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  1. Contents hide (Top) Biography of Drew Founding of the Moorish Science Temple Practices and beliefs History Toggle History subsection Early history Internal split and murder The death of Drew Ali Succession and schism Nation of Islam The 1930s FBI surveillance El Rukn connection 1980–2000s 21st century Moorish sovereign citizens See also Citations General references External links Moorish Science Temple of America 9 languages Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Attendees of the 1928 Moorish Science Temple Of America Convention in Chicago. Noble Drew Ali is in white in the front row center. The Moorish Science Temple of America is an American national and religious organization founded by Noble Drew Ali (born as Timothy Drew) in the early 20th century.[1] He based it on the premise that African Americans are descendants of the Moabites and thus are "Moorish" by nationality, and Islamic by faith.[1] Ali put together elements of major traditions to develop a message of personal transformation through historical education, racial pride, and spiritual uplift. His doctrine was also intended to provide African Americans with a sense of identity in the world and to promote civic involvement. An organization with headquarters in Baltimore, Maryland, claiming to be "the ONLY Moorish Science Temple teaching the full National side of the Moorish Movement",[2] is the Moorish Science Temple, with registered business names of the Divine and National Movement of North America, Inc., and Moorish American National Republic.[3][4] One primary tenet of the Moorish Science Temple is the belief that African Americans are of "Moorish" descent, specifically from the "Moroccan Empire". According to Ali, this area included other countries around Northwest Africa. To join the movement, individuals had to proclaim their "Moorish nationality". They were given "nationality cards". In religious texts, adherents refer to themselves racially as "Asiatics", as the Middle East is also western Asia.[5] Adherents of this movement are known as "Moorish-American Moslems" and are called "Moorish Scientists" in some circles.[6] The Moorish Science Temple of America was incorporated under the Illinois Religious Corporation Act 805 ILCS 110. Timothy Drew, known to its members as Prophet Noble Drew Ali, founded the Moorish Science Temple of America in 1913 in Newark, New Jersey, a booming industrial city. After some difficulties, Ali moved to Chicago, establishing a center there, as well as temples in other major cities. The movement expanded rapidly during the late 1920s. The quick expansion of the Moorish Science Temple arose in large part from the search for identity and context among black Americans at the time of the Great Migration to northern cities, as they were becoming an urbanized people.[7] Competing factions developed among the congregations and leaders, especially after the death of the charismatic Ali. Three independent organizations developed from this ferment. The founding of the Nation of Islam by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 also created competition for members. In the 1930s membership was estimated at 30,000, with one third in Chicago. During the postwar years, the Moorish Science Temple of America continued to increase in membership, albeit at a slower rate. Biography of Drew[edit] Noble Drew Ali Timothy Drew was believed to have been born on January 8, 1886, in North Carolina, United States.[8] Sources differ as to his background and upbringing: one reports he was the son of two former slaves who was adopted by a tribe of Cherokee;[9] another describes Drew as the son of a Moroccan Muslim father and a Cherokee mother.[10] In 2014 an article in the online Journal of Race Ethnicity and Religion attempted to link Timothy Drew to one Thomas Drew, born January 8, 1886, using census records, a World War I draft card, and street directory records.[11] Founding of the Moorish Science Temple[edit] Drew Ali reported that during his travels, he met with a high priest of Egyptian magic. In one version of Drew Ali's biography, the leader saw him as a reincarnation of the founder. In others, he says that the priest considered him a reincarnation of Jesus, the Buddha, Muhammad and other religious prophets. According to the biography, the high priest trained Ali in mysticism and gave him a "lost section" of the Quran.[12] This text came to be known as the Holy Koran of the Moorish Science Temple of America. It is also known as the "Circle Seven Koran" because of its cover, which features a red "7" surrounded by a blue circle. The first 19 chapters are from The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ, published in 1908 by esoteric Ohio preacher Levi Dowling. In The Aquarian Gospel, Dowling described Jesus' supposed travels in India, Egypt, and Palestine during the years of his life which are not accounted for by the New Testament.[13] Chapters 20 through 45 are borrowed from the Rosicrucian work, Unto Thee I Grant with minor changes in style and wording. They are instructions on how to live, and the education and duties of adherents.[14] Drew Ali wrote the last four chapters of the Circle Seven Koran himself. In these he wrote: Drew Ali and his followers used this material to claim, "Jesus and his followers were Asiatic." ("Asiatic" was the term Drew Ali used for all dark or olive-colored people; he labeled all whites as European. He suggested that all Asiatics should be allied.)[16] Drew Ali crafted Moorish Science from a variety of sources, a "network of alternative spiritualities that focused on the power of the individual to bring about personal transformation through mystical knowledge of the divine within".[16] In the inter-war years in Chicago and other major cities, he used these concepts to preach racial pride and uplift. His approach appealed to thousands of African Americans who had left severely oppressive conditions in the South through the Great Migration and faced struggles in new urban environments.[16] Practices and beliefs[edit] Ali believed that African Americans are all Moors, who he claimed were descended from the ancient Moabites (the kingdom of which he says is now known as Morocco, as opposed to the ancient Canaanite kingdom of Moab, as the name suggests).[17] This claim does not align with scientific studies of human history, such as the genetics of African-Americans and genetic history of sub-Saharan Africa. He claimed that Islam and its teachings are more beneficial to their earthly salvation, and that their "true nature" had been "withheld" from them. In the traditions he founded, male members of the Temple wear a fez or turban as head covering; women wear a turban.[18] They added the suffixes Bey or El to their surnames, to signify Moorish heritage as well as their taking on the new life as Moorish Americans. It was also a way to claim and proclaim a new identity over that lost to the enslavement of their ancestors. These suffixes were a sign to others that while one's African tribal name may never be known to them, European names given by their enslavers were not theirs, either.[citation needed] As Drew Ali began his version of teaching the Moorish-Americans to become better citizens, he made speeches like, "A Divine Warning By the Prophet for the Nations", in which he urged them to reject derogatory labels, such as "Black", "colored", and "Negro". He urged Americans of all races to reject hate and embrace love. He believed that Chicago would become a second Mecca.[citation needed] The ushers of the Temple wore black fezzes. The leader of a particular temple was known as a Grand Sheik, or Governor. Noble Drew Ali had several wives.[19] According to The Chicago Defender, he claimed the power to marry and divorce at will.[20] History[edit] Noble Drew Ali (top center) with Chicago Alderman Louis B. Anderson (to his right) and Congressman Oscar De Priest (left) Early history[edit] In 1913, Drew Ali formed the Canaanite Temple in Newark, New Jersey.[21] He left the city after agitating people with his views on race.[22] Drew Ali and his followers migrated, while planting congregations in Philadelphia; Washington, D.C., and Detroit. Finally, Drew Ali settled in Chicago in 1925, saying the Midwest was "closer to Islam".[23] The following year he officially registered Temple No. 9. There he instructed followers not to be confrontational but to build up their people to be respected. In this way, they might take their place in the United States by developing a cultural identity that was congruent with Drew Ali's beliefs on personhood.[24] In the late 1920s, journalists estimated the Moorish Science Temple had 35,000 members in 17 temples in cities across the Midwest and upper South.[25] It was reportedly studied and watched by the Chicago police. Building Moorish-American businesses was part of their program, and in that was similar to Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League and the later Nation of Islam.[26] By 1928, members of the Moorish Science Temple of America had obtained some respectability within Chicago and Illinois, as they were featured prominently and favorably in the pages of The Chicago Defender, an African-American newspaper, and conspicuously collaborated with African American politician and businessman Daniel Jackson.[27] Drew Ali attended the January 1929 inauguration of Louis L. Emmerson, as 27th Governor of Illinois in the state capital of Springfield. The Chicago Defender stated that his trip included "interviews with many distinguished citizens from Chicago, who greeted him on every hand."[28] With the growth in its population and membership, Chicago was established as the center of the movement. Internal split and murder[edit] In early 1929, following a conflict over funds, Claude Green-Bey, the business manager of Chicago Temple No. 1 split from the Moorish Science Temple of America. He declared himself Grand Sheik and took a number of members with him. On March 15, Green-Bey was stabbed to death at the Unity Hall of the Moorish Science Temple, on Indiana Avenue in Chicago.[29] Drew Ali was out of town at the time, as he was dealing with former Supreme Grand Governor Lomax Bey (professor Ezaldine Muhammad), who had supported Green-Bey's attempted coup.[30] When Drew Ali returned to Chicago, the police arrested him and other members of the community on suspicion of having instigated the killing. No indictment was sworn for Drew Ali at that time. The death of Drew Ali[edit] Shortly after his release by the police, Drew Ali died at age 43 at his home in Chicago on July 20, 1929.[31] Although the exact circumstances of his death are unknown, the Certificate of Death stated that Noble Drew Ali died from "tuberculosis broncho-pneumonia".[32] Despite the official report, many of his followers speculated that his death was caused by injuries from the police or from other members of the faith.[33] Others thought it was due to pneumonia. One Moor told The Chicago Defender, "The Prophet was not ill; his work was done and he laid his head upon the lap of one of his followers and passed out."[34][35] Succession and schism[edit] Grand Sheik E. Mealy El in an undated photo, c. 1928 The death of Drew Ali brought out a number of candidates to succeed him. Brother Edward Mealy El stated that he had been declared Drew Ali's successor by Drew Ali himself. In August, within a month of Drew Ali's death, John Givens El, Drew Ali's chauffeur, declared that he was Drew Ali reincarnated. He is said to have fainted while working on Drew Ali's automobile and "the sign of the star and crescent [appeared] in his eyes".[36] At the September Unity Conference, Givens again made his claim of reincarnation. However, the governors of the Moorish Science Temple of America declared Charles Kirkman Bey to be the successor to Drew Ali and named him Grand Advisor.[37] With the support of several temples each, Mealy El and Givens El both went on to lead separate factions of the Moorish Science Temple. All three factions (Kirkman Bey, Mealy El, and Givens El) are active today. On September 25, 1929, Kirkman Bey's wife reported to the Chicago police his apparent kidnapping by one Ira Johnson. Accompanied by two Moorish Science members, the police visited the home of Johnson, when they were met by gunfire. The attack escalated into a shoot-out that spilled into the surrounding neighborhood. In the end, a policeman as well as a member were killed in the gun battle, and a second policeman later died of his wounds.[38] The police took 60 people into police custody, and a reported 1000 police officers patrolled the Chicago South Side that evening.[39] Johnson and two others were later convicted of murder.[40] Kirkman Bey went on to serve as Grand Advisor of one of the most important factions until 1959, when the reins were given to F. Nelson-Bey.[41] Nation of Islam[edit] The community was further split when Wallace Fard Muhammad, known within the temple as David Ford-el,[42] also claimed (or was taken by some) to be the reincarnation of Drew Ali.[43] When his leadership was rejected, Ford El broke away from the Moorish Science Temple. He moved to Detroit, where he formed his own group, an organization that would become the Nation of Islam.[44] The Nation of Islam denied any historical connection with the Moorish Science Temple until February 26, 2014, when Louis Farrakhan acknowledged the contribution(s) of Noble Drew Ali to the Nation of Islam and their founding principles.[45] The 1930s[edit] Despite the turmoil and defections, the movement continued to grow in the 1930s. It is estimated that membership in the 1930s reached 30,000. There were major congregations in Philadelphia, Detroit, and Chicago.[46] One-third of the members, or 10,000, lived in Chicago, the center of the movement. There were congregations in numerous other cities where African Americans had migrated in the early 20th century. The group published several magazines: one was the Moorish Guide National. During the 1930s and 1940s, continued surveillance by police (and later the FBI) caused the Moors to become more withdrawn and critical of the government.[47] FBI surveillance[edit] During the 1940s, the Moorish Science Temple (specifically the Kirkman Bey faction) came to the attention of the FBI, who investigated claims of members committing subversive activities by adhering to and spreading of Japanese propaganda. The investigation failed to find any substantial evidence, and the investigations were dropped. The federal agency later investigated the organization in 1953 for violation of the Selective Service Act of 1948 and sedition. In September 1953, the Department of Justice determined that prosecution was not warranted for the alleged violations. The file that the FBI created on the temple grew to 3,117 pages during its lifetime.[48] They never found any evidence of any connection or much sympathy of the temple's members for Japan. El Rukn connection[edit] In 1976 Jeff Fort, leader of Chicago's Black P Stone Nation, announced at his parole from prison in 1976 that he had converted to Islam. Moving to Milwaukee, Fort associated himself with the Moorish Science Temple of America. It is unclear whether he officially joined or was instead rejected by its members.[49] In 1978, Fort returned to Chicago and changed the name of his gang to El Rukn ("the foundation" in Arabic), also known as "Circle Seven El Rukn Moorish Science Temple of America"[50] and the "Moorish Science Temple, El Rukn tribe".[51] Scholars are divided over the nature of the relationship, if any, between El Rukn and the Moorish Science Temple of America.[52] Fort reportedly hoped that an apparent affiliation with a religious organization would discourage law enforcement.[53] 1980–2000s[edit] Temple No 9, in Chicago, Illinois In 1984 the Chicago congregation bought a building from Buddhist monks in Ukrainian Village, which continues to be used for Temple No. 9. Demographic and cultural changes have decreased the attraction of young people to the Moorish Science Temple. Only about 200 members attended a convention in 2007, rather than the thousands of the past. In the early 2000s, the temples in Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, and Washington, D.C., had about 200 members each, and many were older people.[54] 21st century[edit] On July 15, 2019, Philadelphia mayor Jim Kenney, as part of a diversity program, proclaimed July 15 to be "Morocco Day". The city mistakenly invited members of the local Moorish Science temple to the ceremony, believing them to be of actual Moroccan descent.[55] Moorish sovereign citizens[edit] Main article: Moorish sovereign citizens During the 1990s, some former followers of the Moorish Science Temple of America and the Wa[Edited Out]aw Nation formed an offshoot of the sovereign citizen movement which came to be known as Moorish sovereign citizens. Members believe the United States federal government to be illegitimate, which they attribute to a variety of factors including Reconstruction following the U.S. Civil War and the abandonment of the gold standard in the 1930s.[56] The number of Moorish sovereign citizens is uncertain but possibly ranges between 3,000 and 6,000 organized mostly in small groups of several dozen.[57] Moorish sovereign citizens, who consider that black people constitute an elite class within American society,[57] are in the paradoxical situation of using an ideology which originated in a white supremacist environment.[58] The Southern Poverty Law Center classifies Moorish sovereign citizens as an extremist anti-government group.[57][59] Tactics used by the group include filing false deeds and property claims,[60] false liens against government officials, frivolous legal motions to overwhelm courts, and invented legalese used in court appearances and filings.[56] Various groups and individuals identifying as Moorish sovereign citizens have used the unorthodox "quantum grammar" created by David Wynn Miller.[61] An article syndicated by the Associated Press states that the Temple has disavowed any affiliation with those responsible, calling them "radical and subversive fringe groups" and also states that "Moorish leaders are looking into legal remedies." The article also quotes an academic who has been advising authorities on how to distinguish registered Temple members from impostors in the sovereign citizen movement.[62]
  2. Scripps News FollowView Profile Tension is building between Arab-Americans and police near Chicago Story by Ben Schamisso • Yesterday 7:26 PM 74119 Comments In the southwest Chicago suburb of Oak Lawn, tensions are boiling between Arab-American activists and police. Hadi Abuatelah with his mother and family© Scripps News Activists have been showing up at every police and fire commission meeting since the violent arrest of a Palestinian-American teenager last July. Last week, chaos erupted after police supporters used their public comment time to show a video montage of officers getting killed in other cities. "The police force knows that they have absolutely no justification for what Patrick O'Donnell did," said Muhammad Sankari, lead organizer of the Arab American Action Network. Hours before the public meeting, Oak Lawn police officer Patrick O'Donnell appeared in court surrounded by around 40 other officers. He pleaded not guilty to aggravated battery and official misconduct for his involvement in the beating of 17-year-old Hadi Abuatelah. No other officers have been charged. In the southwest Chicago suburb of Oak Lawn. Loaded: 17.08% Play Current Time 0:08 / Duration 4:41 LQ Captions Fullscreen Scripps News Tension is building between Arab-Americans and police near Chicago Unmute 0 View on Watch More videos CBS ChicagoChicago voters select new civilian councils for police oversight 2:24 WGN-TV ChicagoMan charged with 9 counts of attempted murder of Chicago police officers 2:03 WGN-TV ChicagoCharges reportedly filed against suburban Chicago officer filmed beating teenager 1:56 Last summer, a bystander video of the beating sparked outrage in the Arab-American community. According to prosecutors, O'Donnell is seen punching Abuatelah more than 10 times in the head while another officer kneels on the teenager's legs. A third officer later joins in. O'Donnell uses his taser on Abuatelah, who was later hospitalized for six days for a fracture to his pelvis, a broken nose and internal bleeding of his brain. The incident started with police pulling over a car they say lacked a license plate and smelled of cannabis. A squad car camera shows Abuatelah running away. After catching up with him, the officers say Abuatelah reached for his shoulder bag. Police say they later recovered a loaded gun inside that bag. Oak Lawn police chief Daniel Vittorio defended his officers' actions the day after the arrest. SEE MORE: Why many Arab-Americans check 'White' on the US census "Had the offender drawn that weapon, he could have shot them," Vittorio said. "Were they supposed to wait for him to pull it out and then?" Emma Melton of the Council on American-Islamic Relations filed a civil rights lawsuit on behalf of Abuatelah against the village of Oak Lawn and the three officers involved in the beating. "We all saw the footage," Melton said. "I've seen it from multiple different angles, from the squad car cameras to the bystander videos, and at no point do I see him reaching for a gun. Hearing that the chief of police agreed with this level of use of force and how these officers interacted with Hadi shows that this is something that could and probably will happen again." Melton says Arab-American residents have long complained about the Oak Lawn Police Department. "A lot of the police officers in that area are actually White, and so when dealing with people from another background, sometimes a lot of the cultural awareness and sensitivity can be lost," Melton said. For professor of criminology Nicole Nguyen, the Oak Lawn incident reflects a lack of trust between law enforcement agencies nationwide and Arab communities. "Research studies have shown that Arab people face police brutality, physical threats, verbal harassment and so on," Nguyen said. In a recent survey about Arab-American communities in Chicagoland, 1 in 5 respondents said they experienced stereotyping and prejudice from the police. "There's a perception of Arabs and Muslims as dangerous, as potential threats," Nguyen said. O'Donnell's attorney didn't respond to multiple requests for an interview. However, the Oak Lawn Police Department tells Scripps News: "We live in a society based on laws and fundamental fairness, and that applies to everyone, including our men and women in uniform." For now, O'Donnell has been assigned to "administrative duties" with the police department and remains free on bond. His next court date is April 6. See comments 19
  3. ONLY $6 FOR 1 YEAR Hurry, offer ends soon LOG IN ADVERTISEMENT NEWS EL RUKNS SOLICITED KHOMEINI, TAPES HINT By Liz Sly Chicago Tribune • Oct 31, 1987 at 12:00 am Player Version: 7.12.0 Player Key: 7WQ1xQNF-vJYVOHOP Configured as Smart Player: true Playlist Type: STANDARD Float Mode: onLoad volume_off -3:41 sd share closed_caption fullscreen Auto (225p) 225p 360p Subtitles Off Subtitles EN Top Videos: - Kiko Mizuhara’s Guide to Flawless Skin, and the Perfect Cat Eye Actor and model Kiko Mizuhara gives Vogue an inside look at her complexion-perfecting makeup routine, and offers advice on tracing a precise feline flick.Filmed at The Standard, High Line El Rukn gang members approached Iran`s Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini for money after their efforts to solicit funds from Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi ran into difficulties, according to testimony Friday in U.S. District Court. Jeff Fort, the gang`s leader, was told that Khomeini had already agreed to meet with gang members by Melvin Mayes, a gang general, according to tape- recorded telephone conversations. The tape was played Friday at the trial of Fort and four El Rukn members on charges of conspiring to commit acts of terrorism for Libya. Tramell Davis, an accused gang member turned government witness helping the prosecution translate the conversations for jurors, testified that ''old friend'' is code for Khomeini, 87, while Gadhafi, 45, is called ''young friend.'' ''He already expecting us,'' Mayes tells Fort. ''Yeah, that sounds real good, I like our old friend,'' Fort replies. Davis testified that Khomeini had approved the idea of El Rukn members meeting with an Iranian representative to obtain money. Top S It was not clear whether gang members planned to travel to Iran-referred to in the conversations as ''the motherland''-or would meet a representative in Washington. In dozens of conversations played this week, jurors heard the gang plotting different means of persuading Gadhafi to give them money. Two gang members, Reico Cranshaw and Leon McAnderson, visited Libya in March, 1986, and returned saying Gadhafi had promised the El Rukns $2.5 million. But by the end of April, when the conversation regarding Khomeini took place, the tape has Fort sounding frustrated that no money had materialized. Fort accuses Cranshaw of making promises to Gadhafi that the El Rukns couldn`t keep. Cranshaw confirms that the only real commitment he made was that the El Rukns would make threatening phone calls on behalf of the Libyans but without any reciprocal promises of money. Throughout April, Fort directed gang members to impress the Libyans by preparing news clippings of violent incidents around the U.S. that the El Rukns would claim credit for, and by taping a video in which gang generals pledged allegiance to Gadhafi. Besides Fort, Cranshaw and McAnderson, the defendants are Alan Knox and Roosevelt Hawkins. Mayes was also charged but he fled, reportedly to Libya.
  4. https://www.fox32chicago.com/news/2-teens-plot-to-attack-chicago-area-shia-mosque-foiled-by-fbi-court-documents
  5. Maine teen accused of plotting to attack a Chicago area mosque - CNN It was an ISIS inpired attack
  6. Does Chicago have a large shia comminity.Is it diverse?
  7. salam Alikom All I'm please to invite you all to attend The Conference of Imam Hussain Chicago May 22-25. over the memorial weekend After an entire year of anticipation, the UMAA convention is coming to Chicago, IL on Friday May 22nd, 2015. Last year, the convention drew in thousands of attendees from across the nation and around the world. In the United States. This year the tradition will continue as men and women off all ages will attend from the from around the nation and across the world from such exciting cities Washington D.C., Najaf, London, Qum New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Dallas, and Atlanta. Who is Hussain North America chapter will have several activists during the conference, and looking to meet people interested in starting new teams in their cities. http://us1.campaign-archive1.com/?u=ccc927bbb9a5c0a998fa40a2f&id=2460613b4c
  8. I just finished watching part one, and I honestly dont know what to say. You hear and know about these issues, but once you see them, it just crushes your heart. You just ask, why? How did this happen? IS their a solution? What would we muslims do for such cases, if it were to happen? This is just a tiny part of the bigger problem that is constantly happening.. Then I think about the middle east and what is happening their.... All I can say is, WE MUST MAKE THE CHANGE, FIRST TO OURSELVES AND THAN THE WORLD! Al Ajal Ya Imam Mahdi A.S! *There is some vulgar language, and may or may not include non-hijab women. edit: I was looking at part two's youtube comments and someone said something very interesting. Why would they bunch all these people together? It makes you think, honestly they are not at fault. (wasalam) Part two hurts even more :no:
  9. To answer Hussain's call to mankind, "Is there any helper to help us?" Only 30 days left , and Muharram will be here inshaAllah, We are forming Chicago Chapter of Who Is Hussain Campaign, to join other cites around the world. and we really need followers of Imam Hussain to help. Help spread his message and be one of those that answer to a call of action. Will YOU answer that call? We cannot thank you enough for your work, in fact, we leave that to Aba Abdillah(as) https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1ol6lr8ni-ayOVuR0d9aB6r398hncjNoi3a_N1xrIry8/viewform https://www.facebook.com/groups/whoishussain.chicago/
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