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What are the classification of Zakat?
sharif110 posted a topic in Jurisprudence/LawsAlsalamu alaykum « خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ صَلَاتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ وَاللَّـهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ.» Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase, and invoke [Allah’s blessings] upon them. Indeed, your invocations are reassurance for them. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. Zakat is one of the five pillars on which Islam is built. It is among the obligations of faith. Because of this it has been described by a Prophetic hadith: Prayer may not be accepted from the worshipper who withholds zakat. Zakat is payable on the following kinds of property, each according to certain criteria: 1. Silver and gold coins. There are several conditions that should be present in silver and gold coins to render them taxable: I. The quantity of gold should not be less than mithqal sairafi (of coins and bullion - a unit of weight, equivalent to 4.608 gm). The percentage due is 2.5%. For every three mithqals increase thereafter, the same percentage must be paid. As for silver, the quantity should not be less than one hundred and five mithqals; the percentage due is 2.5%. For every twenty one mithqals thereafter, the same percentage should be paid. II. Eleven months should pass, leading to the twelfth month, while it is still in one’s ownership. III. Silver and gold should be of the minted type used as a means of monetary exchange. IV. The ability of the owner of these metals to use them freely all year round. Thus, no zakat is due on property over which you have no control, such as lost property, for a generally accepted length of time. V. Adulthood and soundness in mind of the owner, for no zakat shall be due on such coins owned by a minor or a mentally handicapped person. 2. Crops, such as wheat, barley, dates, and raisins. The minimum weight taxable of any of these crops, when it is dry, shall be three hundred sa’ (a cubic measure equivalent to approximately 847 kgs). The amount of zakat deductible is according to the following criteria: I. If the land cultivated with these crops is irrigated by either rain or river water that does not call for great effort, the zakat shall be 10%. II. If it is irrigated by hand, a pump, or the like, zakat payable shall be 5%. III. If the source of irrigation varies, i.e. using both the ways mentioned in (I) and (II), payment of zakat shall be at the rate of 7.5%, unless either way of irrigation was used sparingly. In this case, the rate shall be charged in line with the predominant way applied. 3. Camel, cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. The criteria for payment of zakat on these types of livestock are the following: I. When their respective numbers reach certain figures. Insofar as camels are concerned, a minimum number of five camels would warrant one sheep of zakat. As for sheep, the minimum, on which zakat is due, is forty. One sheep should be given away in zakat for that number of sheep. In respect of cattle and buffaloes, the minimum that is taxable is thirty of either. Zakat payable on that number is a calf that has just entered the second year of its life. II. Such livestock must be of the kind that graze in the fields. Should it need to be fed by supplements, even during part of the year, there shall be no zakat. III. The owner, or his guardian, should have the right of disposal over his livestock throughout the year. If any was stolen, for a considerable period of time then returned, no zakat shall be due. IV. A minimum of eleven months, leading to the twelfth month, should have elapsed under the ownership of the same person, before any zakat becomes due. 4. Revenue from trade. It is the capital used, for buying and selling, by a person with the aim of making a profit. The rate of zakat deductible is 2.5% when all the following conditions are met: I. The owner should have attained adulthood and be sound in mind. II. The property should attain the minimum outlined in silver and gold monetary means of exchange. III. The lapse of one (tax) year on it, in kind, from the date it was intended for trading and making profit. IV. The intention to make profit should remain constant during the entire year. In other words, if you appropriate some of the money you set aside for the purpose of trading, or spend part of it on buying provisions during that year, no zakat shall be due. V. The right of having free hand in the capital throughout the entire year. VI. The aim behind the working capital should be economic activity, i.e. not tying it up. For more info visit: http://www.sistani.org/english/book/49/2410/
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