being deleted." A recent wedding in my friends circle the mahr was decided to be reading of a certain number of times The Quran and certain number of Tasbeeh of Salawat. I wanted to know if this practice is correct as per our Marjas rulings, because we have read/ heard about Mahr being monetary in nature.
  5. Guest

    Jannati Resaleh

    Salam, I am writing to ask if someone would be willing to run Ayatollah Jannati’s Resaleh through an OCR program that recognizes Farsi? Alternatively, can anyone tell me what it says on how a new month is determined, and (if it’s there) the time of virtue for the daily obligatory prayers. The link is here: http://www.jannaati.com/far/bank/resale.pdf thanks in advance for any help you can provide!
  6. Most of the scholars like Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Sistani, Ayatollah al-Khoei and many other Sunni and Shia scholars believe and claim " Music " to be a strictly unlawful act in Islam. I want to know if there is any scholar or jurist who believes and claims "Music" to be lawful. Here, I meant by the word "scholar" is a " Twelver Marja' " or a " Sunni Grand Mufti ".
  7. This is a reference post, as all this Basic information can be obtained on the Internet. https://www.al-islam.org/articles/taqlid-meaning-and-reality-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi https://www.al-islam.org/islamic-laws-ayatullah-abul-qasim-al-khui/taqlid Islamic Laws by Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khu'i Sayyid Abulqasim al-Khui
  8. I sometimes do it by acident and it's not far in the opposite direction, just a few centimetres like 2 or 3cm. Is this permissible during arm washing and face washing? Also, if it's a full unintentional opposite direction wipe , would this invalidate the wudhu? The reason I ask the second question is I am also trying to find out the delineation of an accident becoming a leeway during wudhu wiping Jazakallah I hope Allah makes things easy for you.
  9. Although modern shia fiqh tends to prove friday prayer wajib, we read that in history of countries like Iran or Iraq, there were no institutions of that prayer before the 20th century and thethe Islamic awakening. That is an assertion made by M.A. Amir Moezzi for example. Is that true?
  10. Marriage in the Shariah is not a sacrament. Stripped of all the cultural accretions Muslims have added on, and minus the obviously crucial elements of love and companionship, marriage is nothing more than — literally — a contract between a man and a woman in which the man provides the woman with financial support in return for exclusive sexual access. It’s a contract that makes sex and reproduction legal in the eyes of God and legitimate in the eyes of society. -Jonathan AC Brown I would imagine many of you are uneasy with the idea that marriage in Islam is nothing more than a contract in which sex is exchanged for financial support. I am certainly uneasy with this idea, for it seems to belittle the institution of marriage on the one hand, and on the other, it is not how the Qur'an describes marriage. For instance, in Surah 30:21, Allah swt describes marriage as a union involving tranquility, love and mercy. In Surah 2:187 marriage is described in terms of reciprocity. To be fair to Jonathan Brown, he does refer to the 'crucial elements of love of companionship', however these seemingly aren't crucial enough to define what marriage is. According to the above quote, in reality marriage in Islam is nothing more than a contract. Additional elements including love and merely that - additional, non-essential elements. I don't agree with that. At least, I think it doesn't do justice to the Islamic conception of marriage. There are at least 3 approaches we can take to the Islamic definition marriage. 1. Legal definition vs Complete Islamic definition The first approach is to distinguish between 2 types of definition. The first is the Shar'i definition of marriage, and the second is the Complete/Qur'anic definition of marriage. Both of these are valid definitions, but they are different. The first is the legal definition, and the second is the true Islamic definition. So, on the legal definition, marriage is nothing more than a contract in which sex is traded for financial support. But on the true Islamic definition, marriage is more than this. Islamically, marriage is a contract which also involves tranquility, mercy, love, and reciprocity. This account makes the word 'marriage' equivocal, i.e. it means two different things depending on whether you are talking is a purely legal context, or giving the true Islamic definition. A culinary example would be the word 'jelly' which means two different things depending on whether you are in the UK or the US. Both definitions are valid, but you have to specify the context. Why would there be 2 types of definitions? Well the Sharia is concerned with practical matters. There is a societal benefit in giving a simple legal definition of marriage, so that some of most harmful sexual relationships can be readily identified, and healthy relationships can be encouraged. This practical concern requires a level of pragmatism, which is reflected in simplified definitions of important Islamic practices. 2. Essential vs Non-essential elements The second approach is to distinguish between essential and non-essential features of marriage. On this account, there is only 1 definition of marriage, and marriage is defined in terms of essential and non-essential (additional) elements. The essential element would be the contract. The additional elements would be love, compassion and so on. These additional elements are desirable, and they perfect marriage, but these aren't essential to make marriage what it is. The word 'marriage' on this account is univocal - it means only 1 thing, in contrast to the account above. An example would be the definition of cake. Essentially a cake is a sponge, but it can also have other additional elements that improve it, such as icing, decoration, other toppings and so on. 3. Inward vs Outward aspects The third approach is to distinguish between the inward and the outward aspect to marriage. Outwardly, marriage is nothing more than a contract. However it would be wrong to say that this is all there is to marriage. Inwardly, marriage involves such things as love, mercy and so on. On this account there is also only 1 definition of marriage, but it has 2 aspects. We deal with each other based on the outward aspect, and so describe a couple as married if they meet the outward aspect of marriage. However if there is no love or mercy or tranquility, then they are lacking the inward aspect of marriage, and so aren't truly married. *** To further understand the differences between these 3 accounts, I will answer two different questions. (i) What is marriage (ii) If there is an Aqd (contract) is there a marriage? Answers: 1 (i) Depends on whether you are asking for the legal or Qur'anic/complete definition. Legally marriage is a contract, but the Qur'anic conception of marriage is more than this, and involves elements such as love and mercy. (ii) Legally yes there is a marriage, but devoid of these other elements it isn't a Qur'anic or Complete Islamic marriage 2 (i) Marriage is a contract. (ii) Yes 3 (i) Marriage consists of a outward and inward elements. (ii) Outwardly there is marriage, but devoid of inward elements, in reality there is no marriage. *** You can apply a similar approach to other Islamic practices, e.g. prayer. Prayer can be defined in terms of the Arkan/pillars of prayer mentioned in books of fiqh. But is it really prayer if it doesnt forbid evil? (Surah 29:45). Legally prayer is the Arkan, but the Qur'anic/Complete Islamic definition includes the important elements of spirituality. You could view the Arkan as essential, and the other elements as non-essential. You could say prayer has an inward and outward, and without both there is no prayer.
  11. May Allah bless you and give you a good day I have some questions 1. When namaz, do we have an acceptable deviation of qibla if it is done intentionally, i saw on this forum somebody said that he heard from his shaykh it was 15 deg, Ay Khemenei said 5 deg (yet i am not his muqallid), it confuses me. My marja' said that if there was a deviation even if it is under 90 deg I should repeat my prayer, but he just said that I only have to follow the direction (jihat) of the Ka'ba, I mean, what is the differences between facing 'ayn Ka'ba and jihat Ka'ba if there is no deviation allowed, for you, did he really mean that the deviation should be 0 deg (which is either very hard or impossible to do, even my rug moves every time), or does it have some leniency, since for example, if one faces east direction/jihat (90 deg), it still can be called facing east even if the direction is 80 - 100 deg (of course, neither reaching south-east nor north-east)? 2. Does wavering or doubting in canceling (leaving) prayer make the prayer invalidated? 3. I heard from one youtube video that if you found the marja' who has the same knowledge level with your marja''s level, you can follow the fatwa of both marja's, does it mean that you could make taqleed to that two respective marja''s (in case of hardship, for example)?
  12. A good article on Christmas that summarises the Fiqhi opinion of Sayyed Al-Sistani. Also, the article contains information regarding sending salam to the kitabi unbelievers. https://purifiedhousehold.com/salams-or-merry-christmas/
  13. It seems a trend for many Muslims to easily labeling as haram on almost anything such as music, sports, driving, riding bicycles, movies, TV, INTERNET including youtube, etc. thus unnecessarily harming health, work and educational opportunities for many, especially for women. Such trend would be a catalyst for attacks on Islamic system as a whole from inside and out if left ignored. In going over how things are ruled as haram(prohibited), let us start with Quran as a source. Ayat can be muHkam or mutashabih. The muHkam /clear verse which can be ‘aam / general, khaas / specific, (amr and nahy)/(imperative and prohibitive), or mushtarak / collective. مشترك Amr(imperative) can be Fard (obligatory by clear textual dalil evidence) wajib(necessary by probable evidence), manduub(recommended), or mubaah(permissible/indifferent). Nahy can be haram or makruh(disliked). So haram ruling is derived from nahy type of MuHkam verse which is absolutely clear by its own. Thus, Quranic source of haram, makruh, mubaah, manduub, wajib or fard ruling is from muHkam verses. Since some of us are subjected to such rulings with real consequences with accompanying execution power of rewards or punishments by rulers, we all must understand the mechanism of the rulings. If the source of such ruling is only from hadith with vague wording with outdated situation, such as allowed traveling distance for women; is it OK to apply the lower standard in deriving hukum than from Quran? Please help me here by correcting me in any part, offering your knowledge in this area of Islamic jurisprudence. Thank you in advance.
  14. Hi, I read that there is chapter of "Manners of Drinking Wine" in Shia scholar Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's book of Akhlaq-i Nasiri/The Nasirean Ethics. This chapter includes adab/manners/way of drinking, so Tusi expresses harms of alcoholic wine and he suggests moderation of drinking. In this book, this chapter is remarkable because of moderation of drinking. I wonder that, what is view of Tusi about alcoholic beverages? Also, is there any allowence of Shia sources about drinking alcoholic beverages in moderation? I know that there is allowence of moderate drinking of nabidh/drinks without wine in early Hanafi sources, also I read some of Mutazilah allows drinking alcoholic beverages includes wine in al-Mabsut by Imam Sarakhsi, however Sarakhsi as Hanafi scholar doesn't express their arguments about wine (Sarakhsi's view is Hanafi view, he allows moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages without wine). Do you know any allowence about drinking wine in Shia sources? And what is Tusi's view about this topic? Also, is this chapter about nabidh or wine?
  15. Salaam, I just wanted to ask this question, seeing as how those muslims of the liberal persuasions love to invoke the bandwagon of "mansplaining". However, for a decent number of reasons I can see why there is no such thing as "mansplaining" in Islam. However, I would like input from you guys and gals on this issue and whether mansplaining is legitimate to any extent theologically, in a historical and contemporary orthodox sense. I appreciate input from both Sunnis and Shia's on this matter, as this issue does cross into both sects and I am curious about what Sunni Orthodoxy has to say on the matter of "mansplaining". Also I do appreciate input from both Christians and Jews on this topic as well. Though I do want to see an orthodox vantage point of "mansplaining" from Christianity and Judaism. Also, advice from those who are nonreligious or atheists/agnostics is also appreciated.
  16. Salaam, I am an American Shia Muslim, raised Sunni. I learned about the Ahlul Bayt and read some more then came to the conclusion that to be the Shia of Ali was the right path. I only really know the surface levels of Shia Islamic practices, but just like the Sunni Madhabs, there is a lot of variance in opinion on several things. Ayatollah Sistanis website has been very helpful, and I tend to refer to his judgement for consistency, but is there anything in the west or online where one can get a foundation on Shia fiqh? (Since I live in America, going to Iraq or Iran really is not an option for now.)
  17. Assalaamualeikom, I found my mujtahid taqleed do not have (or at least do not give) fatwa nor do give a precaution on particular matters in certain issue, meanwhile other a'lam mujtahid has a fatwa on that specific matter because he indeed has more fatwas on his risala. Here are the examples: 1. In my mujtahid risala, he does not mention if a mohr sticks to the forehead, one must put it back to the ground, or another saying that may indicate that specific act must or do not have to be done regarding to that matter, must I follow that verdict even if I am not in taqleed to the mujtahid that release that mohr fatwa in issue of ritual prayer? 2. Something are described as recommended acts (also in prayer) by other mujtahid, meanwhile my mujtahid taqleed has no mention to those things. Are those things is considered mustahabb for me? I need your advice, thanks a lot. Assalaamualeikom
  18. Almost every Thursday night, my parents light a candle, bring some drinks (usually just milk mixed with rooh afza) and we recite Surah Al-Fatihah once followed by Surah Al-Ikhlas three times. We do this once for the 14 infallibles, and again for our deceased relatives. Then, we drink from the milk, and put out the candle. There are some variations to this, but this is usually what we do every Thursday night. My mother calls this "nazr". I have lots of questions about this. Firstly, why is it called "nazr"? Isn't this word based off the arabic word "nadhr", which means a vow? But it doesn't seem like we are making a vow. I have also heard that "nazr" in urdu means black magic, but looking online I can't find anything to confirm this. In fact, on this site it looks like it means a gift, or an offering. This seems more close to what we're doing, I guess we are offering the milk we're drinking as an offering? But to whom? Are we offering it to the 14 infallibles and our deceased relatives? I don't understand that, because it doesn't seem like offering the milk (which we later drink ourselves) would benefit them in any way. 13 of the 14 infallibles are deceased, and the one who is alive never appears to drink the milk. Therefore, it can't benefit them. The deceased relatives hence also cannot benefit from the milk. It then may follow from that that our gift is towards Allah. But Allah does not need our gift, because he is self-sufficient. So now I am confused what our gift is for, if we are using the urdu translation of "nazr". Also, what is the arabic term for this? If "nazr" is not the correct term, then what is? What exactly are we doing? I tried looking on Al-Islam.org but could not find any references to this practice. I guess I'm not really understanding the purpose behind the practice. One explanation could be that we are doing this to remember the 14 infallibles and our deceased relatives. But then why do we need the candle and the drinks? If someone could help clear these questions for me, that would be very helpful. Thanks in advance.
  19. Sallam everyone, I'm new to Shia Fiqh, My Sunni friends have easy to follow syllabus for fiqh books they study in various schools. In indo/Paki they have the darsi nazami syllabus that outlines what students will study over a period of years. Is there anything similar from the shia tradition, does anyone know what syllabus they follow in Qoum, or other parts of the world ? Anyone know of any good basics books on the jafari madhab, fiqh of sallah and 5 pillars?
  20. First English Ph.D. dissertation on Shia jurisprudence defended in Qom seminary (AhlulBayt News Agency) - A Ph.D. dissertation on Shia jurisprudence written in English language was defended by Hujjat al-Islam Jahangiri in the seminary of Qom. The doctoral dissertation defense was held at the International Institute for Islamic Studies in the city of Qom, Iran. This dissertation study on Shia jurisprudence was done by Hujjat al-Islam Yahya Jahangiri, an international Muslim missionary who was a Ph.D. candidate in the field of Islamic Studies. His study consists of 196 pages and is considered as the first ever English dissertation carried out in the area of Shia jurisprudence. http://en.abna24.com/news/iran/first-ph-d-dissertation-on-shia-jurisprudence-defended-in-qom-seminary_833203.html
  21. Salaamun Alaykum, This is really embarssing and I am seeking forgiveness for my act. But i wanted to know the jurisprudential ruling. I was aroused while in a state of fasting. Although I didn't masturbate, I ejactulated. Being aroused was my fault. What is the ruling? Is my fast invalidated? Do I have to pay the Kaffara for this?
  22. Has any Marja ever replied to a question on islamic fiqh presented to him with the answer "I don't know"? If so could you please provide me with the question and the name of the Marja.
  23. Bismillah ar-Rahman ir-Raheem Assalaam Alaikum, My question is regarding male circumcision and performing tawaf around the Kaaba. I found no basis for it in al-Quran and numerous marjas have ruled circumcision is required of a man for his tawaf around Kaaba to be accepted yet don't explain why. Why is it wajib for a man to be circumcised to circumambulate the Kaaba? If answers could be provided with references to authentic ahadith it would be greatly appreciated. Thank you
  24. Aslaamu-alaikum to all the readers. I have a question that I was asked by a friend recently but got stuck for an answer. His question started with, in the Shia Fiqh, is The act of Hajj (pilgrimage) obligatory (Wajib) on females? To which I replied that Hajj is wajib on every Muslim, from my common sense. HOWEVER, he further asked me to prove if any females in prophets household (more so referring to Lady Khatijah sa, Lady Fatima sa, Lady Zainab sa) performed hajj and asked for prove. I have tried to research but couldn't find any obvious answers or hadees in regards. Has any one got more information to enlighten me about this? Many thanks, Jazakallah
  25. Mohsin Jaffery B.A Religious Studies This book review will analyze “Islamic Legal Philosophy: A Study of al-Shatibi’s Life and Thought” written by Professor Muhammad Khalid Mas’ud and published in 1977. Mas’ud is the director general of the Islamic research institute at the International Islamic University of Islamabad. He has authored many books surrounding the topic of Islamic Law such as, Iqbal’s reconstruction of Ijtihad, Islamic Legal Interpretation, and many others. In Islamic Legal Philosophy, Mas’ud’s goal was to illustrate the modern applicability of Maslaha, in order to create a humanist paradigm for the Shari’a through referencing traditional works on jurisprudence. The following review will consist of a concise summary of the text, followed by an evaluation of the authors motive, content and arguments. Professor Mas’ud defines his primary task in this book to study the correlation between legal theory and social change in Islam law. This correlation was apparent during the time of the Andalusian Maliki Jurist, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Musa al-Shatibi (d. 1388) as he strived to revive the concept of Maslaha (adaptability of Islamic legal theory to social theory/public interest).[1] The author directs the attention of the reader to the political and social changes in the 14th century Granada prior to discussing al-Shatibi’s views in legal theory. It is vital to understand the challenges al-Shatibi faced in this environment as a jurist leading him to adapt legal theory to new social conditions. The first half of the book discusses the political situation of Muslim Spain and the rise of Banu Nasr in which Sultan Muhammad V al-Ghani Billah reigned (d.1362-27).[2] The Sultan weakened the political power of the Shaykh Ghuzat, Wazir and Qadi, consequently decreasing the power of the Fuqaha. This resulted in state-controlled Madrassah’s and religious institutions. However, as other economic issues arose in Granada, the role of Fuqaha became more offices as they controlled a number of lucrative offices many of which influenced trade and commerce.[3] As new issues within business such as Riba (interest) developed, the involvement of the Faqih and legal theories were in demand. Mas’ud, therefore makes it clear that without understanding the social, political and economic factors during that era, it would be difficult to understand al-Shatibi’s thought in legal theory. Another phenomenon that challenged the authority of the (Maliki) Fuqaha was the rise of Tasawwuf and the emergence of Tariqah within Granada. Since the Maliki school of thought held a traditional and strict stance towards matters pertaining to Fiqh and Shari’a, they strongly opposed the emergence of Transcendental Philosophy and Mysticism. Tasawwuf became prevalent in response to traditional legal theory as the Sufis focused heavily on piety, religiosity and moral commitment. This was a threat to the authority of the Andalusian Maliki Fuqaha, leading to the purge of Tasawwuf. [4] Al- Shatibi, reflecting his teachers views, wrote a treatise declaring the practices of the Sufis to be Kufr, thus condemning its practitioners to death. Evidently, the Shar’i (legal) opinions of the jurists known as Ijma came into contact with the phenomenon of Tasawwuf through the concept of Maslaha.[5] The ascetic teachings of Tasawwuf, challenged the aristocratic life of the Fuqaha which weakened their socio-political authority. However, this sudden change resulted in an economic downfall as Sufis were motivated to forsake material pleasures and be confined in spiritual institutions. This economic downfall motivated Fuqaha including al-Shatibi to be outspoken against Tasawwuf which included the release of Fatwa’s condemning Sufi institutions and practices. Al-Shatibi disagreed with the majority on the legal principle of Mura’at al-Khilaf (consideration of conflicting opinions), considering it a Bid’a . The plurality of opinions within matters of Shari’a were considered contradictions as per al-Shatibi, since he believed there should be no disagreements in Shari’a. [6] Thus, accepting the notion that the diversity of laws was a contradiction for al-Shatibi, this resulted in polemics written against his views which will be discussed later in this review. Following this discussion, the author analyzes how the concept of Maslaha, which is inherently a discussion in legal theory, became a source of theological conflict amongst the Ash’arites and Mu’tazalites. The debate dealt with whether or not the concept of Maslaha can cause God to do something – benefit the public interest – thus implying the notion of God being obliged to do good.[7] However, this discourse did not concern al-Shatibi as his goal was to free legal theory from theology. Nonetheless, al-Shatibi’s legal philosophy tended towards legal positivism through authoritative sources of law. However, he rejected a prominent principle that was agreed upon by consensus. This challenge posed upon the authoritative figures and institutions, caused his reformed legal theory to not flourish and was not able to be formalized as a positive legal philosophy. The thesis of the author is that al-Shatibi’s legal thought reflected socio-religious, economic and political factors which arose in 14th century Granada, making it incumbent for him to adapt his legal theory to new social conditions through Maslaha. This main argument was portrayed through both primary and secondary recourses. He used primary sources such as al-Shatibi’s al-Muwafaqat , which discusses the principles of Islamic law as well as al-I’tisam in which al- Shatibi defends his views against polemical works.[8] Apart from other primary sources such as al-Ghazzali and Ibn Khaldun, the author used secondary sources such as “The History of Spain” by Charles Bertrand, “Introduction to Shatibi’s Muwafaqat” by al-Daraz and others. Mas’ud used historical circumstances such as Muslim and Christian relations in that era to make the reader aware of how al-Shatibi’s legal theory correlated with issues in his environment. Scholars such as Dave Eickelman acknowledge that without background knowledge of the socio-political climate of Granada, it would be difficult for one to follow along with Mas’ud’s premises as well as al- Shatibi’s views.[9]Mas’ud also depicted the socio-religious phenomenon of Tasawwuf, showing the challenges Maliki jurists including al- Shatibi faced and responded to, vis a vis legal rulings. I found the linking of al-Shatibis efforts to socio-political contexts to be a valuable strength in the book as it tied back to the author’s thesis. It also showed how the concept of Maslaha was applicable during this phenomenon by al-Shatibi. However, Mas’ud’s discussion regarding the concept of Mura’at al Khliaf and its correlation with Maslaha was not as effective, because he only discussed the principles pertaining to the discourse rather than its application. As he strived to show the humanistic approach to Maslaha, I personally think it would be beneficial if he had shown the pluralistic or perennial approach to Mura’at al-Khilaf. Mas’ud evidently presented them for an audience with a background within terminologies and concepts in the science. Although there are limited amount of reviews written on this book, scholars such as Eickelman thought that Mas’ud did a successful job in portraying al-Shatibi’s environment and his application of legal theory to social movements.He believes that Mas’ud’s approach in theorizing the concept of Maslaha and its principles are practical through rationalizing legal theory, thus symbolizing a humanistic and universal paradigm. In my opinion, his motive for this book qualifies as a non-normative stance as he was attempting to depict a conservative legalistic world view having implications in modern and secular contexts. His book has not only presented a jurisprudential matter but also a historical movement that shows the applicability of the nature of law and the philosophy of legal theories. This book is useful for studying the history of medieval Spain as Mas’ud vitalizes the intellectual, economic, social and political circumstances of Grenadian society in order to understand the thoughts and life of al-Shatibi, and his contemporaries. The discussions in this book takes an intellectual hold of the reader’s mind as it depicts the rise of different ideologies, sects and movements that were manifested through the theories and polemics of jurists and philosophers in 14th century Granada. —— [1] Masud, Muhammad Khalid. Islamic Legal Philosophy: A Study of Abū Isḥāq Al-Shāṭibī’s Life and Thought. (Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 1977), 25 [2] Ibid, 39. [3] Ibid, 51. This issue revolved around the Grenadian Treasury owing money to the Christians and Berbers as tribute as well as the Mediterranean trade . This led to production of the copper Dinar, thus devaluing currency. [4] Ibid, 59. [5] Ibid, 169. These opinions that used Maslaha, considered aspects such as legal obligations as well as which elements in a social movement were harmful to people in society through considering rules in Shari’a. [6] Ibid, 214. Based off his five conclusions on why disagreements on conclusions are impermissible in Shari’a, however methods in jurisprudence could differ. [7] Ibid, 222. This was due to the linguistic and contextual definition of the word illa and whether it meant causes or motives. The discourse ultimately pertained to Gods omnipotence. [8] Ibid, Preface vi [9] Eickelman, Dale F. Journal of Law and Religion 15, no. 1/2 (Cambridge University press, 2000), 389-92. 390 This entry was posted in Jurisprudence. Bookmark the permalink.
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